The Fender Stratocaster is a model of electric guitar designed in 1954 by Leo Fender, Bill Carson, George Fullerton, Freddie Tavares. The Fender Musical Instruments Corporation has continuously manufactured the Stratocaster from 1954 to the present, it is a double-cutaway guitar, with an extended top "horn" shape for balance. Along with the Gibson Les Paul and Fender Telecaster, it is one of the most-often emulated electric guitar shapes. "Stratocaster" and "Strat" are trademark terms belonging to Fender. Guitars that duplicate the Stratocaster by other manufacturers are called S-Type or ST-type guitars; the Stratocaster is a versatile guitar, usable for most styles of music and has been used in many genres, including country, rock, folk, soul and blues, jazz and heavy metal. The Fender Stratocaster was the first guitar to feature three pickups and a spring tension vibrato system, as well as being the first Fender with a contoured body; the Stratocaster's sleek, contoured body shape differed from the flat, slab-like design of the Telecaster.
The Stratocaster's double cutaways allowed players easier access to higher positions on the neck. Starting in 1954, the Stratocaster was offered with a solid contoured ash body, a 21-fret one-piece maple neck with black dot inlays, Kluson tuning machines; the color was a two color sunburst pattern, although custom color guitars were produced. In 1956, Fender began using alder for most custom color Stratocaster bodies. In 1960, the available custom colors were standardized, many of which were automobile lacquer colors from DuPont available at an additional 5% cost. A unique single-ply, 8-screw hole white pickguard held all electronic components except the recessed jack plate—facilitating easy assembly. Original Stratocasters were manufactured with five tremolo springs, allowing the bridge set up to "float". In the floating position, players can move the bridge-mounted tremolo arm up or down to modulate the pitch of the notes being played. Hank Marvin, Jeff Beck and Ike Turner have used the Stratocaster's floating vibrato extensively in their playing.
As string gauges have changed, players have experimented with the number of tremolo springs, as the average gauge has decreased over the years, modern Stratocasters are equipped with three springs as a stock option in order to counteract the reduced string tension. While the floating bridge has unique advantages, the functionality of the "floating" has been accepted and disputed by many musicians; as the bridge floats, the instrument has a tendency to go out of tune during double-stop string bends. Many Stratocaster players opt to tighten the tremolo springs so that the bridge is anchored against the guitar body: in this configuration, the tremolo arm can still be used to slacken the strings and therefore lower the pitch, but it cannot be used to raise the pitch; some players, such as Eric Clapton and Ronnie Wood, feel that the floating bridge has an excessive propensity to detune guitars and so inhibit the bridge's movement with a chunk of wood wedged between the bridge block and the inside cutout of the tremolo cavity, by increasing the tension on the tremolo springs.
Some Stratocasters have a fixed bridge in place of the tremolo assembly. There is considerable debate about the effects on tone and sustain of the material used in the vibrato system's'inertia bar' and many aftermarket versions are available; the Stratocaster features three single coil pickups, with the output selected by a 3-way switch. Guitarists soon discovered that by jamming the switch in between the first and second position, both the bridge and middle pickups could be selected, the middle and neck pickups could be selected between the 2nd and 3rd position; when two pickups are selected they are wired in parallel which leads to a slight drop in output as more current is allowed to pass to the ground. However, since the middle pickup is always wired in reverse, this configuration creates a spaced humbucking pair, which reduces 50/60 cycle hum. In 1977 Fender introduced a 5-way selector making such pickup combinations more stable; the "quacky" tone of the middle and bridge pickups, popularized by players such as Jimi Hendrix, Stevie Ray Vaughan, David Gilmour, Rory Gallagher, Mark Knopfler, Bob Dylan, Scott Thurston, Ronnie Wood, John Mayer, Ed King, Eric Clapton and Robert Cray, can be obtained by using the pickup selector in positions 2 and 4.
This setting's characteristic tone is not caused by any electronic phenomenon—early Stratocasters used identical pickups for all positions. This "in between" tone is caused by phase cancellation due to the physical position of the pickups along the vibrating string; the neck and middle pickups are each wired to a tone control that incorporates a single, shared tone capacitor, whereas the bridge pickup, slanted towards the high strings for a more trebly sound, has no tone control for maximum brightness. On many modern Stratocasters, the first tone control affects the neck pickup.
