Violence against women
Violence against women known as gender-based violence and sexual and gender-based violence are violent acts or committed against women and girls. Considered a form of hate crime, this type of violence is gender-based, meaning that the acts of violence are committed against women and girls expressly because they are female; the UN Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women states, "violence against women is a manifestation of unequal power relations between men and women" and "violence against women is one of the crucial social mechanisms by which women are forced into a subordinate position compared with men." Kofi Annan, Secretary-General of the United Nations, declared in a 2006 report posted on the United Nations Development Fund for Women website:Violence against women and girls is a problem of pandemic proportions. At least one out of every three women around the world has been beaten, coerced into sex, or otherwise abused in her lifetime with the abuser someone known to her.
Violence against women can fit into several broad categories. These include violence carried out by "individuals" as well as "states"; some of the forms of violence perpetrated by individuals are: rape, domestic violence, sexual harassment, reproductive coercion, female infanticide, prenatal sex selection, obstetric violence, mob violence. Some forms of violence condoned by certain states such as war rape. Many forms of VAW, such as trafficking in women and forced prostitution are perpetrated by organized criminal networks; the World Health Organization, in its research on VAW, has analyzed and categorized the different forms of VAW occurring through all stages of life from before birth to old age. In recent years, there has been a trend of approaching VAW at an international level through means such as conventions or, in the European Union, through directives; the Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence known as the Istanbul Convention, provides the following definition of violence against women: "Violence against women" is understood as a violation of human rights and a form of discrimination against women and shall mean all acts of gender-based violence that result in, or are to result in, sexual, psychological or economic harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life Although the 1979 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women includes VAW in its General Recommendations 12 and 19, the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action mentions VAW at paragraph 18, it was the 1993 United Nations General Assembly resolution on the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women, which became the first international instrument to explicitly define VAW and elaborate on the subject.
Other definitions of VAW are provided by the 1994 Inter-American Convention on the Prevention and Eradication of Violence against Women and by the 2003 Maputo Protocol. In addition, the term gender-based violence refers to "any acts or threats of acts intended to hurt or make women suffer physically, sexually or psychologically, which affect women because they are women or affect women disproportionately"; the definition of gender-based violence is most "used interchangeably with violence against women", some articles on VAW reiterate these conceptions by suggesting that men are the main perpetrators of this violence. Moreover, the definition stated by the 1993 Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women supported the notion that violence is rooted in the inequality between men and women when the term violence is used together with the term'gender-based.'In Recommendation Rec5 of the Committee of Ministers to member states on the protection of women against violence, the Council of Europe stipulated that VAW "includes, but is not limited to, the following": a. violence occurring in the family or domestic unit, inter alia and mental aggression and psychological abuse and sexual abuse, rape between spouses, regular or occasional partners and cohabitants, crimes committed in the name of honour, female genital and sexual mutilation and other traditional practices harmful to women, such as forced marriages.
These definitions of VAW as being gender-based are seen by some to be unsatisfactory and problematic. These definitions are conceptualized in an understanding of society as patriarchal, signifying unequal relations between men and women. Opponents of such definitions argue that the definitions disregard violence against men and that the term gender, as used in gender based viole
Timeline of women's suffrage
Women's suffrage – the right of women to vote – has been achieved at various times in countries throughout the world. In many nations, women's suffrage was granted before universal suffrage, so women and men from certain classes or races were still unable to vote; some countries granted suffrage to both sexes at the same time. This timeline lists years; some countries are listed more than once, as the right was extended to more women according to age, land ownership, etc. In many cases, the first voting took place in a subsequent year; some women in the Isle of Man gained the right to vote in 1881. Though it did not achieve nationhood until 1907, the colony of New Zealand was the first self-governing country in the world in which all women had the right to vote in, but not to stand for, parliamentary elections in 1893, followed by the colony of South Australia in 1894. In Sweden, conditional women's suffrage was granted during the age of liberty between 1718 and 1772; the Australian Commonwealth Franchise Act of 1902 enabled women to vote at federal elections and permitted women to stand for election to the Australian Parliament, making the newly-federated country of Australia the first in the modern world to do so.
