Women's suffrage in Wales
Women's suffrage in Wales has been marginalised due to the prominence of societies and political groups in England which led the reform for women throughout the United Kingdom. Due to differing social structures and a industrialised working-class society, the growth of a national movement in Wales grew but stuttered in the late nineteenth century in comparison with that of England. Distinct Welsh groups and individuals rose to prominence and were vocal in the rise of suffrage in Wales and the rest of Great Britain. In the early twentieth century, Welsh hopes of advancing the cause of female suffrage centred around the Liberal Party and the Chancellor of the Exchequer, David Lloyd George, one of the most important Welsh politicians of the day. After Liberal success in the 1906 Election failed to materialise into political change, suffragettes and in particular members of the more militant Women's Social and Political Union, took a hard line stance towards their Members of Parliament, engaging in direct action against them.
Militant action was not a hallmark of the movements in Wales and Welsh members, who more identified themselves as suffragists, sought Parliamentary and public support through political and peaceful means. In 1918, across the United Kingdom, women over the age of 30 gained the right to vote, followed by the Representation of the People Act 1928 which saw women gain the same rights to vote as men. Women were not explicitly banned from voting in Great Britain until the 1832 Reform Act and the 1835 Municipal Corporations Act. In England the suffrage movement existed before and after the 1832 act, but did not form a national organisation until the creation of the National Society for Women's Suffrage in 1872. Although there were notable exceptions such as the working-class areas of Lancashire, the women's suffrage movement in England was predominantly a middle-class movement. In Wales there were only two narrow bands of wealthy society in the Anglicised north and south coastal areas. Much of the female population of an emerging 19th century Wales was based in the low-waged, densely-populated, industrialised valleys of the south.
At first women found work in metalworking and coal extraction, but faced mass unemployment after the 1842 Mines and Collieries Act had prohibited them from working underground. The coal mining industry, with its absence of pithead baths, led to unpaid women's employment as the need to keep both their homes and the family's menfolk clean became a never ending task; this led to the image of the stoic Welsh Mam, a matriarch of the home, but little could be further from the truth in a society controlled by men. The increase of wealth created by the mining and metalworking industries saw the creation of new upper-class families who built their wealthy homes in the centre of the community from which they prospered. Whereas the pit and foundry owners were men, many of whom had political ambitions, their wives sought more charitable activities connected to improving the lives of the women and children of their husband's workers. In Dowlais, the heart of the ironworking industry of Wales, Rose Mary Crawshay, the well-to-do English-born wife of Robert Thompson Crawshay, passed her time in such charitable work.
She set up soup kitchens, gave to the poor and established no less than seven libraries in the area, but apart from this work, for which she would be expected to do, she was a staunch feminist. Living under the rule of a notoriously tyrannical husband, for whom she bore five children, she showed a strong-will and was known in feminist circles in London from the 1850s. In 1866 she and 25 other signatories, all based in Wales, signed the country's first women's Suffrage Petition. In June 1870, Rose Crawshay held a public meeting at her home the first in Wales to discuss women's suffrage, but she was taken to task by the local newspaper for disturbing the peace and leading Wales' women astray; the first suffrage tour of Welsh towns was conducted the following year by Jessie Craigen, who travelled the south of the country visiting Pontypool, Pembroke Dock, Neyland and Newport. On 4 March 1872, Mrs. Crawshay held a second meeting, in Merthyr Tydfill, which resulted in a new petition being delivered, the effect of which saw the signing of petitions from Glamorgan, Monmouthshire and Cardiganshire.
That year the Bristol & West of England Society for Women's Suffrage sent two of their members, Caroline Biggs and Lilias Ashworth, on a sponsored speaking tour of south Wales which took in Pontypool, Newport and Haverfordwest. Despite the actions of several prominent Welsh women, such as Lady Amberley and Miss Gertrude Jenner of Wenvoe, no real suffrage movements took hold in the 1870s and the country was reliant on speaking tours from members of English societies, predominantly from Bristol and Manchester. On 25 February 1881, Gertrude Jenner addressed a meeting held in Cardiff Town Hall to "consider means of promoting interest in Cardiff" towards female voting rights; this was a preliminary to a larger meeting, held on 9 March, attended by local dignitaries, Miss Jenner, Helen Blackburn and was chaired by the Mayor of Cardiff. Despite there being a great deal of suffrage activity in the lead up to the Third Reform Act of 1884, there was little campaigning in Wales during the early 1880s.