The Fender 1000 is a model of pedal steel guitar manufactured by Fender in the 1950s and 1960s. Fender began producing the 1000 in 1957, it was marketed alongside its single-neck sibling, the Fender 400 At the time it was an innovative instrument but was made obsolete as pedal steel players began to standardize on Emmons and Day setups requiring ten strings and knee levers in addition to pedals. The guitar features two necks and eight pedals which act on the finger changers of either neck via a system of cables and pulleys; each string may be pulled down in pitch. The adjusted pitch is adjusted via screws exposed on the right side of the instrument; the scale length of early Fender 1000's is 24.5 in. Other details such as foot pedal construction and bridge design varied over the production life of the instrument; the electronics feature a tone pot, volume pot, three-way switch which selects between either neck's pickup or combines them. The bridge assembly on some Fender 1000's incorporates a patented mute feature which enables either neck's strings to be muted by raising a rubber mute underneath the strings behind the pickup.
The mute is activated by a lever at the rear of the bridge cover. For transportation the guitar separates into body and a collection of pedals, pedal bars, legs, which pack into two cases. Fender recommended an A6th tuning on the front neck with six of the eight pedals acting on this tuning. On the rear neck E7th was recommended with the remaining two pedals modifying this tuning
Fender TC 90
The Fender TC 90 is a solid-body electric guitar. The Fender TC-90 electric guitar features a set neck with double-cut body, American-made Seymour Duncan pickups; the semi-hollow ash body is set into a maple neck with rosewood fingerboard, 22 medium-jumbo frets and abalone dots, Adjusto-Matic bridge with anchored tailpiece. The guitar's pickup complement consists of a Seymour Duncan SP90-1NRWRP vintage P-90 and SP-90 3B Custom P90, 3-way switching with master tone and volume controls; the Fender TC-90 was produced in Vintage White and Black Cherry Burst, with around 700 made of each color. In 2007 the TC-90 was revised and became the JA-90, the signature model for Jim Adkins, the singer/guitarist of Jimmy Eat World
The Fender Bullet was an electric guitar designed by John Page and manufactured and marketed by the Fender Musical Instruments Corporation. It was first introduced as a line of "student" guitars to replace the outgoing Mustang and Musicmaster models. Fender marketed two models manufacture was set up offshore in Korea, but due to technical issues, such as unacceptable high actions, the guitars were recalled to the U. S. A for manufacture at the Fullerton plant. Two models were available - The "Bullet" & the "Bullet One Deluxe"; these two models had a single cutaway body style similar to that of the Fender Telecaster but much closer in size to the Mustang and Duo-Sonic that the Bullet replaced, the guitar had a 21 fret rosewood neck and Telecaster-style headstock and Kluson Deluxe tuners. To preceding student models like the Mustang and Musicmaster, cost savings were made by using less wood for the body, both guitar bodies were 1- 5/8 inches thick as opposed to the 1- 3/4 inch thickness of other Fender guitars, parts were quick to assemble and labor saving, both models had the same hardware & electrics as other Fender guitars from the same era.
The standard model retailed at $199.00 or $249 including the vacuum formed case, strap, polishing cloth & bridge adjustment wrenches. The Bullet Deluxe had a plastic pickguard with a separate, traditional hardtail bridge while the standard model featured an Steel pickguard-bridge-tailpiece combo, powder coated white or black, with separate saddles for each string. Both models had 2 single coil pickups with a three-way selector switch; the pickups had the same closed pickup covers as used on the Mustang & were left over Mustang stock. Color options were ivory, with a white or black pick guards on both models. At release in 1981, the only neck option was maple with a rosewood fretboard, a maple neck with a walnut skunk stripe was introduced as an option in 1982. In 1982, Fender introduced a revised version of the Bullet, including two bass models; this series featured a double cutaway body similar to the Fender Stratocaster without body contouring and therefore the same shape as the Mustang and Duo-Sonic that the Bullet replaced.