In 1906, the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland, which became the republic of Finland, was the second country in the world to implement both the right to vote and the right to run for office. Finland was the first country in Europe to give women the right to vote; the world's first female members of parliament were elected in Finland the following year. In Europe, the last jurisdiction to grant women the right to vote was the Swiss canton of Appenzell Innerrhoden, in 1991. Women in Switzerland obtained the right to vote at federal level in 1971, at local cantonal level between 1959 and 1972, except for Appenzell in 1989/1990, see Women's suffrage in Switzerland. In Saudi Arabia women were first allowed to vote in December 2015 in the municipal elections. For other women's rights, see timeline of women's legal rights; the seventh century was the century where muslims created their country "The Caliphate" After Muhammad died in 632, Abu Bakr Omar both were chosen as caliph, after Omar's Death, he decided that the caliph must be a part of the hadith of the ten with glad tidings of paradise, so the Muslim started to vote between them, the women themselves were asked to choose just like everyone else with men from all across the caliphate until Uthman was picked as the new caliph based on what the majority wanted regardless of the gender.
Friesland: Female landowners are allowed to vote in elections to the States of Friesland in rural districts. Sweden: Female taxpaying members of city guilds are allowed to vote in local city elections and national elections: Sweden: Female taxpaying property owners of legal majority are allowed to vote in local countryside elections. Corsica: Female suffrage in the independent republic's Diet US town of Uxbridge, Massachusetts: One woman, Lydia Taft, is allowed to vote in the town meeting New Jersey Pitcairn Islands Tuscany Velez Province in what was the New Granada Republic grants universal suffrage to men and women; the Supreme Court annulled the provision for women. Norfolk Island South Australia—Australian colony of South Australia: property-owning women were given the vote. Sweden: limited to local elections with votes graded after taxation. Argentina: limited to local elections, only for literate women in San Luís Province The Grand Duchy of Finland: limited to taxpaying women in the countryside for municipal elections.
Victoria—Australian colony of Victoria: women were unintentionally enfranchised by the Electoral Act, proceeded to vote in the following year's elections. The Act was amended in 1865 to correct the error. Kingdom of Bohemia - Austrian Empire: limited to taxpaying women and women in "learned professions" who were allowed to vote by proxy and made eligible for election to the legislative body in 1864. United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland: limited to single women ratepayers for local elections under the Municipal Franchise Act. United States-incorporated Territory of Wyoming: full suffrage for women. United States-incorporated Utah Territory: repealed by the Edmunds-Tucker Act in 1887. May 10, 1872, New York City: Equal Rights Party nominates Victoria C. Woodhull as their candidate for US President. Isle of Man. Universal suffrage / the franchise for all resident men and women was introduced in 1919. All men and women could stand for election from 1919. Ontario -- Canadian province: limited to spinsters to vote in municipal elections.
United States: Proposed Constitutional Amendment to extend suffrage and the right to hold office to women. The municipality of Franceville in the New Hebrides (universal suffrage within its short existence
Timeline of first women's suffrage in majority-Muslim countries
This timeline lists the dates of the first women's suffrage in Muslim majority countries. Dates for the right to vote, suffrage, as distinct from the right to stand for election and hold office, are listed; some countries with majority Muslim populations established universal suffrage upon national independence, such as Bangladesh and Malaysia. In most North Africa countries, women participated in the first national elections or soon following; some dates relate to regional elections and, where possible, the second date of general election has been included. Countries listed may not have universal suffrage for women, some may have regressed in women's rights since the initial granting of suffrage. Crimean People's Republic Azerbaijan Democratic Republic. Ivory Coast Comoros Egypt Mali British Somaliland Lebanon. Malaysia Upper Volta Chad Guinea Tunisia Brunei Gambia Sierra Leone Mauritania Algeria Brunei Iran Morocco Libya Sudan Afghanistan South Yemen North Yemen Bangladesh Bahrain Jordan Nigeria Iraq Kuwait Afghanistan Qatar Kuwait Afghanistan Oman Kuwait United Arab Emirates Saudi Arabia Rawya Ateya List of equal or majority Muslim countries List of suffragists and suffragettes List of women's rights activists Sex segregation in Islam Timeline of women's suffrage Women in Islam
Feminism is a range of political movements and social movements that share a common goal: to define and achieve the political, economic and social equality of the genders. This includes fighting gender stereotypes and seeking to establish educational and professional opportunities for women that are equal to those for men. Feminist movements have campaigned and continue to campaign for women's rights, including the right to vote, to hold public office, to work, to earn fair wages or equal pay, to own property, to receive education, to enter contracts, to have equal rights within marriage, to have maternity leave. Feminists have worked to ensure access to legal abortions and social integration, to protect women and girls from rape, sexual harassment, domestic violence. Changes in dress and acceptable physical activity have been part of feminist movements; some scholars consider feminist campaigns to be a main force behind major historical societal changes for women's rights in the West, where they are near-universally credited with achieving women's suffrage, gender neutrality in English, reproductive rights for women, the right to enter into contracts and own property.