One act of significant importance that did occur during this period was the decision in late 1884 by the delegates of the Aberdare and Dowlais District Mine Association to support a series of talks by Jeanette Wilkinson on the right of women's votes. This is the first recorded instance of interest by Welsh working men supporting female suffrage; the publication of the Reform Acts of 1867 and
Women's suffrage in Japan
The women's suffrage in Japan can traces its origin back to democratization brought by Meiji Restoration, blossomed in the 1920s during the Taisho democracy. After the Meiji Restoration in 1868, the concept of human rights and universal suffrage began to take hold in Japan. During the late 19th century, the first proponents for women's rights advocated, not for political inclusion or voting rights, but for reforms in the patriarchal society oppressing women. Of prime importance to the early feminist movement was the call for women's education. Policymakers believed that this was imperative to the preservation of the state, as it would prepare girls to become effective wives and mothers capable of producing diligent, patriotic sons. Although policymakers did not have the same motives as women's rights advocates in their call for women's education, the availability of education opened the door for further advancements for women in Japanese society; as the idea of women becoming skilled and prudent individuals, whether in the workforce or through education, this modern concept was soon accepted in addition to its interrelationship with excellent and pure motherhood.
The end of the 19th century saw the fight for protection of women from patriarchal cultural practices. Practices such as prostitution and polygamy had long subjected them to abuse, in particular sexually transmitted diseases. Feminists began to oppose both the exclusive provision of civil rights for men and the exclusion of women from politics. Women in Japan were prohibited, by law, from joining political parties, expressing political views, attending political meetings. By 1920, the fight for women's political inclusion was at the forefront of the suffrage movement and, in 1921, the Diet of Japan overruled Article 5 of the Police Security Act by granting women the right to attend political meetings; the ban on women's involvement in political parties was not altered, as many members of the Diet felt that it was selfish for women to forsake their families for government. Feminists were still determined to fight for political equality; the Women's Suffrage League was founded in 1924, the same year that the Japanese government enacted the Men's Suffrage Law, without extending the vote to women.
After women were granted the right to participate in political assemblies, there was a surge in numbers of women's interest groups. Alumni groups, Christian missionary groups, other women's auxiliary groups began to sprout during the inter-war period. After a massive earthquake struck Tokyo in 1923, representatives from 43 of these organizations joined forces to become the Tokyo Federation of Women's Organizations; the federation was designed to serve as disaster relief to aid those affected by the earthquake. To efficiently address the issues affecting women, the Tokyo Federation of Women's Organizations divided into five satellite groups: society, education and employment; the government sector was the most significant, as it spawned the League for the Realization of Women's Suffrage the Women's Suffrage League, which became the most influential and outspoken women's advocacy collective of the era. The government satellite issued a manifesto outlining the abuses Japanese women suffered and how they were to be corrected: 1) It is our responsibility to destroy customs which have existed in this country for the past twenty six hundred years and to construct a new Japan that promotes the natural rights of men and women.
The League, as well as numerous other groups, continued to fight for social and political inclusion, as well as legal protection from the patriarchal traditions that continued in Japan. Women were granted the right to vote in 1946, in part due to pressure from the occupying forces of the United States. Shidzue Katō: As a member of the Japanese Socialist Party, Shidzue Kato was the first woman elected to the Imperial Diet, she spent the majority of her life fighting for women's political rights. She is noted for annulling her marriage and remarrying, an act, rare for women at the time. Fusae Ichikawa: Advocate for women’s political rights. Ichikawa concentrated most of her efforts towards gaining women the right to participate in the voting process and in political parties. With Hiratsuka Raicho, she helped establish the New Woman Association, her involvement extended to the League for Women's Suffrage. Ichikawa traveled to the United States shortly after World War I and observed the advancements American women such as Alice Paul had made in the fight for equality and political rights.
