Hayley Dee Westenra is a New Zealand singer, classical crossover artist, UNICEF Ambassador. Her first internationally released album, reached No. 1 on the UK classical charts in 2003 and has sold more than two million copies worldwide. Pure is the fastest-selling international début classical album to date, having made Westenra an international star at age 16. In August 2006, she joined the Irish group Celtic Woman, was featured on their Celtic Woman: A New Journey CD and DVD, toured with them on their 2007 Spring Tour, was featured on their DVD, The Greatest Journey: Essential Collection, released in 2008. Westenra has produced five New Zealand number one studio albums, holding the title for the most number one records for any New Zealand act, a record shared with alternative rock band Shihad since the release of their 2014 album, FVEY. Across classical music to easy listening and pop style songs, Westenra has performed songs in English, Māori, Welsh, Italian, French, Latin, Standard Mandarin Chinese and Taiwanese Hokkien.
Westenra has performed for dignitaries all over the world. She is the second youngest UNICEF Ambassador to date and has contributed to charities around the globe. Hayley was born in New Zealand, her parents and Jill Westenra, have two other children and Isaac. Hayley's grandmother Shirley Ireland was a singer, her grandfather was a pianist who played the piano accordion, she has Irish and English heritage. She began performing at age six when she was cast in the lead singing role of "Little Star" in the Christmas play at her school, Fendalton Open Air School. After the show, a teacher who had watched the performance approached her parents to tell them that their daughter was "pitch perfect"; the teacher encouraged Hayley to learn. She began voice lessons and discovered a passion for musical theatre. By age 11, she had performed more than 40 times on stage, but was given male parts: "I got boy parts quite often. In ballet, there were not enough boys. So they ended up choosing half. I got chosen to wear the grey suit and the wig, not the pretty dresses.
In A Christmas Carol, I was Tiny Tim. There was a severe lack of singing boys and, at the time, it was quite disappointing." Westenra attended Cobham Intermediate School in 1998 and 1999, where a performing arts building was named in her honour. She won a talent quest in her first year at Burnside High School, which she attended from 2000 to 2003. At 12, Westenra entered a professional recording studio to record Walking in the Air, a demo album created for friends and family. At first, there were 70 copies made, all paid. Soon after, 1,000 more were cut for sale, hand-out, publicity. After finishing her album and her sister Sophie busked in Christchurch, giving away a few of the original 70 albums and selling some of the latter 1000; the pair drew large crowds, one woman asked the girls if they had recorded anything. The woman, a journalist with Canterbury Television, asked Westenra to appear on air. Gray Bartlett, the director of a concert promotion company, saw the show and became interested in working with Westenra.
Shortly after, she was offered a recording deal with Universal Records New Zealand. On that label, who in the meantime was attending Burnside High School, released a self-titled album of show tunes and light classical songs, as well as My Gift to You, a CD of Christmas music. Following the success of her albums, she was offered and received lessons from Dame Malvina Major. Westenra's albums were successful in New Zealand, but she was not well known worldwide until she signed a contract with Decca Records and recorded Pure, a CD of classical, light pop, traditional Māori songs. Decca's British president was impressed with her voice when they signed her to the label, saying that she was "captivated by the beauty and expressiveness of her voice." Pure enjoyed record success: it became the fastest-selling international debut album in the history of the UK classical chart, with 19,068 copies purchased in its first week alone reached No. 1 on the British charts, entered the UK Pop Chart at #8. Over two million copies of Pure have been sold to date.
In New Zealand, Pure has been certified 12 times platinum, making her the best-selling artist, regardless of genre, in the country's history. Pure's success ensured; some of her fame today can be directly attributed to the way. Although the traditional audience of classical crossover music is adult women, they promoted her music to children and teenagers. In 2004 Westenra recorded the end-title song for Disney's movie Mulan II, they featured her in the national Radio Disney music education tour for middle-school students. That year, she was featured in the song "Bridal Ballad" recorded for the movie The Merchant of Venice. Westenra was the 2004 Vodafone New Zealand Music Awards winner of "Highest Selling New Zealand Album" and "International Achievement Award". On 20 February 2004, Prime Minister Helen Clark awarded her for being the first New Zealand artist to receive the tenfold platinum status in the New Zealand market, where she held the number one artist position for 18 weeks, she has won two Japanese Grammies for her work.
