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Femoral nerve

The femoral nerve is a nerve in the thigh that supplies skin on the upper thigh and inner leg, the muscles that extend the knee. Femoral nerve is the major nerve supplying the anterior compartment of the thigh, it is the largest branch of the lumbar plexus, arises from the dorsal divisions of the ventral rami of the second and fourth lumbar nerves. The nerve enters Scarpa's triangle by passing beneath the inguinal ligament, just lateral to the femoral artery. In the thigh, the nerve lies in a groove between iliacus muscle and psoas major muscles, outside the femoral sheath, lateral to the femoral artery. After a short course of about 4 cm in the thigh, the nerve is divided into anterior and posterior divisions, separated by lateral femoral circumflex artery; the branches are shown below: The nerve to the Pectineus arises above the inguinal ligament from the medial side of the femoral nerve, passes behind the femoral sheath to enter the anterior surface of the muscle. Anterior division supplies the Sartorius muscle Posterior division supplies the rectus femoris, the three vasti, articularis genus.

The articularis genus is supplied by a branch of the nerve to vastus intermedius. The anterior division gives off Anterior cutaneous branches: The anterior cutaneous branches are: the intermediate femoral cutaneous nerve and the medial femoral cutaneous nerve; the posterior division gives off only one branch, the saphenous nerve. Hip joint is supplied by nerve to the rectus femoris. Knee joint is supplied by the nerves to the three vasti; the nerve to vastus medialis is thick because it contains the proprioceptive fibres from the knee joint. This is in accordance to the Hilton's law. Branches to the femoral artery and its branches. Signals from the femoral nerve and its branches can be blocked to interrupt transmission of pain signal from the innervation area, by performing a regional nerve blockage; some of the nerve blocks that works by affecting the femoral nerve are. Femoral nerve stretch test This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 955 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Femoral_nerve at the Duke University Health System's Orthopedics program MedlinePlus Encyclopedia 000687 - "Femoral nerve dysfunction" Anatomy photo:40:17-0202 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Posterior Abdominal Wall: Nerves of the Lumbar Plexus" Cross section image: pembody/body15a—Plastination Laboratory at the Medical University of Vienna Cross section image: pelvis/pelvis-e12-15—Plastination Laboratory at the Medical University of Vienna arteries-nerves%20LE/nerves1 at the Dartmouth Medical School's Department of Anatomy

2018 United States House of Representatives elections in Alabama

The 2018 United States House of Representatives elections in Alabama were held on November 6, 2018, to elect the seven U. S. Representatives from the state of Alabama, one from each of the state's seven congressional districts; the elections coincided with other elections to the House of Representatives, as well as elections to the United States Senate and various state and local elections. The primaries were held on June 5, with all choosing a nominee except the Republican primary in the 2nd district, which went to a July 17 runoff; the 2018 general election saw no change in Alabama's representation, remaining at a 6-1 GOP advantage though Democrats won over 40% of the statewide vote. Results of the 2018 United States House of Representatives elections in Alabama by district: The incumbent is Republican Bradley Byrne, who has represented the district since 2013. Byrne was re-elected with 96 % of the vote against nominal write-in opposition. Robert Kennedy Jr. Lizzetta Hill McConnell, former president of NAACP Mobile County Bradley Byrne, incumbent The incumbent is Republican Martha Roby, who has represented the district since 2011.

Roby was re-elected with 49% of the vote in 2016. The Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee included Alabama's 2nd congressional district on its initial list of Republican-held seats considered targets in 2018. Tabitha Isner, business analyst Audri Scott Williams Tommy Amason, retired US Army Sergeant Major Bobby Bright, former Democratic congressman for AL-02 and former mayor of Montgomery Rich Hobson, former campaign manager for Senate candidate Roy Moore Barry Moore, state representative Martha Roby, incumbent The incumbent is Republican Mike Rogers, who has represented the district since 2003. Rogers was re-elected with 67% of the vote in 2016. Mallory Hagan, news anchor and Miss America 2013 Adia McClellan Winfrey, psychologist Mike Rogers, incumbent The incumbent is Republican Robert Aderholt, who has represented the district since 1997. Aderholt was re-elected with 99% of the vote in 2016 against nominal write-in opposition. Lee Auman Rick Neighbors The incumbent is Republican Mo Brooks, who has represented the district since 2011.