She returned to Japan, remained an outspoken voice for women’s rights, was elected to the Japan’s House of Councillors in the 1950s. Shigeri Yamataka: Worked with Ichikawa in the Women's Suffrage League. After World War II, she was twice elected to the House
Women's suffrage in Canada
Women's suffrage in Canada occurred at different times in different jurisdictions and at different times to different demographics of women. By the close of 1918, all the Canadian provinces except Quebec had granted full suffrage to white and black women. Municipal suffrage was granted in 1884 to property-owning widows and spinsters in the provinces of Quebec and Ontario. In 1916, suffrage was given to women in Manitoba, Saskatchewan and British Columbia. Women in Quebec did not receive full suffrage until 1940. Asian women were not granted suffrage until after World War II in 1948, Inuit women were not granted suffrage until 1950 and it was not until 1960 that suffrage was extended to First Nations women without requiring them to give up their treaty status; the cause of women's suffrage began in 1876, when Dr. Emily Stowe came to Toronto to practise medicine, she was the first, for many years the sole woman physician in Canada. Stowe, vitally interested in all matters relating to women, at once came before the public as a lecturer upon topics somewhat new, "Woman's Sphere" and "Women in the Professions," being her subjects.
She lectured not only in Toronto, under the auspices of various Mechanics' Institutes, in Ottawa and Bradford. After attending a meeting of the American Society for the Advancement of Women, in Cleveland in 1877, meeting many women of the United States, Stowe, on returning home, felt that the time had arrived for some similar union among Canadian women. Talking it over with her friend, Helen Archibald, they decided that it would not be politic to attempt at once a suffrage association but, in November 1877, organized what was known as "The Toronto Woman's Literary Club". At the beginning suffragists were middle-class white women; these women advocated for suffrage for the sole purpose of boosting their social status resulting in a better society. However, Black abolitionists, unionists and temperance activists supported them. During the next five years, this club had phenomenal growth, adding to its ranks such woman as Mary McDonell, Mrs. W. B. Hamilton, Mrs. W. I. Mackenzie, Mrs. J. Austin Shaw, others.
It elicited a surprising amount of attention from the press. Among the most able assistants from its inception was Sarah Anne Curzon, for several years associate editor of the Canada Citizen, it was the habit of the club to meet each Thursday at 3 p.m. at one of the members’ homes. Though not avowedly a suffrage society, no opportunity was lost of promoting this basic idea of the founders. One of the earliest efforts in this direction was a paper, by Archibald, entitled "Woman Under the Civil Law," which elicited discussion and served as educational material. During these years, too through the work of the Woman's Literary Club, the University of Toronto was opened to women. Eliza Balmer was the first female student, it was believed in 1883 that public sentiment had sufficiently progressed to warrant the formation of a regular Woman-Suffrage Society. On February 1, 1883, the club met and decided the following: "... that in view of the ultimate end for which the Toronto Woman's Literary Club was formed, having been attained, viz. to foster a general and living public sentiment in favor of women suffrage, this Club hereby disband, to form a Canadian Women's Suffrage Association."
The following month, on March 5, at a meeting of the City Council, the Toronto Women's Literary and Social Progress Club requested the use of the Council Chambers on March 9. Their purpose was to hold a conversation to discuss the advisability of granting the franchise to those women who possessed the property qualification that entitled men to hold it. Accordingly, on that date, Jessie Turnbull McEwen President of the Club, was present along with Mayor Arthur Radcliffe Boswell, ex-Alderman John Hallam, Alderman John Baxter, John Wilson Bengough, Thomas Bengough, Thomas Phillips Thompson, Mr. Burgess, editor of Citizen; the Canadian Woman Suffrage Association was formally inaugurated, 40 persons enrolled themselves as members that evening. The first piece of work undertaken by the Association was the securing of the municipal franchise for the women of Ontario. On September 10, 1883, a committee was appointed to urge the City Council to petition the Local Government to pass a bill conferring the municipal franchise upon women.