Her version of Amazing Grace was used as the theme song for the popular Japanese drama, Shiroi Kyoto (The White T
Frank Arthur Worsley was a New Zealand sailor and explorer who served on Ernest Shackleton's Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition of 1914–1916, as captain of the Endurance. He served in the Royal Navy Reserve during the First World War. Born in Akaroa, New Zealand, on 22 February 1872, Worsley joined the New Zealand Shipping Company in 1888, he served aboard several vessels running trade routes between New Zealand and the South Pacific. While on South Pacific service, he became renowned for his ability to navigate to tiny, remote islands, he joined the Royal Navy Reserve in 1902 and served on HMS Swiftsure for a year before returning to the Merchant Navy. In 1914, he joined the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition, which aimed to cross the Antarctic continent. After the expedition's ship Endurance was trapped in ice and wrecked, he and the rest of the expedition sailed three lifeboats to Elephant Island, off the Antarctic Peninsula. From here, he, along with Shackleton and four others, sailed the 22.5-foot lifeboat James Caird some 800 miles across the stormy South Atlantic Ocean arriving at their intended destination, South Georgia.
His navigation skills were crucial to the safe arrival of the James Caird. Shackleton and seaman Tom Crean hiked and climbed through snow and ice across mountainous South Georgia in a 36-hour march to fetch help from Stromness whaling station, he and Shackleton returned to Elephant Island aboard the Yelcho, a Chilean naval ship, to rescue the remaining members of the expedition, all of whom survived. During the First World War, Worsley captained the Q-ship PC.61. He was responsible for the sinking of a German U-boat, UC-33 on 26 September 1917 by carrying out a skilful ramming manoeuvre. For his role in the sinking of the UC-33, Worsley was awarded the Distinguished Service Order. In the war he worked in transportation of supplies in Arctic Russia, in the North Russia Intervention against the Bolsheviks, earning a bar to his DSO, he was appointed an Officer of the Order of the British Empire. From 1921 to 1922 he served on Shackleton's last expedition to the Antarctic as captain of the Quest. In between berths in the Merchant Navy he led an expedition to the Arctic Circle and participated in a treasure hunt on Cocos Island.
He wrote several books relating to his experiences in polar exploration and during his sailing career. During the Second World War he served with the International Red Cross in France and Norway. In 1941, he falsified his age; when officials discovered his actual age, he was released from duty. He died from lung cancer in 1943 in England. Frank Arthur Worsley was born on 22 February 1872 in Akaroa, New Zealand, one of three children of a farmer, Henry Worsley, his wife Georgiana, his grandfather, Henry Francis Worsley, had migrated from Rugby in England aboard the Cornwall to Lyttelton, where he arrived with his large family in December 1851. The family lived in Grehan Valley, high up above Akaroa. Worsley's mother died, he was sent to school in Akaroa but when his father moved his family to take up work clearing bush from land at Peraki, he was homeschooled for a time. From age 10, he helped with clearing land for growing cocksfoot; when Frank was 11, his older brother, left to join the New Zealand Shipping Company as an apprentice and at about the same time, his father moved his family, now just Frank and his 13-year-old sister, to Christchurch.
Frank marked his final year of schooling by being made head boy. Like his brother, Frank was interested in a career at sea. In 1887, his application to join the New Zealand Shipping Company was declined because of his short stature, but he was successful six months later, he was signed on as a junior midshipman aboard the Wairoa, a three-masted clipper which transported wool to London. Worsley served on a number of sailing ships of the company, running the trade route between New Zealand and England for several years, he became a third mate by 1891, a fifth officer the following year. In 1895, when a third officer, he left the New Zealand Shipping Company to join the New Zealand Government Steamer Service, his first posting was aboard the Tutanekai, a NZGSS steamer which served the Pacific Islands, as second mate. He was not averse to mischief. On one voyage in 1899, the Tutanekai was anchored in the harbour at Apia, the capital city of German Samoa; that night, Worsley went ashore and stole the ensign, flown from the flagpole of the German consulate on the harbour front.