Although feminist advocacy is, has been focused on women's rights, some feminists, including bell hooks, argue for the inclusion of men's liberation within its aims because they believe that men are harmed by traditional gender roles. Feminist theory, which emerged from feminist movements, aims to understand the nature of gender inequality by examining women's social roles and lived experience. Numerous feminist movements and ideologies have developed over the years and represent different viewpoints and aims; some forms of feminism have been criticized for taking into account only white, middle class, college-educated perspectives. This criticism led to the creation of ethnically specific or multicultural forms of feminism, including black feminism and intersectional feminism. Charles Fourier, a Utopian Socialist and French philosopher, is credited with having coined the word "féminisme" in 1837; the words "féminisme" and "féministe" first appeared in France and the Netherlands in 1872, Great Britain in the 1890s, the United States in 1910, the Oxford English Dictionary lists 1852 as the year of the first appearance of "feminist" and 1895 for "feminism".
Depending on the historical moment and country, feminists around the world have had different causes and goals. Most western feminist historians contend that all movements working to obtain women's rights should be considered feminist movements when they did not apply the term to themselves. Other historians assert that the term should be limited to the modern feminist movement and its descendants; those historians use the label "protofeminist" to describe earlier movements. The history of the modern western feminist movements is divided into three "waves"; each wave dealt with different aspects of the same feminist issues. The first wave comprised women's suffrage movements of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, promoting women's right to vote; the second wave was associated with the ideas and actions of the women's liberation movement beginning in the 1960s. The second wave campaigned for social equality for women; the third wave is a continuation of, a reaction to, the perceived failures of second-wave feminism, which began in the 1990s.
First-wave feminism was a period of activity during early twentieth century. In the UK and the US, it focused on the promotion of equal contract, marriage and property rights for women. By the end of the 19th century, a number of important steps had been made with the passing of legislation such as the UK Custody of Infants Act 1839 which introduced the Tender years doctrine for child custody arrangement and gave women the right of custody of their children for the first time. Other legislation such as the Married Women's Property Act 1870 in the UK and extended in the 1882 Act, these became models for similar legislation in other British territories. For example, Victoria passed legislation in 1884, New South Wales in 1889, the remaining Australian colonies passed similar legislation between 1890 and 1897. Therefore, with the turn of the 19th century activism had focused on gaining political power the right of women's suffrage, though some feminists were active in campaigning for women's sexual and economic rights as well.
Women's suffrage began in Britain's Australasian colonies at the close of the 19th century, with the self-governing colonies of New Zealand granting women the right to vote in 1893 and South Australia granting female suffrage in 1895. This was followed by Australia granting female suffrage in 1902. In Britain the Suffragettes and the Suffragists campaigned for the women's vote, in 1918 the Representation of the People Act was passed granting the vote to women over the age of 30 who owned property. In 1928 this was extended to all women over 21. Emmeline Pankhurst was the most notable activist in England, with Time naming her one of the 100 Most Important People of the 20th Century stating: "she shaped an idea of women for our time. In the U. S. notable leaders of this movement included Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, who each campaigned for the abolition of slavery prior to championing women's right to vote; these women were influenced by the
Suffrage in Australia
Suffrage in Australia refers to the right to vote for people living in Australia, including all its six component states and territories, as well as local councils. The colonies of Australia began to grant universal male suffrage during the 1850s and women's suffrage followed between the 1890s and 1900s. Today, the right to vote at federal and local levels of government is enjoyed by all citizens of Australia over the age of 18 years. Upon first white settlement in New South Wales in 1788, the appointed Governors had autocratic powers within the colony, but agitation for representative government began soon after the settlement. A legislative body, the New South Wales Legislative Council, was created in 1825, an appointed body whose function was to advise the Governor. On 24 August 1824, 5 members were appointed to the Council, which increased to 7 members in 1825, between 10 and 15 in 1829. In 1829, British sovereignty was extended to cover the whole of Australia, everyone born in Australia, including Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders, became British subjects by birth.
The first parliamentary elections in Australia took place in 1843 for the New South Wales Legislative Council under the New South Wales Constitution Act 1842. The Council had 36 members, of which 12 were appointed by the Governor and the remainder were elected; the right to vote was limited to men with a freehold valued at £200 or a householder paying rent of £20 per year, both large sums at the time. In the 1850s, limited self-government was granted to South Australia, New South Wales and Tasmania: all adult male British subjects became entitled to vote; this included indigenous people but they were not encouraged to enroll. Queensland gained self-government in 1859 and Western Australia in 1890, but these colonies denied indigenous people the vote. An innovative secret ballot was introduced in Victoria and South Australia. In 1856, under a new Constitution, the New South Wales Parliament became bicameral with a elected Legislative Assembly and a appointed Legislative Council with a Government taking over most of the legislative powers of the Governor.