Maple was the only neck option & the headstock retained the version one telecaster profile, Fender introduced a maple skunk stripe on the Bullet range, to distinguish the guitar from other Fender guitars, some of the maple necks with a walnut skunk from the 1st version were used up on the range. Five models were marketed - the Bullet, the Bullet H-1, the Bullet S-2, S-3, H-2—in addition to the two new bass models; the standard Bullet had the previous style alloy pickguard-bridge-tailpiece combo with two single coil pickups and a 3 way switch. The H-1 sported the same pickguard-bridge-tailpiece combo with one humbucker pickup, it had a coil tap button to split the humbucker to single coil; the S-2, S-3 & H-2 were marketed as Deluxe versions & had a white plastic 3 ply pickguards with a separate hardtail bridge, in 1983 a single ply pickguard was introduced with the model number S-2, S-3 or H-2 embossed on the lower horn. The S-2 had two single coil pickups & a 3 way switch, the S-3 had 3 single coil pickups & a 5 way switch, the H-2 had two humbucker pickups each with their own coil tapping button & a 3 way switch.
The humbucking pickups were two single coil pickups with alnico rod magnets side-by-side. All models from 1982 to late 1983 used the Fender "F" logo chrome tuners or the sealed Fender branded tuners, both made by Schaller in W. Germany; the basses each had traditional bridges. They had the old Mustang bass style pickups, they differed only in scale. The popular second version Bullet's were available in color options red, brown sunburst or walnut, black was available but never marketed as a color option; the S-2 was notably featured in the music video for Twisted Sister's "We're Not Gonna Take It," used by the son of Mark Metcalf's character to blow him out of the window when the song begins. Late 1983 to 1984 the Bullet manufacture was moved in 1985 and 86 to Korea; these guitars were marketed as the Squier Bullet. Humbucking pickups from the original consisted of the same paired single coil configuration as the American-made models but used steel rods as pole pieces with a ceramic bar magnet; the three single coil pickup pattern like the Fender Stratocaster was available as well as tremolo and hard tail bridges.
These were available in Brown Sunburst. In 1984/85 there was a Squier Bullet guitar model manufactured in Japan that featured a body made of solid wood; this particular Squier Bullet model is distinguished by the fact that it featured a two pickup configuration, instead of the usual three pickup, a Stratocaster style neck instead of a Telecaster style neck, one output through the pickguard, 2 knobs, a hard tail, top-load, six piece bridge. It was offered in two colors and black. Squier introduced a new, Chinese-made version of the Bullet in 2007, sporting a built-in tremolo arm, rosewood fingerboard, one of six body finishes with a single-ply white pickguard. By 2015, Fender was using Squier Bullet as a line name for their lowest-priced guitars at the $150 price point; the guitars used inexpensive basswood for their bodies and reduced paint steps to the absolute minimum to keep costs under control. However, they used the same pickups and tuners as their more expensive Affinity series cousins, were acknowledged as goo
The Fender Performer was an electric guitar designed for rock and metal guitarists in the mid-1980s. The Performer was available as an electric bass; the Performer was first introduced in 1985, was assembled in Japan. It was introduced in the transition from the CBS-owned Fender Electric Instrument Manufacturing Company to the new owned Fender Musical Instruments Corporation, it was discontinued after only one year; the body is small with a deep double cutaway similar to the Fender Swinger. The tuning machines are found on the upper edge of the triangular headstock and a locking nut clamps the strings behind a plastic nut, as found on Fender guitars; the rosewood fretboard features a locking nut. The bridge is a floating System I tremolo; the controls have inset rubber grips, the tuning heads have enclosed gears, the jack socket is an enclosed, not'skeleton', type, in contrast to many other Fender products with'economy' hardware. A variety of metallic poly finishes were available including a sunburst pattern.
The two pickups are custom humbuckers which both sit at an angle opposite to that of a standard Stratocaster or Telecaster bridge pickup. It appears that the coils are offset to keep the magnets in line with the strings, although they are potted in epoxy so the magnets cannot be seen; the guitar features a volume knob, a tone knob, a 3-way pickup selector switch, a coil splitting switch. The tone knob used 1M pots with center detent. Many years after the introduction of the instrument, it came to be recognized as a versatile rock instrument of fine quality. Recent eBay auctions have seen Fender Performers command prices as much as US$3,900 and higher
Pickup (music technology)
A pickup is a transducer that captures or senses mechanical vibrations produced by musical instruments stringed instruments such as the electric guitar, converts these to an electrical signal, amplified using an instrument amplifier to produce musical sounds through a loudspeaker in a speaker enclosure. The signal from a pickup can be recorded directly. Most electric guitars and electric basses use magnetic pickups. Acoustic guitars, upright basses and fiddles use a piezoelectric pickup. A typical magnetic pickup is a transducer that consists of one or more permanent magnets wrapped with a coil of several thousand turns of fine enameled copper wire; the magnet creates a magnetic field, focused by the pickup's pole piece or pieces. The permanent magnet in the pickup magnetises the guitar string above it. So the string is, in essence, a magnet itself and its magnetic field is in alignment with that of the permanent magnet that magnetized it; when the string is plucked, the magnetic field around it moves down with the string.