The committee consisted of Stowe, McEwen, Mrs. Hamilton, Mrs. Miller, Mrs. Mackenzie, Mrs. Curzon, with the power to add others; the committee waited upon Hon. Oliver Mowat, the Premier of the Province of Ontario. From the beginning, the members of the Association recognized that it would be manifestly unjust to exclude married women from the exercise of the franchise, bestowing it only on widows and single women. However, it was agreed that it was not politic to criticize the franchise bill before the House, on the principle of'half a loaf being better than no bread'. Accordingly, objections were set aside, every woman worked towards securing this partial reform though, if married, she would not directly benefit by it. In 1882, the municipal act was amended to give married women and spinsters, if possessed of the necessary qualifications, the right to vote on by-laws and some other minor municipal matters. Again, in 1884, the act was further amended, extending the right to vote in municipal elections on all matters to widows and unmarried women.
In the municipal elections in Toronto held on January 4, 1886, women's votes were importan
History of women in the United States
This is a piece on history of women in the United States since 1776, of the Thirteen Colonies before that. The study of women's history has been a major scholarly and popular field, with many scholarly books and articles, museum exhibits, courses in schools and universities; the roles of women were long ignored in popular histories. By the 1960s, women were being presented as successful as male roles. An early feminist approach underscored their inferior status at the hands of men. In the 21st century writers have emphasized the distinctive strengths displayed inside the community of women, with special concern for minorities among women; the experiences of women during the colonial era varied from colony to colony, but there were some overall patterns. Most of the British settlers were from England and Wales, with smaller numbers from Scotland and Ireland. Groups of families settled together in New England, while families tended to settle independently in the Southern colonies; the American colonies absorbed several thousands of Swedish settlers.
After 1700, most immigrants to Colonial America arrived as indentured servants—young unmarried men and women seeking a new life in a much richer environment. After the 1660s, a steady flow of black slaves arrived, chiefly from the Caribbean. Food supplies were much more abundant than in Europe, there was an abundance of fertile land that needed farm families. However, the disease environment was hostile in the malaria-ridden South, where a large portion of the arrivals died within five years; the American-born children were immune from the fatal forms of malaria. The first English people to arrive in America were the members of the Roanoke Colony who came to North Carolina in July 1587, with 17 women, 91 men, 9 boys as the founding colonists. On August 18, 1587, Virginia Dare was born, her mother was the daughter of John White, governor of the Roanoke colony. It is not known. Jamestown, the first English settlement in America, was established in 1607 in; the first Africans since those in Lucas Vasquez de Allyon's unsuccessful colony in 1526–1527 were brought to Jamestown in 1619.
At first they came from Central Africa and there were twenty of them, including three women. At first they were treated as indentured servants until the 1654 case of Anthony Johnson v. John Casor Also in 1619, 90 young single women from England went to Jamestown to become wives of the men there, with the women being auctioned off for 150 pounds of tobacco each, as, the cost of each woman's travel to America; such voyagers were called "tobacco brides". There were many such voyages to America for this purpose, with the tobacco brides promised free passage and trousseaus for their trouble. In New England, the Puritan settlers from England brought their strong religious values and organized social structure with them, they believed a woman should dedicate herself to rearing God-fearing children to the best of her ability. There were ethnic differences in the treatment of women. Among Puritan settlers in New England, wives never worked in the fields with their husbands. In German communities in Pennsylvania, many women worked in fields and stables.
German and Dutch immigrants granted women more control over property, not permitted in the local English law. Unlike English colonial wives and Dutch wives owned their own clothes and other items and were given the ability to write wills disposing of the property brought into the marriage; the New England regional economy grew in the 17th century, thanks to heavy immigration, high birth rates, low death rates, an abundance of inexpensive farmland. The population grew from 3000 in 1630 to 14,000 in 1640, 33,000 in 1660, 68,000 in 1680, 91,000 in 1700. Between 1630 and 1643, about 20,000 Puritans arrived, settling near Boston; the average size of a completed family 1660–1700 was 7.1 children. About 27 percent of the population comprised men between 60 years old; the benefits of economic growth were distributed, with farm laborers better off at the end of the colonial period. The growing population led to shortages of good farm land on which young families could establish themselves. In the towns and cities, there was strong entrepreneurship, a steady increase in the specialization of labor.