On discovering the theft, the consul suspected the culprit was from the crew of the Tutanekai, the only merchant vessel in the harbour at the time. With a party of sailors from SMS Falke anchored in the harbour, the consul boarded the Tutanekai looking for the ensign, but they left empty-handed after the ship's captain protested; when the captain found out Worsley was responsible, it did not affect his career prospects. He was posted to another NZGSS steamer, as chief officer. In June 1900, Worsley sat the examination for a foreign master's certificate, he passed with good marks, was one of two students commended for their efforts. He was now a qualified master and, as his first command, was given the Countess of Ranfurly; this was a three-masted schooner of the NZGSS which sailed trade routes in the South Pacific around the Cook Islands and Niue, both of which were New Zealand dependencies. Beatrice Grimshaw, a travel writer based in Papua New Guinea, said that "Any passenger he took had to work passage as well as pay" and that he encour
Sir Richard John Hadlee is a New Zealand former cricketer, regarded as one of the greatest fast bowlers and all-rounders in cricketing history. Hadlee was knighted in 1990 for services to cricket, he is a former chairman of the New Zealand board of selectors. In December 2002, he was chosen by Wisden as the second greatest Test bowler of all time. In March 2009, Hadlee was commemorated as one of the Twelve Local Heroes, a bronze bust of him was unveiled outside the Christchurch Arts Centre. On 3 April 2009, Sir Richard Hadlee was inducted into the ICC Cricket Hall of Fame. Sir Richard is the most prominent member of the Hadlee cricket playing family. Richard is the son of Walter Hadlee, the brother of Dayle and Barry Hadlee, his former wife Karen played international cricket for New Zealand. He was born on 3 July 1951 at Christchurch. In June 2018, Hadlee underwent tumor removal surgery. A bowling all-rounder, in an 86-Test career he took 431 wickets, was the first bowler to pass 400 wickets, with an average of 22.29, made 3124 Test runs at 27.16, including two centuries and 15 fifties.
Hadlee is rated by many experts as the greatest exponent of bowling with the new ball. He was the original Sultan of Swing. Hadlee was seen as one of the finest fast bowlers of his time, despite the contemporaneous presence of Dennis Lillee, Imran Khan, Andy Roberts, Michael Holding, Joel Garner, Kapil Dev, Wasim Akram, Waqar Younis and Malcolm Marshall among others; as one of the four top all rounders of his time, the others being Imran Khan, Kapil Dev and Ian Botham, Hadlee had the best bowling average of the four, but the lowest batting average. Born in Christchurch, Hadlee made his first class debut for Canterbury in 1971/72 and his test match debut in 1973 – on both occasions, his first delivery was dispatched to the boundary. Hadlee was an inconsistent performer at test level for several years. In 1978, Hadlee helped New Zealand to a historic first win over England by taking 6 for 26 in England's second innings, bowling the visitors out for 64 chasing a target of 137. In 1979/80, New Zealand faced the West Indies in a home test series at a time when the West Indies were a formidable world cricket power.
In the first test in Dunedin New Zealand achieved a shock 1-wicket win, helped by Hadlee's 11 wickets in the game. In the second test, Hadlee scored his maiden test century, helping New Zealand draw the test and win the series 1–0; the result was the start of a 12-year unbeaten home record for New Zealand in test match series. Hadlee was appointed a Member of the Order of the British Empire in the 1980 Queen's Birthday Honours. A tour to England in 1983 saw New Zealand register their first test win on English soil, at Headingley; the match was remarkable for Hadlee's match return of 0 for 89, a unusual occurrence in a New Zealand victory during his career. England won the 4 test series 3–1. In the return test series in New Zealand in 1984, New Zealand completed a remarkable three-day innings victory over England at Christchurch, in which England were dismissed for less than 100 in both of their innings; the match was notable for Hadlee's superb all-round performance – he took 8 wickets in the match, scored a rapid-fire 99 in New Zealand's only innings.
These efforts led him to achieve the number 1 ranking in ICC Test Bowling Rankings for the year 1984. 1985/86 was the beginning of a period in which Hadlee developed from a good fast bowler to a great one. In New Zealand's tour to Australia, an outstanding all-round performance helped destroy the home team in the first test at Brisbane, beginning with a personal test best 9 for 52 in Australia's first innings. A batting effort of 54 combined with 6 more wickets in Australia's second innings, helped New Zealand to a crushing innings victory. Hadlee followed this up with 7 wickets in a loss in the second test, 11 wickets in a New Zealand victory in the third test, giving his country their first series win on Australian soil and a personal haul of 33 wickets in 3 tests. In the first test of the return series in New Zealand, Hadlee took his 300th test wicket by trapping Australian captain Allan Border LBW; the series was won 1–0 by New Zealand by way of a victory in the third test at Eden Park. In 1986 Hadlee helped New Zealand to a 1–0 series win in England, their first over that country in England.
