Cimarron County, Oklahoma
Cimarron County is the westernmost county in the U. S. state of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 2,475, its county seat is Boise City. Located in the Oklahoma Panhandle, Cimarron County contains the only community in the state that observes the Mountain Time Zone. Black Rock Mesa, the highest point in the state, is in the northwest corner of the county. Throughout most of its history it has had both the smallest population and the lowest population density of any county in Oklahoma. Cimarron County was created at statehood in 1907. Before the Oklahoma Organic Act was passed in 1890, the area had belonged to what was known as "No Man's Land," referred to as the "Public Land Strip." This was a lawless area, with no organized government, several outlaws sought refuge within its borders. In 1890, the strip became known as Oklahoma Territory. Informally, it was known as the "Oklahoma Panhandle." There were only two communities in the strip. One, had 83 residents in 1890, while the other, Mineral City, had 93 residents.
Otherwise, the land was used by sheepherders from New Mexico. Seven communities vied to become county seat after statehood: Boise City, Doby and Willowbar. A county election in 1908 selected Boise City. Railroads came late to this part of Oklahoma; the Elkhart and Santa Fe Railway built a line from Elkhart, Kansas through Cimarron County in 1925. It completed the link into New Mexico in 1932. Service ended in 1942; the same company built a line from Colorado to Boise City in 1931 and extended it into Texas in 1937. This line still in 2000 was part of the BNSF system. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,841 square miles, of which 1,835 square miles is land and 6.1 square miles is water. It is the fourth-largest county in Oklahoma by area, it has Oklahoma's highest point at 4,973 feet on the Black Mesa. The northern part of the county is drained by the Cimarron River, which flows eastward turns north into Kansas, The southern part is drained by the North Canadian River.
The man-made Lake Carl Etling lies inside Black Mesa park. The Boise City Airport is located four miles north of Boise City. Cimarron County is the only county in the United States that borders four states: Colorado, New Mexico, Texas; as a result, Cimarron County is the only county in the United States to border at least five counties from five different states. Baca County, Colorado Morton County, Kansas Texas County Dallam County, Texas Sherman County, Texas Union County, New Mexico A location 300 yards east of US 287-385 and 1.75 miles south of the Cimarron River is the only place in the US less than 27 miles from five different states: 26.99 miles from Kansas, New Mexico, Texas and 7 miles from Colorado. Rita Blanca National Grassland As of the 2010 census, there were 2,475 people, 1,047 households, 705 families residing in the county; the population density was 2 people per square mile. There were 1,587 housing units at an average density of 1 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 84.7% White, 0.2% Black or African American, 0.8% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 12.1% from other races, 1.8% from two or more races.
20.8% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 1,257 households out of which 31.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.40% were married couples living together, 6.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.90% were non-families. 29.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.07. In the county, the population was spread out with 27.60% under the age of 18, 6.40% from 18 to 24, 23.40% from 25 to 44, 24.00% from 45 to 64, 18.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 97.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,625, the median income for a family was $36,250. Males had a median income of $24,327 versus $18,110 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,744.
