Gray's Anatomy is an English language textbook of human anatomy written by Henry Gray and illustrated by Henry Vandyke Carter. Earlier editions were called Anatomy: Descriptive and Surgical, Anatomy of the Human Body and Gray's Anatomy: Descriptive and Applied, but the book's name is shortened to, editions are titled, Gray's Anatomy; the book is regarded as an influential work on the subject, has continued to be revised and republished from its initial publication in 1858 to the present day. The latest edition of the book, the 41st, was published in September 2015; the English anatomist Henry Gray was born in 1827. He studied the development of the endocrine glands and spleen and in 1853 was appointed Lecturer on Anatomy at St George's Hospital Medical School in London. In 1855, he approached his colleague Henry Vandyke Carter with his idea to produce an inexpensive and accessible anatomy textbook for medical students. Dissecting unclaimed bodies from workhouse and hospital mortuaries through the Anatomy Act of 1832, the two worked for 18 months on what would form the basis of the book.
Their work was first published in 1858 by John William Parker in London. It was dedicated by Gray to 1st Baronet. An imprint of this English first edition was published in the United States in 1859, with slight alterations. Gray prepared a second, revised edition, published in the United Kingdom in 1860 by J. W. Parker. However, Gray died the following year, at the age of 34, having contracted smallpox while treating his nephew, his death had come just three years after the initial publication of his Anatomy Descriptive and Surgical. So, the work on his much-praised book was continued by others. Longman's publication began in 1863, after their acquisition of the J. W. Parker publishing business; this coincided with the publication date of the third British edition of Gray's Anatomy. Successive British editions of Gray's Anatomy continued to be published under the Longman, more Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier imprints, reflecting further changes in ownership of the publishing companies over the years.
The full American rights were purchased by Blanchard and Lea, who published the first of twenty-five distinct American editions of Gray's Anatomy in 1862, whose company became Lea & Febiger in 1908. Lea & Febiger continued publishing the American editions until the company was sold in 1990; the first American publication was edited by Richard James Dunglison, whose father Robley Dunglison was physician to Thomas Jefferson. Dunglison edited the next four editions; these were: the Second American Edition. W. W. Keen edited the next two editions, namely: the New American from the Eleventh English Edition. In September 1896, reference to the English edition was dropped and it was published as the Fourteenth Edition, edited by Bern B. Gallaudet, F. J. Brockway, J. P. McMurrich, who edited the Fifteenth Edition. There is an edition dated 1896 which does still reference the English edition stating it is "A New Edition, Thoroughly Revised by American Authorities, from the thirteenth English Edition" and edited by T. Pickering Pick, F.
R. C. S. and published by Lea Brothers & Co. Philadelphia and New York; the Sixteenth Edition was edited by J. C. DaCosta, the Seventeenth by DaCosta and E. A. Spitzka. Spitzka edited the Eighteenth and Nineteenth editions, in October 1913, R. Howden edited the New American from the Eighteenth English Edition; the "American" editions continued with consecutive numbering from the Twentieth onwards, with W. H. Lewis editing the 20th, 21st, 22nd, 23rd, 24th. C. M. Gross edited the 25th, 26th, 27th, 28th, 29th. Carmine D. Clemente extensively revised the 30th edition. With the sale of Lea & Febiger in 1990, the 30th edition was the last American Edition. Sometimes separate editing efforts with mismatches between British and American edition numbering led to the existence, for many years, of two main "flavours" or "branches" of Gray's Anatomy: the U. S. and the British one. This can cause misunderstandings and confusion when quoting from or trying to purchase a certain edition. For example, a comparison of publishing histories shows that the American numbering kept apace with the British up until the 16th editions in 1905, with the American editions either acknowledging the English edition, or matching the numbering in the 14th, 15th and 16th editions.