Brooks was re-elected with 67% of the vote in 2016. Peter Joffrion, former Huntsville City Attorney Mo Brooks, incumbent Clayton Hinchman and former U. S. Army Captain The incumbent is Republican Gary Palmer, who has represented the district since 2015. Palmer was re-elected with 74% of the vote in 2016. Danner Kline, businessman Gary Palmer, incumbent The incumbent is Democrat Terri Sewell, who has represented the district since 2011. Sewell was re-elected with 98% of the vote in 2016 against nominal write-in opposition. Terri Sewell, incumbent Candidates at Vote Smart Candidates at Ballotpedia Campaign finance at FEC Campaign finance at Center for Responsive PoliticsOfficial campaign websites of first district candidatesBradley Byrne for Congress Robert Kennedy Jr. for CongressOfficial campaign websites of second district candidatesTabitha Isner for Congress Martha Roby for CongressOfficial campaign websites of third district candidatesMallory Hagan for Congress Mike Rogers for CongressOfficial campaign websites of fourth district candidatesRobert Aderholt for Congress Lee Auman for CongressOfficial campaign websites of fifth district candidatesMo Brooks for Congress Peter Joffrion for CongressOfficial campaign websites of sixth district candidatesDanner Kline for Congress Gary Palmer for CongressOfficial campaign websites of seventh district candidatesTerri Sewell for Congress

Roberta Knie

Roberta Knie was an American dramatic soprano who had a prominent opera career in the United States and Europe that spanned from the mid-1960s through the early 1980s. Possessing a strong and clear timbre, Knie became known for her interpretations of the works of Richard Wagner. A native of Cordell, Knie studied at University of Oklahoma under Elisabeth Parham, Judy Bounds Coleman and the famous Eva Turner, she moved to Germany to study with Max Lorenz for a short period before making her professional opera debut in 1964 at the Hagen Theatre as Elisabeth in Wagner's Tannhäuser. She joined the Stadttheater Freiburg in 1966. In 1969 she joined Graz Opera, singing there for three seasons in such roles as Leonore in Beethoven's Fidelio and the title roles in Richard Strauss's Salome and Puccini's Tosca. From 1972-73 she sang at the Opernhaus Zürich; the year 1974 proved to be a milestone in Knie's career. She replaced an ailing singer at the last minute in the role of Brünnhilde in Wagner's Ring Cycle at the Bayreuth Festspielhaus.

Her performance was hailed by audience and critics alike and her profile as an opera singer was raised. In 1974 she sang the Ring Cycle again at the Opéra National de Lyon and appeared at the Teatro di San Carlo. In 1975, Knie made her United States opera debut with the Dallas Opera as Isolde in Wagner's Tristan und Isolde; the following year she returned to the Bayreuth Festspielhaus to sing the Ring again, made her debut with San Francisco Opera as Brünnhilde in Die Walküre, made her Metropolitan Opera debut in the role of Chrysothemis in Strauss's Elektra. Over the next several years she sang lead roles at most of the world's leading opera houses including the Vienna State Opera, Hamburg State Opera, Bavarian State Opera, Staatstheater Stuttgart, Deutsche Oper Berlin, Nationaltheater Mannheim, Opéra National du Rhin, La Monnaie, Teatro Regio di Parma, Teatro Nacional de São Carlos, the Welsh National Opera, the Royal Swedish Opera, Opéra de Montréal, the Teatro Colón, the Lyric Opera of Chicago.

In 1976, Knie abruptly left a production of The Ring after clashes with producer Patrice Chéreau and poor audience reaction to the then-controversial updating of the opera's setting to the Industrial Revolution. She was inducted into the Oklahoma Hall of Fame in 1982. Although known for Wagner roles, she could perform the full gamut of the dramatic soprano repertoire. High points in her stage career include Senta in The Flying Dutchman, Elsa in Lohengrin and several of the Valkyries in Die Walküre, Donna Anna in Mozart's Don Giovanni, Elettra in Mozart's Idomeneo, the Marschallin in Strauss's Der Rosenkavalier, Liza in Tschaikowsky's The Queen of Spades, Leonore in both La forza del destino and Il trovatore, among other roles, her career was disrupted by illness several times – by viral pneumonia from 1981 to 1984, by a detached retina in 1991, by colon cancer in 2000. She died on March 2017, three days after her 79th birthday, she was survived by her partner of Deborah Karner. Roberta Knie biography from Roberta Knie at AllMusic Roberta Knie at the Oklahoma Hall of Fame

1941–42 Boston Bruins season

The 1941–42 season is the Boston Bruins's 18th season. They placed third in the National Hockey League. Milt Schmidt and Porky Dumart were identified as two players to be called to Canada for compulsory training in the armed forces breaking up the Bruins' top line. Canadian authorities threatened to disallow any single men between the ages of 21 and 25 from leaving Canada to play ice hockey. However, the two played another season for the Bruins. On December 9, 1941, the Chicago Blackhawks-Boston Bruins game would be delayed for over a half hour as United States President Franklin Delano Roosevelt declared that America was at war. Note: GP = Games played, W = Wins, L = Losses, T = Ties, Pts = Points, GF = Goals for, GA = Goals against Teams that qualified for the playoffs are highlighted in bold; the Boston Bruins defeated the Chicago Black Hawks in the Quarter-Finals 2–1 but lost the Semi-Final to Detroit 2–0. ScoringGoaltending ScoringGoaltending 1941–42 NHL season


