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Feminist philosophy

Feminist philosophy is an approach to philosophy from a feminist perspective and the employment of philosophical methods to feminist topics and questions. Feminist philosophy involves both reinterpreting philosophical texts and methods in order to supplement the feminist movement and attempts to criticise or re-evaluate the ideas of traditional philosophy from within a feminist framework. Feminist philosophy is united by a central concern with gender, it typically involves some form of commitment to justice for women, whatever form that may take. Aside from these uniting features, feminist philosophy is a diverse field covering a wide range of topics from a variety of approaches. Feminist philosophers, as philosophers, are found in both the analytic and continental traditions, a myriad of different viewpoints are taken on philosophical issues within those traditions. Feminist philosophers, as feminists, can belong to many different varieties of feminism. Feminist philosophy can be understood to have three main functions: Drawing on philosophical methodologies and theories to articulate and theorize about feminist concerns and perspectives.

This can include providing a philosophical analysis of concepts regarding identity and concepts that are widely used and theorised within feminist theory more broadly. Feminist philosophy has been an important source for arguments for gender equality. Investigating sexism and androcentrism within the philosophical tradition; this can involve critiquing texts and theories that are classified as part of the philosophical canon by focusing on their presentation of women and women's experience or the exclusion of women from the philosophical tradition. Another significant trend is the rediscovery of the work of many female philosophers whose contributions have not been recognised. Contributing to philosophy with new approaches to existing questions as well as new questions and fields of research in light of their critical inquiries into the philosophical tradition and reflecting their concern with gender. Feminist philosophy existed before the twentieth century but became labelled as such in relation to the discourse of second-wave feminism of the 1960s and 1970s.

An important project of feminist philosophy has been to incorporate the diversity of experiences of women from different racial groups and socioeconomic classes, as well as of women around the globe. Feminist philosophers work within a broad range of subfields, including: Feminist epistemology, which challenges traditional philosophical ideas of knowledge and rationality as objective, universal, or value neutral. Feminist epistemologists argue for the importance of perspective, social situation and values in generating knowledge, including in the sciences. Feminist ethics, which argues that the emphasis on objectivity and universality in traditional moral thought excludes women's ethical realities. One of the most notable developments is the ethics of care, which values empathy and non-violence in the development of moral systems. Care ethics involve a greater recognition of interpersonal connections and relations of care and dependency, feminist ethics uses this to critique how an ethics of justice is rooted in patriarchal understandings of morality.

Some feminist ethicists have shown concern about how values ascribed to an ethics of care are associated with femaleness, how such a connection can bolster ideas about moral development as gendered. Feminist phenomenology investigates how both cognitive faculties and the construction of normativity within social orders combine to shape an individual's reality. Phenomenology in feminist philosophy is applied to develop improved conceptions of gendered embodied experience, of intersubjectivity and relational life, to community and political phenomena. Feminist phenomenology goes beyond other representation-focused discourses by centering personal and embodied experiences, as well as recognizing how experience operates outside of language, so can be difficult to articulate. Reflection upon time as a construct is a more recent development in feminist phenomenology. Feminist aesthetics, which concerns the role of gender and sexuality in art and aesthetic theorising, deals with issues related to subjectivity of creators, the reproduction of gendered norms in art, the role of art in enculturation, representation of women in art, both as subjects and creators.

An understanding of “women” and “artist” as mutually exclusive identities has been reproduced since at least the era of romanticism, this division has made interventions by feminist aesthetics necessary to challenge the patriarchal and masculine state of aesthetics. Feminist metaphysics, which focuses on the ontology of gender and sex and the nature of social construction. Feminist historians of philosophy examine sex biases inherent in traditional metaphysical theories. One of the main points at which this field diverges from classical metaphysics is in its attempts to ground social constructs into understandings of the “fundamental” and “natural”, around which metaphysics is built around. Feminist metaphysics attempts to balance the relationship between social constructs and reality by recognizing how the distinction between what is perceived as “real” and what is “socially constructed” creates a binary that fails to acknowledge the interplay between the two concepts; this field works t