On 22 May 1856, the newly constituted New South Wales Parliament sat for the first time. The right to vote for Legislative Assembly was extended to all adult males in 1858. In 1901, the six Australian colonies united to form the federal Commonwealth of Australia; the first election for the Commonwealth Parliament in 1901 was based on the electoral laws at that time of the six colonies, so that those who had the right to vote and to stand for Parliament at state level had the same rights for the 1901 Australian federal election. Only in South Australia and Western Australia did women have a vote. Tasmania retained a small property qualification for voting, but in the other states all male British subjects over 21 could vote. Only in South Australia and Tasmania were indigenous Australians theoretically entitled to vote. A few may have done so in South Australia. Western Australia and Queensland barred indigenous people from voting. In 1902, the Commonwealth Parliament passed the Commonwealth Franchise Act 1902, which established a uniform franchise law for the federal Parliament.
The Act declared that all British subjects over the age of 21 years, living in Australia for at least 6 months were entitled to a vote, whether male or female, whether married or single. Besides granting Australian women the right to vote at a national level, it allowed them to stand for election to federal Parliament; this meant that Australia was the second country, after New Zealand, to grant women's suffrage at a national level, the first country to allow women to stand for Parliament. However, the Act disqualified Indigenous people from Australia, Asia and the Pacific Islands, with the exception of Māori, from voting though they were British subjects and otherwise entitled to a vote. By this provision, Indian people, for example, were disqualified to vote; the only exception was in relation to those who were entitled under Section 41 of the Australian Constitution to a vote. Section 41 states that any individual who has gained a right to vote at a state level, must have the right to vote in federal elections.
The Solicitor-General, Robert Garran, interpreted the provision to mean that Commonwealth voting rights were granted by section 41 only to people who were State voters in 1902. The effect was not to enable those who subsequently acquired the right to vote at a State level, but who were expressly excluded from the franchise by the 1902 Act, such as Indigenous Australians, to vote at the federal level; those otherwise entitled voters who are subject to a crime which carries a penalty of over one year in prison are disqualified to vote. There was no representation for any of the territories of Australia. In the meantime, State franchise laws continued in force. In 1897, in South Australia, Catherine Helen Spence was the first woman to stand as a political candidate; the restrictions on voting by indigenous Australians were relaxed after World War II, removed by the Commonwealth Electoral Act in 1962. Senator Neville Bonner became the first Aboriginal Australian to sit in the federal Parliament in 1971.
Julia Gillard became the first female Prime Minister of Australia in 2010. Traditional Aboriginal society had been governed by councils of elders and a corporate decision making process, but the first European-style governments established after 1788 were autocratic and run by appointed governors - although E
Elfriede Jelinek is an Austrian playwright and novelist. She was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2004 for her "musical flow of voices and counter-voices in novels and plays that, with extraordinary linguistic zeal, reveal the absurdity of society's clichés and their subjugating power". Elfriede Jelinek was born on 20 October 1946 in Mürzzuschlag, Austria, the daughter of Olga Ilona, a personnel director, Friedrich Jelinek, she was raised in Vienna by Czech Jewish father. Her father was a chemist, who managed to avoid persecution during the Second World War by working in strategically important industrial production. However, many of his relatives became victims of the Holocaust, her mother, with whom she had a strained relationship, was from a prosperous Vienna family. As a child, Elfriede attended a Roman Catholic convent school in Vienna, her mother planned a career for her as a musical "wunderkind". She was instructed in piano, guitar, violin and recorder from an early age, she went on to study at the Vienna Conservatory, where she graduated with an organist diploma.
She studied art theater at the University of Vienna. However, she had to discontinue her studies due to an anxiety disorder, which resulted in self-isolation at her parents' house for a year. During this time, she began serious literary work as a form of therapy. After a year, she began to feel comfortable leaving the house with her mother, she began writing poetry at a young age. She made her literary debut with Lisas Schatten in 1967, received her first literary prize in 1969. During the 1960s, she became active politically, read a great deal, "spent an enormous amount of time watching television", she married Gottfried Hüngsberg on 12 June 1974. Despite the author's own differentiation from Austria, Jelinek's writing is rooted in the tradition of Austrian literature, showing the influence of Austrian writers such as Ingeborg Bachmann, Marlen Haushofer, Robert Musil. Jelinek's political positions, in particular her feminist stance and her Communist Party affiliations, are of vital importance to any assessment of her work.