About 13.90% of families and 17.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.20% of those under age 18 and 10.10% of those age 65 or over. The county economy has been based on cattle ranching and agriculture throughout its history. Wheat and grain sorghum are the most important crops; the Dust Bowl devastated the county during the 1930s, the deluges of 1942-1945 destroyed what was left. Oil and natural gas production became important in the 1960s, a gas plant near Keyes began producing helium in 1959. In 2000, Cimarron County had the ninth largest per capita income of all Oklahoma counties. Boise City Keyes Felt Kenton Griggs Sturgis Wheeless National Register of Historic Places listings in Cimarron County, Oklahoma Oklahoma Panhandle Egan, Timothy; the Worst Hard Time: The Untold Story of Those Who Survived the Great American Dust Bowl. Boston: Mariner Books. ISBN 0-618-34697-X. OCLC 58788898. Includes much about the history of Cimarron County in the 20th century. NASA Earth Obseratory article about Cimarron County Encyclopedia of
Boise City, Oklahoma
Boise City is a city in and the county seat of Cimarron County, United States. The population was 1,266 at the 2010 census, a decline of 14.6 percent from 1,483 in 2000. According to the Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, the origin of the town name is unclear. Boise City was founded in 1908 by developers J. E. Stanley, A. J. Kline, W. T. Douglas and who published and distributed brochures promoting the town as an elegant, tree-lined city with paved streets, numerous businesses, railroad service, an artesian well, they sold 3,000 lots to buyers who discovered, on their arrival, that none of the information in the brochure was true. In addition to using false publicity, the three men did not have title to the lots. Stanley and Kline were sent to Leavenworth Federal Penitentiary. Stanley and Kline served two-year terms in the penitentiary. Douglas died of tuberculosis before beginning his sentence; the town took shape and incorporated on July 20, 1925. The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture says that the origin of the town name is unclear, but offers three possibilities: a Captain Boice, a hero in the Civil War, the town of Boise, Idaho or the Boise Cattle Company, which ran cattle in the area.
It was speculated in Ken Burns' documentary, The Dust Bowl, that the town name was chosen as part of the original land scam to infer a false image of the town, as "boisé" is French for "wooded". Boise City's prosperity in the 1930s, like that of Cimarron County was affected by its location at the heart of the Dust Bowl region. Boise City was the location of an unusual event during World War II when it was mistakenly bombed by a friendly U. S. bomber crew during training. The bombing occurred on July 5, 1943, at 12:30 a.m. by a B‑17 Flying Fortress Bomber. This occurred because pilots performing target practice became disoriented and mistook the lights around the town square as their target. No one was killed in the attack. For the 50th anniversary of the incident, the crew of the bomber was invited back to Boise City, but all members declined; the former radio operator did, send an audio tape, played at the celebration. Boise City is located at 36°43′48″N 102°30′41″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.3 square miles, all land.
The Boise City Airport, which serves all of the county, is located four miles north of Boise City. Boise City experiences a semi-arid climate with mild, dry winters and long, wetter summers. There is a large degree of diurnal temperature variation year-round. According to weather data tallied between July 1, 1985 and June 30, 2015 for every location in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's official climate database, Boise City, Oklahoma, is the snowiest place in the state of Oklahoma with an average of 30.8 inches of snow per year. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,483 people, 610 households, 400 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,180.6 people per square mile. There were 752 housing units at an average density of 598.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 81.7% White, 0.2% African American, 1.7% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 13.4% from other races, 2.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 21.0% of the population.
There were 610 households out of which 29.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.1% were married couples living together, 7.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.3% were non-families. 33.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.99. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.2% under the age of 18, 6.6% from 18 to 24, 21.7% from 25 to 44, 24.3% from 45 to 64, 21.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $30,071, the median income for a family was $35,761. Males had a median income of $23,088 versus $17,679 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,821. About 14.7% of families and 19.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.0% of those under age 18 and 12.3% of those age 65 or over.
The local economy is based on ranching and the production of oil and natural gas. Actress Vera Miles LORAN-C transmitter Boise National Register of Historic Places listings in Cimarron County, Oklahoma Egan, Timothy; the worst hard time: the untold story of those who survived the great American dust bowl. Boston: Mariner Books. ISBN 0-618-34697-X. OCLC 58788898. Boise City Public Schools The Boise City News, local newspaper Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture - Boise City
Oklahoma is a state in the South Central region of the United States, bordered by Kansas on the north, Missouri on the northeast, Arkansas on the east, Texas on the south, New Mexico on the west, Colorado on the northwest. It is the 28th-most populous of the fifty United States; the state's name is derived from the Choctaw words okla and humma, meaning "red people". It is known informally by its nickname, "The Sooner State", in reference to the non-Native settlers who staked their claims on land before the official opening date of lands in the western Oklahoma Territory or before the Indian Appropriations Act of 1889, which increased European-American settlement in the eastern Indian Territory. Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory were merged into the State of Oklahoma when it became the 46th state to enter the union on November 16, 1907, its residents are known as Oklahomans, its capital and largest city is Oklahoma City. A major producer of natural gas and agricultural products, Oklahoma relies on an economic base of aviation, telecommunications, biotechnology.