The BMW N43 is a aspirated four-cylinder petrol engine, sold from 2006-2013. It replaced both BMW N45 engines; however the N43 was not sold in countries with high sulfur fuel, therefore the N45/N46 engines remained in production alongside the N43. Compared with its N46 predecessor, the N43 features direct injection. In 2011, as part of BMW's shift to turbocharging, the N43 was replaced by the BMW N13 turbocharged four-cylinder engine; the N43 suffered various problems in service - breakage of the cam chain plastic guides leading to oil starvation as the debris blocked the oil strainer, problems with the injectors, coil packs and the NOx sensor. The N43B16 produces 90 kW and 160 N ⋅ m, it is the successor to the BMW N45 engine and, does not have Valvetronic. Applications: 2007-2009 E87 116i 2008 E90 316i The N43B20 has a displacement of 1,995 cc and produces up to 127 kW and 210 N⋅m. In 2009, the 1,995 cc N43B20 replaced the 1,599 cc N43B16 in the 116i. Power remained at 90 kW, however torque was increased.

Applications: 90 kW version 2007-2011 E81/E87 116i110 kW version 2007-2011 E90/E91/E92/E93 318i 2008-2011 E81/E87/E88 118i127 kW version 2007-2011 E81/E82/E87/E88 120i 2007-2011 E90/E91/E92/E93 320i 2007-2009 E60/E61 520i BMW List of BMW engines


Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with the symbol Th and atomic number 90. Thorium is tarnishes black when it is exposed to air, forming thorium dioxide. Thorium is an electropositive actinide. All known thorium isotopes are unstable; the most stable isotope, 232Th, has a half-life of 14.05 billion years, or about the age of the universe. On Earth, thorium and uranium are the only three radioactive elements that still occur in large quantities as primordial elements, it is estimated to be over three times as abundant as uranium in the Earth's crust, is chiefly refined from monazite sands as a by-product of extracting rare-earth metals. Thorium was discovered in 1829 by the Norwegian amateur mineralogist Morten Thrane Esmark and identified by the Swedish chemist Jöns Jacob Berzelius, who named it after Thor, the Norse god of thunder, its first applications were developed in the late 19th century. Thorium's radioactivity was acknowledged during the first decades of the 20th century.

In the second half of the century, thorium was replaced in many uses due to concerns about its radioactivity. Thorium is still being used as an alloying element in TIG welding electrodes but is being replaced in the field with different compositions, it was material in high-end optics and scientific instrumentation, used in some broadcast vacuum tubes, as the light source in gas mantles, but these uses have become marginal. It has been suggested as a replacement for uranium as nuclear fuel in nuclear reactors, several thorium reactors have been built. Thorium is a moderately soft, bright silvery radioactive actinide metal. In the periodic table, it lies to the right of actinium, to the left of protactinium, below cerium. Pure thorium is ductile and, as normal for metals, can be cold-rolled and drawn. At room temperature, thorium metal has a face-centred cubic crystal structure. Thorium metal has a bulk modulus of about the same as tin's. Aluminium's is 75.2 GPa. Thorium is about as hard as soft steel, so when heated it can be rolled into sheets and pulled into wire.

Thorium is harder than either of them. It becomes superconductive below 1.4 K. Thorium's melting point of 1750 °C is above both those of actinium and protactinium. At the start of period 7, from francium to thorium, the melting points of the elements increase, because the number of delocalised electrons each atom contributes increases from one in francium to four in thorium, leading to greater attraction between these electrons and the metal ions as their charge increases from one to four. After thorium, there is a new downward trend in melting points from thorium to plutonium, where the number of f electrons increases from about 0.4 to about 6: this trend is due to the increasing hybridisation of the 5f and 6d orbitals and the formation of directional bonds resulting in more complex crystal structures and weakened metallic bonding. Among the actinides up to californium, which can be studied in at least milligram quantities, thorium has the highest melting and boiling points and second-lowest density.

Thorium's boiling point of 4788 °C is the fifth-highest among all the elements with known boiling points. The properties of thorium vary depending on the degree of impurities in the sample; the major impurity is thorium dioxide. Experimental measurements of its density give values between 11.5 and 11.66 g/cm3: these are lower than the theoretically expected value of 11.7 g/cm3 calculated from thorium's lattice parameters due to microscopic voids forming in the metal when it is cast. These values lie between those of its neighbours actinium and protactinium, part of a trend across the early actinides. Thorium can form alloys with many other metals. Addition of small proportions of thorium improves the mechanical strength of magnesium, thorium-aluminum alloys have been considered as a way to store thorium in proposed future thorium nuclear reactors. Thorium forms eutectic mixtures with chromium and uranium, it is miscible in both solid and liquid states with its lighter congener cerium. All but two elements up to bismuth have an isotope, stable for all purposes, with the exceptions being technetium and promethium.

All elements from polonium onward are measurably radioactive. 232Th is one of the three nuclides beyond bismuth that have half-lives measured in billions of years. Four-fifths of the thorium present at Earth's formation has survived to the present. 232Th is the only isotope of thorium occurring in quantity in nature. Its stability is attributed to its closed nuclear shell with 142 neutrons. Thorium has a characteristic terrestrial isotopic compos