Wages for men went up before 1775. The region bordered New France. Women were sometimes captured. In the numerous French and Indian Wars the British government poured money in to purchase supplies, build roads and pay colonial soldiers; the coastal ports began to specialize in fishing, international trade and shipbuilding—and after 1780 in whaling. Combined with a growing urban markets for farm products, these factors allowed the economy to flourish despite the lack of technological innovation. Tax-supported schooling for girls began as early as 1767 in New England, it was optional and some towns proved reluctant. Northampton, for example, was a late adopter because it had many rich families who domin
Women's suffrage is the right of women to vote in elections. Beginning in the late 1800s, women worked for broad-based economic and political equality and for social reforms, sought to change voting laws in order to allow them to vote. National and international organizations formed to coordinate efforts to gain voting rights the International Woman Suffrage Alliance, worked for equal civil rights for women. Women who owned property gained the right to vote in the Isle of Man in 1881, in 1893, the British colony of New Zealand granted all women the right to vote. Most independent countries enacted women's suffrage in the interwar era, including Canada in 1917. Leslie Hume argues that the First World War changed the popular mood: The women's contribution to the war effort challenged the notion of women's physical and mental inferiority and made it more difficult to maintain that women were, both by constitution and temperament, unfit to vote. If women could work in munitions factories, it seemed both ungrateful and illogical to deny them a place in the polling booth.
But the vote was much more than a reward for war work. Extended political campaigns by women and their supporters have been necessary to gain legislation or constitutional amendments for women's suffrage. In many countries, limited suffrage for women was granted before universal suffrage for men; the United Nations encouraged women's suffrage in the years following World War II, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women identifies it as a basic right with 189 countries being parties to this Convention. In ancient Athens cited as the birthplace of democracy, only adult, male citizens who owned land were permitted to vote. Through subsequent centuries, Europe was ruled by monarchs, though various forms of parliament arose at different times; the high rank ascribed to abbesses within the Catholic Church permitted some women the right to sit and vote at national assemblies – as with various high-ranking abbesses in Medieval Germany, who were ranked among the independent princes of the empire.
Their Protestant successors enjoyed the same privilege into modern times. Marie Guyart, a French nun who worked with the First Nations peoples of Canada during the seventeenth century, wrote in 1654 regarding the suffrage practices of Iroquois women, "These female chieftains are women of standing amongst the savages, they have a deciding vote in the councils, they make decisions there like the men, it is they who delegated the first ambassadors to discuss peace." The Iroquois, like many First Nations peoples in North America, had a matrilineal kinship system. Property and descent were passed through the female line. Women elders could depose them; the emergence of modern democracy began with male citizens obtaining the right to vote in advance of female citizens, except in the Kingdom of Hawai'i, where universal manhood and women's suffrage was introduced in 1840. In Sweden, conditional women's suffrage was in effect during the Age of Liberty. Other possible contenders for first "country" to grant women suffrage include the Corsican Republic, the Pitcairn Islands, the Isle of Man, Franceville, but some of these operated only as independent states and others were not independent.
In 1756, Lydia Taft became the first legal woman voter in colonial America. This occurred under British rule in the Massachusetts Colony. In a New England town meeting in Uxbridge, she voted on at least three occasions. Unmarried white women who owned property could vote in New Jersey from 1776 to 1807. In the 1792 elections in Sierra Leone a new British colony, all heads of household could vote and one-third were ethnic African women; the female descendants of the Bounty mutineers who lived on Pitcairn Islands could vote from 1838. This right was transferred; the seed for the first Woman's Rights Convention in the United States in Seneca Falls, New York was planted in 1840, when Elizabeth Cady Stanton met Lucretia Mott at the World Anti-Slavery Convention in London. The conference refused to seat Mott and other women delegates from the U. S. because of their sex. In 1851, Stanton met temperance worker Susan B. Anthony, shortly the two would be joined in the long struggle to secure the vote for women in the U.