Solid ground curing

Solid ground curing is a photo-polymer-based additive manufacturing technology used for producing models, prototypes and production parts, in which the production of the layer geometry is carried out by means of a high-powered UV lamp through a mask. As the basis of solid ground curing is the exposure of each layer of the model by means of a lamp through a mask, the processing time for the generation of a layer is independent of the complexity of the layer. SGC was developed and commercialized by Cubital Ltd. of Israel in 1986 in the alternative name of Solider System. While the method offered good accuracy and a high fabrication rate, it suffered from high acquisition and operating costs due to system complexity; this led to poor market acceptance. While the company still exists, systems are no longer being sold. It's still an interesting example of the many technologies other than stereolithography, its predeceasing rapid prototyping process that utilizes photo-polymer materials. Though Objet Geometries Ltd. of Israel retains intellectual property of the process after the closure of Cubital Ltd. in 2002, the technology is no longer being produced.

Solid ground curing utilizes the general process of hardening of photopolymers by a complete lighting and hardening of the entire surface, using specially prepared masks. In SGC process, each layer of the prototype is cured by exposing to an ultra violet lamp instead of by laser scanning. So that, every portion in a layer are cured and do not require any post-curing processes; the process contains the following steps. The cross section of each slice layer is calculated based on the geometric model of the part and the desired layer thickness; the optical mask is generated conforming to each cross section. After leveling, the platform is covered with a thin layer of liquid photopolymer; the mask corresponding to the current layer is positioned over the surface of the liquid resin, the resin is exposed to a high-power UV lamp. The residual liquid is removed from the workpiece by an aerodynamic wiper. A layer of melted wax is spread over the workpiece to fill voids; the wax is solidified by applying a cold plate to it.

The layer surface is trimmed to the desired thickness by a milling disk. The current workpiece is covered with a thin layer of liquid polymer and step 4 to 7 are repeated for each succeeding upper layer until the topmost layer has been processed; the wax is melted away upon completion of the part. The primary advantage of the solid ground curing system is that it does not require a support structure since wax is used to fill the voids accurate products can be obtained; the model produced by SGC process is comparatively accurate in the Z-direction because the layer is milled after each light-exposure process. Although it offers good accuracy coupled with high throughput, it produces too much waste and its operating costs are comparatively high due to system complexity

John R. Rice (computer scientist)

John Rischard Rice is an American mathematician and computer scientist, the W. Brooks Fortune Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Computer Science and a professor of mathematics at Purdue University, he specializes in numerical computing, founded the ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software and is the author of more than 20 books and 300 research articles. Rice was born on June 6, 1934 in Tulsa and grew up in small towns in Oklahoma; as a teenager, his father was assigned to Addis Ababa, where he lived for three years. He earned bachelor's and master's degrees in mathematics from Oklahoma State University in 1954 and 1956, he moved to the California Institute of Technology, where he earned a Ph. D. in 1959 under the supervision of Arthur Erdélyi. After taking a one-year postdoctoral position at the National Bureau of Standards, he became a researcher for General Motors. In 1964 he left GM and joined the founded computer science department at Purdue, which he headed from 1983 to 1996Rice organized the first Symposium on Mathematical Software at Purdue University in 1970, which produced the recommendation to start a journal for the field.

This led to the founding of ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software in 1975, of which Rice would be editor-in-chief until 1993. He was chair of the Computing Research Association from 1991 to 1993. Rice showed an early interest in computing, publishing a paper titled "Electronic Brains" as a college sophomore. Although his early research was on the mathematics of approximation theory, he spent most of his career working in the analysis of algorithms for solving numerical problems, on the solution of elliptic partial differential equations. Rice's Introduction to Computer Science was the "leading textbook of the day" and emphasized general principles of algorithms and data structures rather than specific programming languages, the focus of previous introductory CS texts, it was translated into three other languages. Rice's other books include: Solving Elliptic Problems with ELLPACK Mathematical Aspects of Scientific Software Expert Systems for Scientific Computing Enabling Technologies for Computational Science Rice was named the Brooks Fortune Professor in 1989.

In 1994, he was elected to the National Academy of Engineering for his "establishing and seminal contributions to the field of mathematical software". He is a Fellow of the AAAS and a Fellow of the Association for Computing Machinery. Hobby–Rice theorem Home page at Purdue