The American numbering crept ahead, with the 17th American edition published in 1908, while the 17th British edition was published in 1909. This increased to a three-year gap for the 18th and 19th editions, leading to the 1913 publication of the New American from the Eighteenth English, which brought the numbering back into line. Both 20th editions were published in the same year. Thereafter, it was the British numbering that pushed ahead, with the 21st British edition in 1920, the 21st American edition in 1924; this discrepancy continued to increase, so that the 30th British edition was published in 1949, while the 30th and last American edition was published in 1984. The newest, 41st edition of Gray's Anatomy was published on 25 September 2015 by Elsevier in both print and online versions, and
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
The lesser trochanter of the femur is a conical eminence, which varies in size in different subjects. It projects from the lower and back part of the base of the femur neck. From its apex three well-marked borders extend: two of these are above a medial continuous with the lower border of the femur neck a lateral with the intertrochanteric crest the inferior border is continuous with the middle division of the linea asperaThe summit of the trochanter is rough, gives insertion to the tendon of the Psoas major and the Iliacus, it can be involved in an avulsion fracture. Greater trochanter Third trochanter This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 245 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Anatomy figure: 13:01-11 at Human Anatomy Online, SUNY Downstate Medical Center lljoints at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman
Tuberosity of the tibia
The tuberosity of the tibia or tibial tuberosity or tibial tubercle is a large oblong elevation on the proximal, anterior aspect of the tibia, just below where the anterior surfaces of the lateral and medial tibial condyles end. It gives attachment to the patellar ligament, which attaches to the patella from where the suprapatellar ligament forms the distal tendon of the quadriceps femoris muscles; the quadriceps muscles consist of the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius. These quadriceps muscles are innervated by the femoral nerve; the tibial tuberosity thus forms the terminal part of the large structure that acts as a lever to extend the knee-joint and prevents the knee from collapsing when the foot strikes the ground. The two ligaments, the patella, the tibial tuberosity are all superficial palpable structures. Tibial tuberosity fractures are most common in adolescents. In running and jumping movements, extreme contraction of the knee extensors can result in avulsion fractures of the tuberosity apophysis.
A cast is all, required if the fragment is not displaced from its normal position on the tibia. However, if the fracture fragment is displaced surgery is necessary to allow for normal function. Tenderness in the tibial tuberosity can arise from Osgood-Schlatter’s syndrome or deep infrapatellar bursitis. A bony prominence on the tibial tuberosity can be the result of ongoing Osgood-Schlatter’s irritation in an adolescent with open growth plates, or what remains of Osgood-Schlatter’s in adults. Osgood-Schlatter disease Cipriano, Joseph J.. Photographic Manual of Regional Orthopaedic and Neurological Tests. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 0-7817-3552-1. Lau, Kelvin. "Tibial Tubercle Fracture". EMedicine. Retrieved December 2008
The posterior surface of the tibia presents, at its upper part, a prominent ridge, the soleal line, which extends obliquely downward from the back part of the articular facet for the fibula to the medial border, at the junction of its upper and middle thirds. It marks the lower limit of the insertion of the Popliteus, serves for the attachment of the fascia covering this muscle, gives origin to part of the Soleus, Flexor digitorum longus, Tibialis posterior muscles; the triangular area, above this line, gives insertion to the Popliteus. This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 258 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Description at uams.edu Mysorekar V, Nandedkar A. "The soleal line". Anat Rec. 206: 447–51. Doi:10.1002/ar.1092060410. PMID 6625203
Orthopedic surgery or orthopedics spelled orthopaedics, is the branch of surgery concerned with conditions involving the musculoskeletal system. Orthopedic surgeons use both surgical and nonsurgical means to treat musculoskeletal trauma, spine diseases, sports injuries, degenerative diseases, infections and congenital disorders. Nicholas Andry coined the word in French as orthopédie, derived from the Ancient Greek words ὀρθός orthos and παιδίον paidion, published Orthopedie in 1741; the word was assimilated into English as orthopædics. Though, as the name implies, the discipline was developed with attention to children, the correction of spinal and bone deformities in all stages of life became the cornerstone of orthopedic practice; as with many words derived with the "æ" ligature, simplification to either "ae" or just "e" is common in North America. In the US, the majority of college and residency programs, the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, still use the spelling with the digraph ae, though hospitals use the shortened form.
Elsewhere, usage is not uniform: in Canada, both spellings are acceptable. Many developments in orthopedic surgery have resulted from experiences during wartime. On the battlefields of the Middle Ages the injured were treated with bandages soaked in horses' blood which dried to form a stiff, but unsanitary, splint; the term orthopedics meant the correcting of musculoskeletal deformities in children. Nicolas Andry, a professor of medicine at the University of Paris coined the term in the first textbook written on the subject in 1741, he advocated the use of exercise and splinting to treat deformities in children. His book was directed towards parents, while some topics would be familiar to orthopedists today, it included'excessive sweating of the palms' and freckles. Jean-André Venel established the first orthopedic institute in 1780, the first hospital dedicated to the treatment of children's skeletal deformities, he developed the club-foot shoe for children born with foot deformities and various methods to treat curvature of the spine.