S. In 1868 Anthony encouraged working women from the printing and sewing trades in New York, who were excluded from men's trade unions, to form Working Women's Associations; as a delegate to the National Labor Congress in 1868, Anthony persuaded the committee on female labor to call for votes for women and equal pay for equal work. The men at the conference deleted the reference to the vote. In the U. S. women in the Wyoming Territory could vote as of 1869. Subsequent American suffrage groups disagreed on tactics, with the National American Woman Suffrage Association arguing for a state-by-state campaign and the National Woman's Party focusing on an amendment to the U. S. Constitution. In 1881 the Isle of Man, an internally self-governing dependent territory of the British Crown, enfranchised women property owners. With this it provide
A girl is a young female human a child or an adolescent. When she becomes an adult, she is described as a woman; the term girl may be used to mean a young woman, is sometimes used as a synonym for daughter. Girl may be a term of endearment used by an adult a woman, to designate adult female friends; the treatment and status of girls in any society is closely related to the status of women in that culture. In cultures where women have a low societal position, girls may be unwanted by their parents, the state may invest less in services for girls. Girls' upbringing ranges from being the same as that of boys to complete sex segregation and different gender roles; the English word girl first appeared during the Middle Ages between 1250 and 1300 CE and came from the Anglo-Saxon word gerle. The Anglo-Saxon word gerela meaning dress or clothing item seems to have been used as a metonym in some sense; until the late 1400s, the word meant a child of either sex. Girl has meant any young unmarried woman since about 1530.
Its first noted meaning for sweetheart is 1648. The earliest known appearance of girl-friend is in 1892 and girl next door, meant as a teenaged female or young woman with a kind of wholesome appeal, dates only to 1961; the word girl is sometimes used to refer to an adult female a younger one. This usage may be considered derogatory or disrespectful in professional or other formal contexts, just as the term boy can be considered disparaging when applied to an adult man. Hence, this usage is deprecative, it can be used deprecatively when used to discriminate against children. However, girl can be a professional designation for a woman employed as a model or other public feminine representative such as a showgirl, in such cases is not considered derogatory. In casual context, the word has positive uses, it has been used playfully for people acting in an energetic fashion or as a way of unifying women of all ages on the basis of their once having been girls. These positive uses mean gender rather than age.
The status of girls throughout world history is related to the status of women in any culture. Where women enjoy a more equal status with men, girls benefit from greater attention to their needs. Girls' formal education has traditionally been considered far less important than that of boys. In Europe, exceptions were rare before the printing press and the Reformation made literacy more widespread. One notable exception to the general neglect of girls' literacy is Queen Elizabeth I. In her case, as a child she was in a precarious position as a possible heir to the throne, her life was in fact endangered by the political scheming of other powerful members of the court. Following the execution of her mother, Anne Boleyn, Elizabeth was considered illegitimate, her education was for the most part ignored by Henry VIII. Remarkably, Henry VIII's widow, Catherine Parr, took an interest in the high intelligence of Elizabeth, supported the decision to provide her with an impressive education after Henry's death, starting when Elizabeth was 9.
Elizabeth received an education equal to that of a prominent male aristocrat. England reaped the reward of her rich education when circumstances resulted in her becoming a capable monarch. By the 18th century, Europeans recognized the value of literacy, schools were opened to educate the public in growing numbers. Education in the Age of Enlightenment in France led to up to a third of women becoming literate by the time of the French Revolution, contrasting with half of men by that time. However, education was still not considered as important for girls as for boys, who were being trained for professions that remained closed to women, girls were not admitted to secondary level schools in France until the late 19th century. Girls were not entitled to receive a Baccalaureate diploma in France until the reforms of 1924 under education minister Léon Bérard. Schools were segregated in France until the end of World War II. Since compulsory education laws have raised the education of girls and young women throughout Europe.
In many European countries, girls' education was restricted until the 1970s at higher levels. This was done by teaching different subjects to each sex since tertiary education was considered for males with regard to technical education. For example, prestigious engineering schools, such as École Polytechnique, did not allow women until the 1970s. Many cultures have traditional customs to mark the "coming of age" of a girl or boy, to recognize their transition to adulthood, or to mark other milestones of their journey to maturity as children. Japan has a coming-of-age ritual called Shichi-Go-San, which means "Seven-Five-Three"; this is a traditional rite of passage and festival day in Japan for three- and seven-year-old girls and three- and five-year-old boys, held annually on November 15. It is observed on the nearest weekend. On this day, the girl will be dressed in a traditional kimono, will be taken to a temple by her family for a blessing ceremony. Nowadays, the occasion is marked with a formal photo portrait.