Both Oklahoma City and Tulsa serve as Oklahoma's primary economic anchors, with nearly two thirds of Oklahomans living within their metropolitan statistical areas. With ancient mountain ranges, prairie and eastern forests, most of Oklahoma lies in the Great Plains, Cross Timbers, the U. S. Interior Highlands, a region prone to severe weather. More than 25 Native American languages are spoken in Oklahoma, ranking third behind Alaska and California. Oklahoma is on a confluence of three major American cultural regions and served as a route for cattle drives, a destination for Southern settlers, a government-sanctioned territory for Native Americans; the name Oklahoma comes from the Choctaw phrase okla humma meaning red people. Choctaw Nation Chief Allen Wright suggested the name in 1866 during treaty negotiations with the federal government on the use of Indian Territory, in which he envisioned an all-Indian state controlled by the United States Superintendent of Indian Affairs. Equivalent to the English word Indian, okla humma was a phrase in the Choctaw language that described Native American people as a whole.
Oklahoma became the de facto name for Oklahoma Territory, it was approved in 1890, two years after the area was opened to white settlers. The name of the state is Pawnee: Uukuhuúwa, Cayuga: Gahnawiyoˀgeh. In the Chickasaw language, the state is known as Oklahomma', in Arapaho as bo'oobe'. Oklahoma is the 20th-largest state in the United States, covering an area of 69,899 square miles, with 68,595 square miles of land and 1,304 square miles of water, it lies in the Great Plains near the geographical center of the 48 contiguous states. It is bounded on the east by Arkansas and Missouri, on the north by Kansas, on the northwest by Colorado, on the far west by New Mexico, on the south and near-west by Texas. Much of its border with Texas lies along a failed continental rift; the geologic figure defines the placement of the Red River. The Oklahoma panhandle's Western edge is out of alignment with its Texas border; the Oklahoma/New Mexico border is 2.1 miles to 2.2 miles east of the Texas line. The border between Texas and New Mexico was set first as a result of a survey by Spain in 1819.
It was set along the 103rd meridian. In the 1890s, when Oklahoma was formally surveyed using more accurate surveying equipment and techniques, it was discovered the Texas line was not set along the 103rd meridian. Surveying techniques were not as accurate in 1819, the actual 103rd meridian was 2.2 miles to the east. It was much easier to leave the mistake than for Texas to cede land to New Mexico to correct the surveying error; the placement of the Oklahoma/New Mexico border represents the true 103rd meridian. Cimarron County in Oklahoma's panhandle is the only county in the United States that touches four other states: New Mexico, Texas and Kansas. Oklahoma is between the Great Plains and the Ozark Plateau in the Gulf of Mexico watershed sloping from the high plains of its western boundary to the low wetlands of its southeastern boundary, its highest and lowest points follow this trend, with its highest peak, Black Mesa, at 4,973 feet above sea level, situated near its far northwest corner in the Oklahoma Panhandle.
The state's lowest point is on the Little River near its far southeastern boundary near the town of Idabel, which dips to 289 feet above sea level. Among the most geographically diverse states, Oklahoma is one of four to harbor more than 10 distinct ecological regions, with 11 in its borders—more per square mile than in any other state, its western and eastern halves, are marked by extreme differences in geographical diversity: Eastern Oklahoma touches eight ecological regions and its western half contains three. Although having fewer ecological regions Western Oklahoma contains many relic species. Oklahoma has four primary mountain ranges: the Ouachita Mountains, the Arbuckle Mountains, the Wichita Mountains, the Ozark Mountains. Contained within the U. S. Interior Highlands region, the Ozark and Ouachita Mountains are the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachians. A portion of the Flint Hills stretches into north-central Oklahoma, near the state's eastern border, The Oklahoma Tourism & Recreation Department regards Cavanal Hill as the world's tallest hill.