Advances made in surgical technique during the 18th century, such as John Hunter's research on tendon healing and Percival Pott's work on spinal deformity increased the range of new methods available for effective treatment. Antonius Mathijsen, a Dutch military surgeon, invented the plaster of Paris cast in 1851. However, up until the 1890s, orthopedics was still a study limited to the correction of deformity in children. One of the first surgical procedures developed was percutaneous tenotomy; this involved cutting a tendon the Achilles tendon, to help treat deformities alongside bracing and exercises. In the late 1800s and first decades of the 1900s, there was significant controversy about whether orthopedics should include surgical procedures at all. Examples of people who aided the development of modern orthopedic surgery were Hugh Owen Thomas, a surgeon from Wales, his nephew, Robert Jones. Thomas became interested in orthopedics and bone-setting at a young age and, after establishing his own practice, went on to expand the field into general treatment of fracture and other musculoskeletal problems.
He advocated enforced rest as the best remedy for fractures and tuberculosis and created the so-called'Thomas Splint', to stabilize a fractured femur and prevent infection. He is responsible for numerous other medical innovations that all carry his name:'Thomas's collar' to treat tuberculosis of the cervical spine,'Thomas's manoeuvre', an orthopedic investigation for fracture of the hip joint, Thomas test, a method of detecting hip deformity by having the patient lying flat in bed,'Thomas's wrench' for reducing fractures, as well as an osteoclast to break and reset bones. Thomas's work was not appreciated in his own lifetime, it was only during the First World War that his techniques came to be used for injured soldiers on the battlefield. His nephew, Sir Robert Jones, had made great advances in orthopedics in his position as Surgeon-Superintendent for the construction of the Manchester Ship Canal in 1888, he was responsible for the injured among the 20,000 workers, he organized the first comprehensive accident service in the world, dividing the 36 mile site into 3 sections, establishing a hospital and a string of first aid posts in each section.
He had the medical personnel trained in fracture management. He managed 3,000 cases and performed 300 operations in his own hospital; this position enabled him to improve the standard of fracture management. Physicians from around the world came to Jones’ clinic to learn his techniques. Along with Alfred Tubby, Jones founded the British Orthopaedic Society in 1894. During the First World War, Jones served as a Territorial Army surgeon, he observed that treatment of fractures both at the front and in hospitals at home was inadequate, his efforts led to the introduction of military orthopedic hospitals. He was appointed Inspector of Military Orthopaedics, with responsibility over 30,000 beds; the hospital in Ducane Road, Hammersmith became the model for both British and American military orthopedic hospitals. His advocacy of the use of Thomas splint for the initial treatment of femoral fractures reduced mortality of compound fractures of the femur from 87% to less than 8% in the period from 1916 to 1918.
The use of intramedullary rods to treat fractures of the femur and tibi
In human anatomy, the third trochanter is a bony projection present on the proximal femur near the superior border of the gluteal tuberosity. When present, it is oblong, rounded, or conical in shape and sometimes continuous with the gluteal ridge, it occurs bilaterally without significant side to side dimorphism. A structure of minor importance in humans, the incidence of the third trochanter varies from 17–72% between ethnic groups and it is reported as more common in females than in males. Structures analogous to the third trochanter are present in other mammals, including some primates, it is called the third trochanter in reference to the greater and lesser trochanters that are always present on the femur. Its function is to provide an attachment for the ascending tendon of the gluteus maximus muscle, it may function as a reinforcement mechanism for the proximal femoral diaphysis in response to increased ground reaction force and to increase the attachment surface area for the gluteal musculature and thereby providing greater efficiency of contracture.
Mechanical load from the gluteus maximus may, on the other hand, affect the morphology of the proximal femur, similar to how quadriceps determines the size and shape of the tibial tuberosity, thereby the shape of the third trochanter. The third trochanter is associated with short, robust femora, is present and well developed in Neanderthals but absent in higher primates. Studying fossils of Ardipithecus ramidus, Lovejoy et al. 2009 noted that in this species — as well as in Proconsul and Dryopithecus — homologs to the third trochanter and the hypotrochanteric fossa are present while both traits are absent in extant apes. They concluded that the hominid morphotype is primitive and the femoral shape of apes is derived contrary to what was thought. Fourth trochanter