Some coming-of-age ceremonies are religious rituals to recognize a girl's maturity with respect to her understanding of religious beliefs, to recognize her changing role in her religious community. Confirmation is a ceremony common to many Christian denominations for bo
Timeline of women's suffrage
Women's suffrage – the right of women to vote – has been achieved at various times in countries throughout the world. In many nations, women's suffrage was granted before universal suffrage, so women and men from certain classes or races were still unable to vote; some countries granted suffrage to both sexes at the same time. This timeline lists years; some countries are listed more than once, as the right was extended to more women according to age, land ownership, etc. In many cases, the first voting took place in a subsequent year; some women in the Isle of Man gained the right to vote in 1881. Though it did not achieve nationhood until 1907, the colony of New Zealand was the first self-governing country in the world in which all women had the right to vote in, but not to stand for, parliamentary elections in 1893, followed by the colony of South Australia in 1894. In Sweden, conditional women's suffrage was granted during the age of liberty between 1718 and 1772; the Australian Commonwealth Franchise Act of 1902 enabled women to vote at federal elections and permitted women to stand for election to the Australian Parliament, making the newly-federated country of Australia the first in the modern world to do so.
In 1906, the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland, which became the republic of Finland, was the second country in the world to implement both the right to vote and the right to run for office. Finland was the first country in Europe to give women the right to vote; the world's first female members of parliament were elected in Finland the following year. In Europe, the last jurisdiction to grant women the right to vote was the Swiss canton of Appenzell Innerrhoden, in 1991. Women in Switzerland obtained the right to vote at federal level in 1971, at local cantonal level between 1959 and 1972, except for Appenzell in 1989/1990, see Women's suffrage in Switzerland. In Saudi Arabia women were first allowed to vote in December 2015 in the municipal elections. For other women's rights, see timeline of women's legal rights; the seventh century was the century where muslims created their country "The Caliphate" After Muhammad died in 632, Abu Bakr Omar both were chosen as caliph, after Omar's Death, he decided that the caliph must be a part of the hadith of the ten with glad tidings of paradise, so the Muslim started to vote between them, the women themselves were asked to choose just like everyone else with men from all across the caliphate until Uthman was picked as the new caliph based on what the majority wanted regardless of the gender.
Friesland: Female landowners are allowed to vote in elections to the States of Friesland in rural districts. Sweden: Female taxpaying members of city guilds are allowed to vote in local city elections and national elections: Sweden: Female taxpaying property owners of legal majority are allowed to vote in local countryside elections. Corsica: Female suffrage in the independent republic's Diet US town of Uxbridge, Massachusetts: One woman, Lydia Taft, is allowed to vote in the town meeting New Jersey Pitcairn Islands Tuscany Velez Province in what was the New Granada Republic grants universal suffrage to men and women; the Supreme Court annulled the provision for women. Norfolk Island South Australia—Australian colony of South Australia: property-owning women were given the vote. Sweden: limited to local elections with votes graded after taxation. Argentina: limited to local elections, only for literate women in San Luís Province The Grand Duchy of Finland: limited to taxpaying women in the countryside for municipal elections.
Victoria—Australian colony of Victoria: women were unintentionally enfranchised by the Electoral Act, proceeded to vote in the following year's elections. The Act was amended in 1865 to correct the error. Kingdom of Bohemia - Austrian Empire: limited to taxpaying women and women in "learned professions" who were allowed to vote by proxy and made eligible for election to the legislative body in 1864. United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland: limited to single women ratepayers for local elections under the Municipal Franchise Act. United States-incorporated Territory of Wyoming: full suffrage for women. United States-incorporated Utah Territory: repealed by the Edmunds-Tucker Act in 1887. May 10, 1872, New York City: Equal Rights Party nominates Victoria C. Woodhull as their candidate for US President. Isle of Man. Universal suffrage / the franchise for all resident men and women was introduced in 1919. All men and women could stand for election from 1919. Ontario -- Canadian province: limited to spinsters to vote in municipal elections.
United States: Proposed Constitutional Amendment to extend suffrage and the right to hold office to women. The municipality of Franceville in the New Hebrides (universal suffrage within its short existence