The semi-arid high
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Kenton is a census designated place in Cimarron County, United States. There is a store, "The Merc", bed and breakfasts, guest ranches, three church congregations, a post office, established May 12, 1891. Kenton is the only Oklahoma community that observes Mountain Time, which begins a few miles west at the Oklahoma/New Mexico state line. To avoid confusion, "Mountain Time" is added when giving the time to visitors. Posted business hours all end with "MT" or "MST" to specify Mountain Time. From Kenton, it is 155 miles south to Amarillo, Texas, 237 miles northwest to Colorado Springs, Colorado, 306 miles northwest to Denver, Colorado, 314 miles southwest to Albuquerque, New Mexico, 361 miles southeast to Oklahoma City, the nearest major population centers. Camp Billy Joe, just east of Kenton, is home to the annual fall week long star party sponsored by the Oklahoma City Astronomy Club which draws 500 visitors and is rated as among the largest and best such astronomy events in the nation. Kenton had 17 residents at the 2010 census.
Kenton, which lies in the Cimarron River valley, is just south of Black Mesa, the highest point in Oklahoma. It serves as an unofficial staging point for visitors to Black Mesa. There are three full-time businesses in Kenton besides the post office - two bed and breakfasts and a guest ranch. A new addition is a steakhouse that operates from the "Hoot & Owl ranch" on Friday and Saturday night. Kenton was founded in 1893. At the time Oklahoma became a state, it served as the temporary county seat for Cimarron County; the building now known as "The Merc" held the county records. The citizens of the county voted to move the seat on June 11, 1908 to Boise City soon after statehood. Kentonites did not want to give up the records, so a group of people from Boise City confiscated the documents before the end of a 30-day waiting period; this started a local legend. During its heyday, Kenton had two car dealerships, a motel, a bank, two general stores; the oldest surviving structure in Kenton is a building of native rock, constructed in 1902.
It is now a museum of Oklahoma Panhandle artifacts. Kenton lies in the northwest corner of Cimarron County 3 miles east of the New Mexico state line and 6 miles south of the Colorado state line, it is located on the south side of the Cimarron River in the Cimarron River valley. State Highway 325 serves the community. Kenton experiences a semi-arid climate with cool, dry winters and hot, wetter summers; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 17 people, 9 households, 6 families residing in the CDP. The racial makeup of the city was 100.0% White. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 11.8% of the population. There were 9 households out of which 11.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 66.7% were married couples living together, 33.3% were non-families. 33.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.89 and the average family size was 2.33. In the CDP the population was spread out with 11.8% under the age of 18, 0.0% from 18 to 24, 17.6% from 25 to 44, 29.4% from 45 to 64, 41.2% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 58.8 years. For every 100 females there were 88.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.5 males. According to the 2013 American Community Survey, the median income for a household in the CDP was $18,750, the median income for a family could not be computed because there were not enough sample observations. Median income for males and females could not be computed because there were not enough sample observations; the per capita income for the CDP was $8,320. About 41.7% of families and 68.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 100.0% of those under age 18. The percentage of those age 65 or over living in poverty could not be computed because there were not enough sample observations. Camp Billy Joe Bat Cave Archaeological Site Red Ghost Cave Archaeological District Three Entrance Cave Archaeological District Black Mesa, Oklahoma's highest point Hitching Post Guest Ranch Hoot Owl Guest Ranch Black Mesa State Park The Kenton Mercantile Foy Vance, a popular Northern Irish singer-songwriter, spent his early childhood living in Kenton during the late 1970s.