This moving magnetic field induces a current in the coil of the pickup. The pickup is connected with a patch cable to an amplifier, which amplifies the signal to a sufficient magnitude of power to drive a loudspeaker. A pickup can be connected to recording equipment via a patch cable; the pickup is most mounted on the body of the instrument, but can be attached to the bridge, neck or pickguard. Pickups have magnetic polepieces centered on each string. On most guitars, the strings are not parallel: they converge at the nut and diverge at the bridge. Thus, bridge and middle pickups have different polepiece spacings on the same guitar. There are string spacing between the poles. Spacing is measured either as a distance between 1st to 6th polepieces' centers, or as a distance between adjacent polepieces' centers; some high-output pickups employ strong magnets, thus creating more flux and thereby more output. This can be detrimental to the final sound because the magnet's pull on the strings can cause problems with intonation as well as damp the strings and reduce sustain.
Other high-output pickups have more turns of wire to increase the voltage generated by the string's movement. However, this increases the pickup's output resistance/impedance, which can affect high frequencies if the pickup is not isolated by a buffer amplifier or a DI unit; the turns of wire in proximity to each other have an equivalent self-capacitance that, when added to any cable capacitance present, resonates with the inductance of the winding. This resonance can accentuate certain frequencies; the more turns of wire in the winding, the higher the output voltage but the lower this resonance frequency. The inductive source impedance inherent in this type of transducer makes it less linear than other forms of pickups, such as piezo-electric or optical; the tonal quality produced by this nonlinearity is, subject to taste, some guitarists and luthiers consider it aesthetically superior to a more linear transducer. The external load consists of resistance and capacitance between the hot lead and shield in the guitar cable.
The electric cable has a capacitance, which can be a significant portion of the overall system capacitance. This arrangement of passive components forms a resistively-damped second-order low-pass filter. Pickups are designed to feed a high input impedance a megohm or more, a lowimpedance load reduces the high-frequency response of the pickup because of the filtering effect of the inductance.|date=January 2019 Single-coil pickups act like a directional antenna and are prone to pick up mains hum — nuisance alternating current electromagnetic interference from electrical power cables, power transformers, fluorescent light ballasts, video monitors or televisions — along with the musical signal. Mains hum consists of a fundamental signal at a nominal 50 or 60 Hz, depending on local current frequency, some harmonic content. To overcome this, the humbucking pickup was invented by Joseph Raymond "Ray" Butts, but Seth Lover of Gibson was working on one. Who developed it first is a matter of some debate, but Ray Butts was awarded the first patent and Seth Lover came next.
A humbucking pickup is composed of two coils. Each set of six magnetic poles is opposite in polarity. Since ambient hum from electrical devices reaches the coils as common-mode noise, it induces an equal voltage in each coil, but with opposite amplitudes; these cancel each other, while the signal from the guitar string is doubled. When wired in series, as is most common, the overall inductance of the pickup is increased, which lowers its resonance frequency and attenuates the higher frequencies, giving a less trebly tone than either of the two component single-coil pickups would give alone. An alternative wiring places the coils in buck parallel, which has a more neutral effect on resonant frequency; this pickup wiring is rare, as guitarists have come to expect that humbucking pickups'have a sound', are not so neutral. On fine jazz guitars, the parallel wiring produces cleaner sound, as the lowered so
Summer of Love
The Summer of Love was a social phenomenon that occurred during the summer of 1967, when as many as 100,000 people young people sporting hippie fashions of dress and behavior, converged in San Francisco's neighborhood of Haight-Ashbury. Although hippies gathered in many other places in the U. S. Canada and Europe, San Francisco was at that time the most publicized location for hippie subculture. Hippies, sometimes called flower children, were an eclectic group. Many were suspicious of the government, rejected consumerist values, opposed the Vietnam War. A few were interested in politics. Inspired by the Beat Generation of authors of the 1950s, who had flourished in the North Beach area of San Francisco, those who gathered in Haight-Ashbury during 1967 rejected the conformist and materialist values of modern life; the Diggers established a Free Store, a Free Clinic where medical treatment was provided. The prelude to the Summer of Love was a celebration known as the Human Be-In at Golden Gate Park on January 14, 1967, produced and organized by artist Michael Bowen.