They are a part of the reason for the controversy directed at Jelinek and her work. Editor Friederike Eigler states that Jelinek has three major and inter-related "targets" in her writing: capitalist consumer society and its commodification of all human beings and relationships, the remnants of Austria's fascist past in public and private life, the systematic exploitation and oppression of women in a capitalist-patriarchal society. Jelinek was a member of Austria's Communist Party from 1974 to 1991, she became a household name during the 1990s due to her vociferous clash with Jörg Haider's Freedom Party. Following the 1999 National Council elections, the subsequent formation of a coalition cabinet consisting of the Freedom Party and the Austrian People's Party, Jelinek became one of the new cabinet's most vocal critics. Many foreign governments moved swiftly to ostracize Austria's administration, citing the Freedom Party's alleged nationalism and authoritarianism; the cabinet construed the sanctions against it as directed against Austria as such, attempted to prod the nation into a national rallying behind the coalition parties.
This provoked a temporary heating of the political climate severe enough for dissidents such as Jelinek to be accused of treason by coalition supporters. Jelinek petitioned for the release of Jack Unterweger, imprisoned for the murder of a prostitute, and, regarded by intellectuals and politicians as an example of successful rehabilitation. Unterweger was found guilty of murdering nine more women within two years of his release, committed suicide after his arrest. Jelinek's output has included radio plays, theatre texts, polemical essays, novels, screenplays, musical compositions and ballets, film and video art. Jelinek's work is multi-faceted, controversial, it has been condemned by leading literary critics. In the wake of the Fritzl case, for example, she was accused of "executing'hysterical' portraits of Austrian perversity", her political activism has encountered divergent and heated reactions. Despite the controversy surrounding her work, Jelinek has won many distinguished awards. Female sexuality, sexual abuse, the battle of the sexes in general are prominent topics in her work.
Texts such as Wir sind Lockvögel, Baby!, Die Liebhaberinnen and Die Klavierspielerin showcase the brutality and power play inherent in human relations in a style that is, at times formal and controlled. According to Jelinek and aggression are the principal driving forces of relationships. Ein Sportstück explores the darker side of competitive sports, her provocative novel Lust contains graphic description of sexuality and abuse. It received poor reviews by many critics, but others, who noted the power of the cold descriptions of moral failures, considered it to have been misunderstood and undervalued by them. Her novel The Piano Teacher was the basis for the 2001 film of the same tit
Against Sadomasochism: A Radical Feminist Analysis is a 1982 radical feminist anthology edited by Robin Ruth Linden, Darlene R. Pagano, Diana E. H. Russell, Susan Leigh Star; the authors critique sadomasochism and BDSM from a feminist perspective, with most identifying sadomasochism as rooted in "patriarchal sexual ideology". The compilation includes essays by a variety of radical feminists such as Alice Walker, Robin Morgan, Kathleen Barry, Diana E. H. Russell, Susan Leigh Star, Ti-Grace Atkinson, John Stoltenberg, Sarah Lucia Hoagland, Darlene Pagano, Susan Griffin, Cheri Lesh, Judith Butler. Butler, credited as "Judy Butler," criticized sadomasochism and the Samois collective in her essay "Lesbian S&M: The Politics of Dis-Illusion." The anthology includes an interview between Audre Lorde and Susan Leigh Star. The essays express opposition to sadomasochism from a number of different viewpoints. Three pieces, a letter by Alice Walker, the interview with Audre Lorde, a conversation between Karen Sims, Darlene Pagano, Rose Mason, criticize the movement as insensitive to the experiences of Black women criticizing "master/slave" relationships.
Susan Leigh Star criticizes the use of swastikas and other Nazi imagery by some BDSM practitioners as anti-Semitic and racist. Marissa Jonel and Elizabeth Harris's articles are accounts of personal experiences with sadomasochism, Paula Tiklicorect and Melissa Bay Mathis use satire in their pieces. Several essays criticize Samois, a BDSM organization founded for lesbians. Susan Griffin's article, reprinted from her book Pornography and Silence with an introduction, criticizes Story of O, the book from which Samois took their name. Griffin argues that Story of O shows "how a pornographic society turns a woman's heart against herself." In a review for lesbian feminist magazine off our backs, Carol Anne Douglas recommended the book, praising its arguments as convincing and calling parts of the book "moving." Charles Moser wrote a negative review for The Journal of Sex Research, admitting that the essays are "well-written" but nonetheless calling the book "infuriating." Moser compares the feminist arguments against sadomasochism in the book to religious arguments against homosexuality, saying both of these cause unnecessary guilt.
Feminist views on BDSM