Hadlee's outstanding personal performance in the second test at Nottingham where he took 10 wickets and scored 68 in New Zealand's first innings powered his team to victory. In this test Hadlee a controversial character, added to this side of his reputation when he felled England wicketkeeper and Nottinghampshire teammate Bruce French with a nasty bouncer. During the New Zealand v West Indies test at Christchurch in March 1987, Hadlee and captain Jeremy Coney had a disagreement in the dressing room prior to the game, it progressed to not talking to each other on the field, communicating through John Wright at mid-on. In April 1987, New Zealand traveled to Sri Lanka, his 151 not out in the first test helped New Zealand to save the game.
Open air school
Open air schools or schools of the woods were purpose-built educational institutions for children, that were designed to prevent and combat the widespread rise of tuberculosis that occurred in the period leading up to the Second World War. The schools were built on the concept that fresh air, good ventilation and exposure to the outside contributed to improved health; the schools were built in areas away from city centers, sometimes in rural locations, to provide a space free from pollution and overcrowding. The creation and design of the schools paralleled that of the tuberculosis sanatoriums, in that hygiene and exposure to fresh air were paramount; the schools were purpose-built educational institutions for children, that were designed to prevent and combat the widespread rise of tuberculosis that occurred in the period leading up to the Second World War. The schools were built on the concept that fresh air, good ventilation and exposure to the outside contributed to improved health; the schools were built in areas away from city centers, sometimes in rural locations, to provide a space free from pollution and overcrowding.
The creation and design of the schools paralleled that of the tuberculosis sanatoriums, in that hygiene and exposure to fresh air were paramount. Schools were considered to be part of the anti-tuberculosis campaign; the schools were residential, "set up in tents, prefabricated barracks, or repurposed structures, were run during the summer". Children were taught in classrooms designed to be or exposed to outdoors, sleeping was done outside or in wards that were exposed to the elements; the architecture of some more advanced open air schools in Britain and Europe was built on the traditional'pavilion plan', used for sanatoria, with a similar internal layout to that used in hospital architecture, with long window-lined hallways. A distinguished example is the École de plein air de Suresnes not far from Paris, built by Eugène Beaudouin and Marcel Lods at Mont Valérien between 1932 and 1935. Open Air Schools were part of a larger open-air school movement which began in Europe with the creation of the Waldschule für kränkliche Kinder, in Charlottenburg, near Berlin, in 1904.
Built by Walter Spickendorff and founded by the paediatrist Prof. Dr. Bernhard Bendix and Berlin's schools inspector Hermann Neufert it offered "open-air therapy" to urban youths with pre-tuberculosis as part of an experiment conducted by the International Congresses of Hygiene. Classes were fed in the surrounding forest; the movement caught on throughout Europe and North America. After the opening of the Waldschule Charlottenburg, schools were opened in Belgium in 1904 and continue in Switzerland and France in 1907. Schools were started in Hungary in 1910, Sweden in 1914; the first open air school in England was built in London, in 1907 at Bostall Wood, Plumstead by London County Council. Another was built in 1908 by sisters Rachel and Margaret Macmillan, as the "first School Clinic". In 1914 the sisters organized an open air school in the garden of Evelyn House, Deptford where the Children lived and slept under canvas. By 1937 there were 96 open air day schools in operation throughout Britain, 53 that were residential.
In America, the first "fresh-air school" was established in 1908 with the building of a school in Providence, Rhode Island... In Queensland open-air schools were constructed for only a short period and were not to become a permanent feature of that state's school architecture; the problems associated with these schools outweighed the advantages and by 1922 the open-air school was phased out and more traditional designs reappeared. Abbotsholme College in Sydney was designed as an open-air school
University of Canterbury
The University of Canterbury is New Zealand's second oldest university. It was founded in 1873 as Canterbury College, the first constituent college of the University of New Zealand, its original campus was in the Christchurch Central City, but in 1961 it became an independent university and began moving out of its original neo-gothic buildings, which were re-purposed as the Christchurch Arts Centre. The move was completed on 1 May 1975 and the university now operates its main campus in the Christchurch suburb of Ilam and offers degrees in Arts, Education, Fine Arts, Health Sciences, Music, Social Work and Language Pathology, Sports Coaching and Teaching; the university originated in 1873 in the centre of Christchurch as Canterbury College, the first constituent college of the University of New Zealand. It became the second institution in New Zealand providing tertiary-level education, the fourth in Australasia, its foundation professors arrived in 1874, Charles Cook, Alexander Bickerton, John Macmillan Brown.
In 1933, the name changed from Canterbury College to Canterbury University College. In 1957 the name changed again to the present University of Canterbury; until 1961, the university formed part of the University of New Zealand, issued degrees in its name. That year saw the dissolution of the federal system of tertiary education in New Zealand, the University of Canterbury became an independent University awarding its own degrees. Upon the UNZ's demise, Canterbury Agricultural College became a constituent college of the University of Canterbury, as Lincoln College. Lincoln College became independent in 1990 as a full university in its own right. Over the period from 1961 to 1974, the university campus relocated from the centre of the city to its much larger current site in the suburb of Ilam; the neo-gothic buildings of the old campus became the site of the Christchurch Arts Centre, a hub for arts and entertainment in Christchurch. In 2004, the University underwent restructuring into four Colleges and a School of Law, administering a number of schools and departments.
For many years the university worked with the Christchurch College of Education, leading to a full merger in 2007, establishing a fifth College. In 2012 the School of Law merged with the Business School to form the College of Law. In September 2011, plans were announced to demolish some University buildings that were damaged from an earthquake. In the months following the earthquake, the University lost 25 per cent of its first-year students and 8 per cent of continuing students; the number of international students, who pay much higher fees and are a major source of revenue, dropped by 30 per cent. By 2013, the University had lost 22 per cent of its students. However, a record number of 886 PhD students are enrolled at the University of Canterbury as of 2013. Other New Zealand universities defying an informal agreement, launched billboard and print advertising campaigns in the earthquake-ravaged city to recruit University of Canterbury students who are finding it difficult to study there. In October 2011, staff were encouraged to take voluntary redundancies.
Student numbers are now on the rise, with a 4.5% increase in students enrolled from 2013 to 2016. International numbers are increasing, nearing pre-earthquake figures at 1,134 enrolled in 2016. In March 2016, Vice-Chancellor Dr Rod Carr said in The Press newspaper: "In 2014, they wanted to leave Christchurch and went to Wellington and into the workforce. Now we're retaining Christchurch school leavers and we're getting our fair share of provincial students, as well as attracting greater numbers from the Auckland region. Living on or near the UC campus, having a lifestyle that can take you from lectures to skifields in 90 minutes or the beach in 20 minutes, is much more appealing and affordable than living in Auckland."In 2013 the New Zealand Government agreed to provide $260m to support the University's rebuild programme. In January 2017, the University of Canterbury released its campus master plan – 50 building and landscape projects proposed over three stages by 2045, the cost could exceed $2bn.
In a comment to The Press, Rod Carr said that the plans were proof the university was moving away from the falling enrolments post-earthquake. At 31 December 2016, University has 15,564 students enrolled; the university was first governed by a board of governors by a college council, since 1957 by a university council. The council is chaired by a chancellor; the Council includes representatives from the faculties and general staff, as well as local industry and trade union representatives. The original composition of the board of governors was defined in the Canterbury College Ordinance 1873, passed by the Canterbury Provincial Council and named 23 members who might serve for life; the board was given power to fill their own vacancies, this power transferred to graduates once their number exceeded 30. At the time, there were discussions about the abolition of provincial government, the governance structure was set up to give board members "prestige and permanence", "provin
Christchurch is the largest city in the South Island of New Zealand and the seat of the Canterbury Region. The Christchurch urban area lies on the South Island's east coast, just north of Banks Peninsula, it is home to 404,500 residents, making it New Zealand's third-most populous city behind Auckland and Wellington. The Avon River flows with an urban park located along its banks. Archaeological evidence has indicated that the Christchurch area was first settled by humans in about 1250. Christchurch became a city by Royal Charter on 31 July 1856, making it the oldest established city in New Zealand; the Canterbury Association, which settled the Canterbury Plains, named the city after Christ Church, Oxford. The new settlement was laid out in a grid pattern centred on Cathedral Square. Agriculture is the historic mainstay of Christchurch's economy; the early presence of the University of Canterbury and the heritage of the city's academic institutions in association with local businesses has fostered a number of technology-based industries.
Christchurch is one of five'gateway cities' for Antarctic exploration, hosting Antarctic support bases for several nations. The city suffered a series of earthquakes between September 2010 and early 2012, with the most destructive of them occurring at 12.51 p.m. on Tuesday, 22 February 2011, in which 185 people were killed and thousands of buildings across the city collapsed or suffered severe damage. By late 2013, 1,500 buildings in the city had been demolished, leading to an ongoing recovery and rebuilding project; the name of "Christchurch" was agreed on at the first meeting of the Canterbury Association on 27 March 1848. It was suggested by founder John Robert Godley, whose alma mater was Oxford; the Māori name Ōtautahi was adopted in the 1930s. The site was a seasonal dwelling of Ngāi Tahu chief Te Potiki Tautahi, whose main home was Port Levy on Banks Peninsula. Prior to that the Ngāi Tahu referred to the Christchurch area as Karaitiana, a transliteration of the English word Christian. Archaeological evidence found in a cave at Redcliffs in 1876 has indicated that the Christchurch area was first settled by moa-hunting tribes about 1250 CE.
These first inhabitants were thought to have been followed by the Waitaha tribe, who are said to have migrated from the East coast of the North Island in the 16th century. Following tribal warfare, the Waitaha were dispossessed by the Ngāti Māmoe tribe, they were in turn subjugated by the Ngāi Tahu tribe, who remained in control until the arrival of European settlers. Following the purchase of land at Putaringamotu by the Weller brothers, whalers of Otago and Sydney, a party of European settlers led by Herriott and McGillivray established themselves in what is now Christchurch, early in 1840, their abandoned holdings were taken over by the Deans brothers in 1843. The First Four Ships were chartered by the Canterbury Association and brought the first 792 of the Canterbury Pilgrims to Lyttelton Harbour; these sailing vessels were the Randolph, Charlotte Jane, Sir George Seymour, Cressy. The Charlotte Jane was the first to arrive on 16 December 1850; the Canterbury Pilgrims had aspirations of building a city around a cathedral and college, on the model of Christ Church in Oxford.
The name "Christ Church" was decided prior to the ships' arrival, at the Association's first meeting, on 27 March 1848. The exact basis for the name is not known, it has been suggested that it is named in Dorset, England. The last explanation is the one accepted. At the request of the Deans brothers — whose farm was the earliest European settlement in the area — the river was named after the River Avon in Scotland, which rises in the Ayrshire hills near to where their grandfather's farm was located. Captain Joseph Thomas, the Canterbury Association's Chief Surveyor, surveyed the surrounding area. By December 1849 he had commissioned the construction of a road from Port Cooper Lyttelton, to Christchurch via Sumner; however this proved more difficult than expected and road construction was stopped while a steep foot and pack horse track was constructed over the hill between the port and the Heathcote valley, where access to the site of the proposed settlement could be gained. This track became known as the Bridle Path, because the path was so steep that pack horses needed to be led by the bridle.
Goods that were too heavy or bulky to be transported by pack horse over the Bridle Path were shipped by small sailing vessels some eight miles by water around the coast and up the estuary to Ferrymead. New Zealand's first public railway line, the Ferrymead Railway, opened from Ferrymead to Christchurch in 1863. Due to the difficulties in travelling over the Port Hills and the dangers associated with shipping navigating the Sumner bar, a railway tunnel was bored through the Port Hills to Lyttelton, opening in 1867. Christchurch became a city by royal charter on 31 July 1856, the first in New Zealand. Many of the city's Gothic Revival buildings by architect Benjamin Mountfort date from this period. Christchurch was the seat of provincial administration for the Province of Canterbury, abolished in 1876. Christchurch buildings were damaged by earthquakes in 1869, 1881 and 1888. In 1947, New Zealand's worst fire disaster occurred at Ballantyne's Department Store in the inner city, with 41 people killed in a blaze which razed