James Rado and Gerome Ragni were in attendance helping to inspire their musical drama Hair. Rado recalled, "There was so much excitement in the streets and the parks and the hippie areas, we thought `If we could transmit this excitement to the stage it would be wonderful...' We went to their Be-Ins let our hair grow. It was important and if we hadn't written it, there'd not be any examples. You could read about it and see film clips. We thought,'This is happening in the streets,' and we wanted to bring it to the stage.'" At this event, Timothy Leary voiced his phrase, "turn on, tune in, drop out". This phrase helped shape the entire hippie counterculture, as it voiced the key ideas of 1960's rebellion; these ideas included communal living, political decentralization, dropping out. The term "dropping out" became popular among many high school and college students, many of whom would abandon their education for a summer of hippie culture; the event was announced by the Haight-Ashbury's hippie newspaper, the San Francisco Oracle: A new concept of celebrations beneath the human underground must emerge, become conscious, be shared, so a revolution can be formed with a renaissance of compassion and love, the revelation of unity for all mankind.
The gathering of 30,000 at the Human Be-In helped publicize hippie fashions. The term "Summer of Love" originated with the formation of the Council for the Summer of Love during the spring of 1967 as a response to the convergence of young people on the Haight-Ashbury district; the Council was composed of The Family Dog, The Straight Theatre, The Diggers, The San Francisco Oracle, twenty-five other people, who sought to alleviate some of the problems anticipated from the influx of people expected during the summer. The Council assisted the Free Clinic and organized housing, sanitation and arts, along with maintaining coordination with local churches and other social groups; the increasing numbers of youth traveling to the Haight-Ashbury district alarmed the San Francisco authorities, whose public warning was that they would keep hippies away. Adam Kneeman, a long-time resident of the Haight-Ashbury, recalls that the police did little to help the hordes of newcomers, much of, done by residents of the area.
College and high-school students began streaming into the Haight during the spring break of 1967 and the local government officials, determined to stop the influx of young people once schools ended for the summer, unwittingly brought additional attention to the scene, a series of articles in local papers alerted the national media to the hippies' growing numbers. By spring, some Haight-Ashbury residents responded by forming the Council of the Summer of Love, giving the event a name; the media's coverage of hippie life in the Haight-Ashbury drew the attention of youth from all over America. Hunter S. Thompson termed the district "Hashbury" in The New York Times Magazine, the activities in the area were reported daily; the event was reported by the counterculture's own media the San Francisco Oracle, the pass-around readership of, thought to have exceeded a half-million people that summer, the Berkeley Barb. The media's reportage of the "counterculture" included other events in California, such as the Fantasy Fair and Magic Mountain Music Festival in Marin County and the Monterey Pop Festival, both during June 1967.
At Monterey 30,000 people gathered for the first day of the music festival, with the number increasing to 60,000 on the final day. Additionally, media coverage of the Monterey Pop Festival facilitated the Summer of Love as large numbers of hippies traveled to California to hear favorite bands such as The Who, Grateful Dead, the Animals, Jefferson Airplane, Quicksilver Messenger Service, The Jimi Hendrix Experience, Otis Redding, The Byrds, Big Brother and the Holding Company featuring Janis Joplin. Musician John Phillips of the band The Mamas & the Papas wrote the song "San Francisco" for his friend Scott McKenzie, it served to promote both the Monterey Pop Festival that Phillips was helping to organize, to popularize the flower children of San Francisco. Released on May 13, 1967, the song was an instant success. By the week ending July 1, 1967, it reached number four on the Billboard Hot 100 in the United States, where it remained for four consecutive weeks. Meanwhile, the song charted at n