His father, Hugh Bailie Vance, was a traveling preacher in the evangelical Churches of Christ. Kenton information and videos on TravelOK.com Official travel and tourism website for the State of Oklahoma Bat Cave Archaeological Site Red Ghost Cave Archaeological district Three Entrance Cave Archaeological district This Land "The Last of Kenton"
Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway
The Atchison and Santa Fe Railway referred to as the Santa Fe or AT&SF, was one of the larger railroads in the United States. Chartered in February 1859, the railroad reached the Kansas-Colorado border in 1873 and Pueblo, Colorado, in 1876. To create a demand for its services, the railroad set up real estate offices and sold farm land from the land grants that it was awarded by Congress. Despite the name, its main line never served New Mexico, as the terrain was too difficult; the Santa Fe was a pioneer in intermodal freight transport, an enterprise that included a tugboat fleet and an airline. Its bus line extended passenger transportation to areas not accessible by rail, ferryboats on the San Francisco Bay allowed travelers to complete their westward journeys to the Pacific Ocean; the AT&SF was the subject of a popular song, Harry Warren and Johnny Mercer's "On the Atchison and the Santa Fe", written for the film, The Harvey Girls. The railroad ceased operations on December 31, 1996, when it merged with the Burlington Northern Railroad to form the Burlington Northern and Santa Fe Railway.
The Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway was chartered on February 11, 1859, to join Atchison and Topeka, with Santa Fe, New Mexico. In its early years, the railroad opened Kansas to settlement. Much of its revenue came from wheat grown there and from cattle driven north from Texas to Wichita and Dodge City by September 1872. Rather than turn its survey southward at Dodge City, AT&SF headed southwest over Raton Pass because of coal deposits near Trinidad and Raton, New Mexico; the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad was aiming at Raton Pass, but AT&SF crews arose early one morning in 1878 and were hard at work with picks and shovels when the D&RGW crews showed up for breakfast. At the same time the two railroads had a series of skirmishes over occupancy of the Royal Gorge west of Cañon City, Colorado. Federal intervention prompted an out-of-court settlement on February 2, 1880, in the form of the so-called "Treaty of Boston", wherein D&RG was allowed to complete its line and lease it for use by Santa Fe.
D&RG paid an estimated $1.4 million to Santa Fe for its work within the Gorge and agreed not to extend its line to Santa Fe, while Santa Fe agreed to forego its planned routes to Denver and Leadville. Building across Kansas and eastern Colorado was simple, with few natural obstacles, but the railroad found it economically impossible because of the sparse population, it set up real estate offices in the area and promoted settlement across Kansas on the land, granted to it by Congress in 1863. It offered discounted fares to anyone. AT&SF reached Albuquerque in 1880. In March 1881 AT&SF connected with the Southern Pacific at Deming, New Mexico, forming the second transcontinental rail route; the railroad built southwest from Benson, Arizona, to Nogales on the Mexican border where it connected with the Sonora Railway, which the AT&SF had built north from the Mexican port of Guaymas. AT&SF purchased the Southern California Railway on Jan. 17, 1906. The Atlantic & Pacific Railroad was chartered in 1866 to build west from Springfield, along the 35th parallel of latitude to a junction with SP at the Colorado River.
The infant A&P had no rail connections. The line, to become the St. Louis–San Francisco Railway would not reach Springfield for another four years, SP did not build east from Mojave to the Colorado River until 1883. A&P started construction in 1868, built southwest into what would become Oklahoma, promptly entered receivership. In 1879 A&P struck a deal with the Santa Frisco railroads to construct a rail line for each; the railroads would jointly own the A&P railroad west of Albuquerque. In 1883 A&P reached Needles, where it connected with an SP line. A&P built a line between Tulsa, Oklahoma and St. Louis, Missouri for the Frisco, but the Tulsa-Albuquerque portion remained unbuilt; the Santa Fe began to expand: a line from Barstow, California, to San Diego in 1885 and to Los Angeles in 1887. By January 1890, the entire system consisted of some 7,500 miles of track; the Panic of 1893 had the same effect on the AT&SF. In 1895 AT&SF sold the Frisco and the Colorado Midland and wrote off the losses, but it still retained control of the A&P.
The Santa Fe Railway still wanted to reach California on its own rails, the state of California eagerly courted the railroad to break SP's monopoly. In 1897 the railroad traded the Sonora Railway of Mexico to SP for their line between Needles and Barstow, giving AT&SF its own line from Chicago to the Pac
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol