Paul David Hewson, KBE OL, known by his stage name Bono, is an Irish singer-songwriter, venture capitalist and philanthropist. He is best known as the lead vocalist and primary lyricist of rock band U2. Bono was raised in Dublin, Ireland, he attended Mount Temple Comprehensive School where he met his future wife, Alison Stewart, as well as schoolmates with whom he founded U2 in 1976. Bono soon established himself as a passionate frontman for the band through his expressive vocal style and grandiose gestures and songwriting, his lyrics are known for their social and political themes, for their religious imagery inspired by his Christian beliefs. During U2's early years, Bono's lyrics contributed to the group's spiritual tone; as the band matured, his lyrics became inspired more by personal experiences shared with the other members. As a member of U2, Bono has received 22 Grammy Awards and has been inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Bono is well known for his activism both through U2 and as an individual.
He is active in campaigning for Africa, for which he co-founded DATA, EDUN, the ONE Campaign, Product Red. In pursuit of these causes, he has participated in benefit concerts and met with influential politicians. Bono has been praised for his philanthropic efforts. In 2005, Bono was named one of the Time Persons of the Year. Outside the band, he has recorded with numerous artists, he has collaborated with U2 bandmate the Edge on several projects, including: songs for Roy Orbison and Tina Turner. He is Managing Director and a Managing Partner of the private equity firm Elevation Partners, which has invested in several companies. Bono was born in the Rotunda Hospital, Dublin, on 10 May 1960, he was raised in the Northside suburb of Finglas with his brother by their mother, Iris, a member of the Church of Ireland, their father, Brendan Robert "Bob" Hewson, a Roman Catholic. His parents agreed that the first child would be raised Anglican and the second Catholic. Although Bono was the second child, he attended Church of Ireland services with his mother and brother.
He went to the local primary Glasnevin National School. Bono's mother died on 10 September 1974, after suffering a cerebral aneurysm at her father's funeral. Many U2 songs, including "I Will Follow", "Mofo", "Out of Control", "Lemon" and "Tomorrow" focus on the loss of his mother. Bono attended a multi-denominational school in Clontarf. During his childhood and adolescence and his friends were part of a surrealist street gang called "Lypton Village". Bono met one of Guggi, in Lypton Village; the gang had a ritual of nickname-giving. Bono had several names: first, he was "Steinhegvanhuysenolegbangbangbang" just "Huyseman", followed by "Houseman", "Bon Murray", "Bono Vox of O'Connell Street", just "Bono". "Bono Vox" is an alteration of Bonavox, a Latin phrase which translates to "good voice". It is said he was nicknamed "Bono Vox" by his friend Gavin Friday, he disliked the name. Hewson has been known as "Bono" since the late 1970s. Although he uses Bono as his stage name, close family and friends refer to him as Bono, including fellow band members.
After he left school, his father Bob Hewson, told him he could live at home for one year but if he was not able to pay his own way, he would have to leave the house. Bono is married to businesswoman Alison Hewson; the couple have four children: daughters Jordan and Memphis Eve and sons Elijah Bob Patricius Guggi Q and John Abraham. Bono was a close friend to INXS frontman Michael Hutchence. Bono is never seen in public without sunglasses, as he suffers from glaucoma. During a Rolling Stone interview he stated: sensitive eyes to light. If somebody takes my photograph, I will see the flash for the rest of the day. My right eye swells up. I've a blockage there. So it's it's part privacy and part sensitivity. In the late 1980s or early 90s, Bono bought a top-floor duplex apartment in Manhattan's San Remo apartment building from Steve Jobs for $15 million. Jobs never moved in. In 2004, Bono was given an honorary Doctor of Laws degree from the University of Pennsylvania. In May 2010, Bono suffered a spinal injury while preparing for a U2 tour, was taken to a German clinic in Munich for emergency neurosurgery.
The North American leg of the tour was postponed and rescheduled for 2011. Bono was named one of the 17 Irish artists to be proud of by the Irish Post on 9 April 2013. Time magazine ranked him at the 8th place on its list of the "Most Influential Celebrities" in 2013. Bono's work as an activist, due to his Christian beliefs, began in earnest when, inspired by Live Aid, he travelled to Ethiopia to work in a feeding camp with his wife Alison and the charity World Vision, an Evangelical Christian humanitarian aid and advocacy organisation. With regard to Bono's 2013 declarations in interviews published and videotaped of his faith in Jesus Chri
Deep Purple are an English rock band formed in Hertford in 1968. The band is considered to be among the pioneers of heavy metal and modern hard rock, although their musical approach changed over the years. Formed as a progressive rock band, the band shifted to a heavier sound in 1970. Deep Purple, together with Led Zeppelin and Black Sabbath, have been referred to as the "unholy trinity of British hard rock and heavy metal in the early to mid-seventies", they were listed in the 1975 Guinness Book of World Records as "the globe's loudest band" for a 1972 concert at London's Rainbow Theatre, have sold over 100 million copies of their albums worldwide. Deep Purple have had an eight-year hiatus; the 1968–1976 line-ups are labelled Mark I, II, III and IV. Their second and most commercially successful line-up consisted of Ian Gillan, Jon Lord, Roger Glover, Ian Paice, Ritchie Blackmore; this line-up was active from 1969 to 1973, was revived from 1984 to 1989, again from 1992 to 1993. The band achieved more modest success in the intervening periods between 1968 and 1969 with the line-up including Rod Evans and Nick Simper, between 1974 and 1976 with the line-up including David Coverdale and Glenn Hughes, between 1989 and 1992 with the line-up including Joe Lynn Turner.
The band's line-up has been much more stable in recent years, although keyboardist Jon Lord's retirement from the band in 2002 left Ian Paice as the only original Deep Purple member still in the band. Deep Purple were ranked number 22 on VH1's Greatest Artists of Hard Rock programme and a poll on British radio station Planet Rock ranked them 5th among the "most influential bands ever"; the band received the Legend Award at the 2008 World Music Awards. Deep Purple were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2016. In 1967, former Searchers drummer Chris Curtis contacted London businessman Tony Edwards, in the hope that he would manage a new group he was putting together, to be called Roundabout. Curtis' vision was a "supergroup" where the band members would get on and off, like a musical roundabout. Impressed with the plan, Edwards agreed to finance the venture with his two business partners John Coletta and Ron Hire, who comprised Hire-Edwards-Coletta Enterprises; the first recruit to the band was the classically trained Hammond organ player Jon Lord, Curtis' flatmate who had most notably played with the Artwoods.
Lord was performing in a backing band for the vocal group The Flower Pot Men, along with bassist Nick Simper and drummer Carlo Little. Simper had been in Johnny Kidd and the Pirates and survived the 1966 car crash that killed Kidd. Lord put the two on alert that he'd been recruited for the Roundabout project, after which Simper and Little suggested guitarist Ritchie Blackmore, whom Lord had never met. Simper had known Blackmore since the early 1960s when his first band, the Renegades, debuted around the same time as one of Blackmore's early bands, the Dominators. HEC persuaded Blackmore to return from Hamburg to audition for the new group. Blackmore was making a name for himself as a studio session guitarist, had been a member of the Outlaws, Screaming Lord Sutch, Neil Christian. Curtis' erratic behaviour and lifestyle, fuelled by LSD use, caused a sudden disinterest in the project he had started, forcing HEC to dismiss him from Roundabout, but HEC was now intrigued with the possibilities Lord and Blackmore brought, while Lord and Blackmore were keen to continue.
The two carried on, keeping Tony Edwards as their manager. Lord convinced Simper to join for good, but left Carlo Little behind in favour of drummer Bobby Woodman. Bobby Woodman was the former drummer for Vince Taylor's Play-Boys. In March 1968, Blackmore and Woodman moved into Deeves Hall, a country house in South Mimms, Hertfordshire; the band would live and rehearse at Deeves Hall, kitted out with the latest Marshall amplification and, at Lord's request, a Hammond C3 organ. According to Simper, "dozens" of singers were auditioned until the group heard Rod Evans of the club band The Maze, thought his voice fit their style well. Tagging along with Evans was his band's drummer, Ian Paice. Blackmore had seen an 18-year-old Paice on tour with The Maze in Germany in 1966, had been impressed by his drumming; the band hastily arranged an audition for Paice, given that Woodman was vocally unhappy with the direction of the band's music. Both Paice and Evans won their respective jobs, the line-up was complete.
During a brief tour of Denmark and Sweden in April, in which they were still billed as Roundabout, Blackmore suggested a new name: "Deep Purple", named after his grandmother's favourite song. The group had resolved to choose a name. Second to Deep Purple was "Concrete God", which the band thought was too harsh to take on. In May 1968, the band moved into Pye Studios in London's Marble Arch to record their debut album, Shades of Deep Purple, released in July by American label Tetragammaton, in September by UK label EMI; the group had success in North America with a cover of Joe South's "Hush", by September 1968, the so
A headstock or peghead is part of a guitar or similar stringed instrument such as a lute, banjo and others of the lute lineage. The main function of a headstock is to house the pegs or mechanism that holds the strings at the "head" of the instrument. At the "tail" of the instrument the strings are held by a tailpiece or bridge. Machine heads on the headstock are used to tune the instrument by adjusting the tension of strings and, the pitch of sound they produce. Two traditional layouts of guitar tuners are called "3+3" and "6 in line" tuners, though many other combinations are known for bass guitars and non-6-string guitars; when there are no machine heads, the guitar headstock may be missing as in Steinberger guitar or some Chapman stick models. The headstock may be glued to the neck using some sort of joint. There are two major trends in headstock construction, based on how the string will go after passing the nut; the advantages and disadvantages of both trends are debatable and subjective, so these two variants are used: Straight headstocks form a single plane with a flat surface of neck.
This makes the headstock easier to manufacture. Fender uses non-angled, straight headstocks; because of the low angle of the string over the nut, string trees may be used to avoid the string coming out of the nut while playing. Angled headstocks form some kind of acute angle with a surface of neck; the value of "magic angle" that gives the best tone and stability is very debatable, but it is in a range from 3° to 25°. For example, various manufacturers and particular guitar models use: Guitars 4°: Guild 11°: Martin 12°: Bigsby, Yamaha SGV 13°: Peavey, Warmoth 14°: Gibson Firebird V and VII, Gibson X-plorer, some vintage Gibson guitars, most budget Epiphone replicas of Gibson models 17°: Gibson ES-335, Gibson Les Paul, Gibson SG, Epiphone Casino Bass guitars 10°: all Gibson basses 12°: Yamaha SBV 14°: most Epiphone replicas of Gibson models 24°: KinalLuthiers of both styles cite better sound, longer sustain and strings staying in tune longer as advantages of each style. Fragile construction is cited as a disadvantage of each style too: single-piece necks are more to break on occasional hit and are harder to repair, while glued-in necks can break with time.
Apart from its main function, the headstock is an important decorative detail of a guitar. It is the place; some guitars without machine heads have a headstock for purely decorative reasons. Most major guitar brands have signature headstock designs that make their guitars or guitar series recognizable; as seen in a section below "copied" at the first glance designs retain clear visible changes in dimensions, proportions of elements, etc. so it is always possible to tell a major brand of a guitar by looking at headstock. On some electric guitars and basses the finish used on the body is applied to the face of the headstock. Matched-headstock models carry a price premium over their plain counterparts due to the extra processes involved in the finishing process. Although Fender no longer offers matched headstocks on production models made in the United States or Mexico, certain models from Fender Japan are available with matched headstocks; the definition of a "matched headstock" varies between manufacturers and players - for example, the headstocks of Gibson guitars are nearly always black, it is debatable whether a black-bodied Gibson has a matching headstock.
A guitar is only considered to have a matching headstock if the guitar is produced without matching body and headstock finishes
Steve Morse is an American guitarist and composer, best known as the founder of the Dixie Dregs. Morse's career has encompassed rock, funk, jazz and fusion of these musical genres. In addition to his successful solo career, he was a member of Kansas in the mid-1980s. Most Morse became a member of the supergroup Flying Colors alongside long-time bandmate Dave LaRue. Steve Morse was born in Ohio, his family soon moved to Tennessee Ypsilanti, where Morse spent his childhood. Although familiar with piano and clarinet, Morse became interested in guitar. Morse worked with his older brother Dave in a band called the Plague until the family moved to Augusta, Georgia. In the late 1960s, he played in a band called Three with his older brother and a junior high schoolmate, William Gerald Wooten, who played keyboards; the three performed at a local psychedelic youth club, the Green Onion, at Legion Halls and church functions. While enrolled in the Academy of Richmond County, Morse met bassist Andy West and together they formed the Dixie Grit, adding keyboardist Johnny Carr and guitarist and vocalist Frank Brittingham, with Dave Morse drumming.
This short-lived group covered bands such as Cream. West and Morse continued to play as a duet billed as the Dixie Dregs until Morse's expulsion from school in the 10th grade; this expulsion enabled his enrollment at the University of Miami School of Music. During the 1970s, the University of Miami played host to a number of future influential musicians, including Bruce Hornsby, Pat Metheny, Jaco Pastorius. Andy West enrolled at the University of Miami and, with Morse, drummer Bart Yarnold, keyboardist Frank Josephs and violinist Allen Sloan, collaborated in a lab project entitled Rock Ensemble II. In 1975, the group compiled a recording used for promotional efforts; this recording was released in 1997 as The Great Spectacular. From late 1987 to early 1988, Morse worked as a commercial airline co-pilot. Upon Morse's graduation from the University of Miami in 1975, he and West named their group Dixie Dregs. A fellow University of Miami alumnus, Rod Morgenstein, replaced the injured Bart Yarnold and the band began performing regularly.
An heavier performance schedule led to the attention of Capricorn Records recruiters including Allman Brothers Band manager Twiggs Lyndon and, in late 1976, the group was signed by the southern rock label. Their first effort for Capricorn, Free Fall, established Morse as an important newcomer to the fusion genre, he was recognised for both his compositional skills and his musicianship. Although receiving positive reviews as a pivotal jazz fusion album, it sold poorly. What If was released in 1978. Writing credits were more collaborative and the band's sound had matured into more than what was considered fusion at the time. Southern rock, classical and country elements were combined to form a cohesive and listenable music. Though supported by a tour, record sales remained flat, but gained Morse and the band an invitation to perform at Montreux Jazz Festival on 23 July 1978; the recorded performance was released the following year on Night of the Living Dregs. Capricorn went bankrupt in late 1979, the Dixie Dregs were left without a label.
Arista Records signed the band in 1979 to record three albums. Production control was handed to Morse, Dregs of the Earth was released in May 1980. All eight tracks were written by Morse, the album peaked at number 27 on Billboard's Jazz Album Chart. Arista became concerned about Dixie Dregs' album sales and pressured the band to change their name to the Dregs in an attempt to increase the band's visibility in the public eye. Unsung Heroes included eight new Morse compositions in early 1981, but the name change did little to address Arista's worries; the Dregs felt compelled by label management to add lyrics to their next release, appropriately titled Industry Standard. Morse's compositions on Industry Standard began to sound more like his evolving solo work than Dregs' collaborations, the album received critical and public praise. Industry Standard was voted "Best Guitar LP" by readers of Guitar Player magazine in their annual reader's poll that year. Additionally, Morse was voted "Best Overall Guitarist" in the same poll, an honour that he would hold for five consecutive years.
After fulfilling their commitment to Arista, the Dregs' members, who had tired of touring, disbanded in early 1983. In the late 1980s, the group reunited for a tour featuring former members Morse, Morgenstein and Sloan, their return was complemented by a "Best Of" release entitled Divided We Stand. Bassist Dave LaRue completed the line-up for a seven date tour culminating in the 1992 live album Bring'em Back Alive. Violinist Jerry Goodman, of the Mahavishnu Orchestra fame, filled in for Sloan, absent as a result of his medical career, they signed a deal with former label Capricorn Records for their first studio album in years entitled Full Circle in 1994. After the 1983 breakup of the Dregs, Morse formed the Steve Morse Band, a trio with bassist Jerry Peek and drummer Doug Morgan. After the first tour of the eastern United States, Morgan left for previous commitments, they began recording The Introduction in September. The group toured Germany i
The War Tour was a concert tour by the Irish rock band U2, which took place in 1982 and 1983 in support of the group's third album War. The tour took place in Western Europe, the United States, Japan, with new material from War taking an increasing role as the tour progressed. Venues were halls, but some arenas were introduced on. U2's performances were well received both critically and commercially in the United States where U2 broke through to become a major act. Scenes of lead singer Bono waving a white flag during the song "Sunday Bloody Sunday" became an emblematic image of this phase of U2's career, it was their first tour as their first to be profitable. The live album Under a Blood Red Sky and the concert film U2 Live at Red Rocks: Under a Blood Red Sky both originated from performances on the tour; the latter matched U2's concert fervour with the spectacular natural setting of the Red Rocks Amphitheatre in the rain to produce a memorable document of the War Tour and to further increase the group's popularity.
After War had been recorded, but three months before it was released, U2 began playing the Pre-War Tour: 20 shows, a television appearance, in halls in Western Europe, commencing on 1 December 1982 in Glasgow and finishing in the band's home town, Dublin, on 24 December. These shows featured only three songs from the upcoming album – "Sunday Bloody Sunday", "New Year's Day", "Surrender"; the 20 December performance in Belfast's Maysfield Leisure Centre represented the first airing of "Sunday Bloody Sunday" in Northern Ireland. If you don't like it, we'll never play it again. It's called'Sunday Bloody Sunday'." The reception was positive, the song stayed in. Subsequent introductions would explicitly clarify the song's purpose: "This song is not a rebel song, this song is'Sunday Bloody Sunday'!" On 26 February 1983 at Caird Hall in Dundee, the War Tour proper began, with the album's release coming two days later. The band played 29 shows and three television appearances in Scotland and Wales, ending on 3 April with a single continental show at the Printemps de Bourges in Bourges, France.
Three or four additional songs from War were added to these set lists, including "Two Hearts Beat As One", the band started their 1980's practice of ending shows with the War song, "40". The next leg went to North America for 48 shows and two radio appearances, beginning on 23 April in Chapel Hill, North Carolina and ending on 26 June at the Hudson River Park Pier 84 facility in New York City; the War Tour was U2's first as a full-time headlining act. Most of the venues were colleges and smaller auditoriums, but they played a few arena shows, such as at the Centrum in Worcester, Massachusetts and at the Los Angeles Sports Arena. Many of the shows featured the Welsh band The Alarm as the opening act. During this tour, they appeared before one of the largest audiences in US music history: on Memorial Day at the US Festival in San Bernardino, they appeared at noontime on the third day of the festival before a crowd of over 125,000; the festival was broadcast live on MTV. The performance climaxed in a grand finale where Bono scaled the proscenium of the US festival's huge stage while singing the song "The Electric Co.", ending up about 100 feet above the ground.
A week their 5 June 1983 performance at Red Rocks Amphitheatre was recorded for what turned out to be a live album entitled Under a Blood Red Sky and concert film entitled Live at Red Rocks: Under a Blood Red Sky. A steady rain and the surreal, torch-lit natural beauty of the surroundings combined to present U2's performance in the most dramatic of contexts. Shown on MTV, the video helped to further expand the band's American audience and rewarded the large financial risk the show had represented; the album used performances culled from the Red Rocks show as well as a 6 May show in Boston's Orpheum Theatre and a 20 August show in St. Goarshausen, West Germany at the Lorelei Amphitheatre; the Orpheum Theatre performance was recorded and broadcast on the King Biscuit Flower Hour syndicated radio program. U2 played at 5 outdoor summer festivals in Western Europe in July and August. After a nearly three-month interlude, U2 played a show in Honolulu, before their first tour of Japan for six shows, with the tour ending on 30 November 1983 at the Nakano Sun Plaza in Tokyo.
While in Japan, U2 made two television appearances, one of which featured a performance of "New Year's Day" in which Edge performed entirely on piano due to a guitar failure. In both UK and US publicity for the tour, the group emphasised that it opposed "wallpaper music" from artists who spent more time on their hairdos than anything else. In the US, advertisements for the tour read "U2 Declare War" and talked about "The War on Boring Music" in the context of breaking up conservative radio formats. National identification played a role. We're an Irish band and we're here to stay."War's music, its music videos, the War Tour separated U2 from the mass of new wave or college rock acts and into mainstream rock visibility. Shows were 90 minutes long. Bono was emotional and theatrical during shows.
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The truss rod is part of a guitar or other fretted, stringed-instruments that stabilizes the lengthwise forward curvature, of the neck. It is a steel bar or rod that runs inside the neck, beneath the fingerboard; some are non-adjustable, but most modern truss rods have a nut at one or both ends that adjusts its tension. The first truss rod patent was applied for by Thaddeus McHugh, an employee of the Gibson company, in 1921, though the idea of a "truss rod" appears in patents as early as 1908. A guitar neck made of wood is prone to bending due to atmospheric changes, the pull created by changing to a different gauge of guitar strings and/or different tuning. A truss rod keeps the neck straight by countering the pull of the strings and natural tendencies in the wood; when the truss rod is loosened, the neck bends in response to the tension of the strings. When tightened the truss rod straightens the neck by resisting string tension. Guitar technicians adjust a guitar neck to have a slight relief to achieve reasonably low action in high fretboard positions, while letting strings ring in low positions.
A lower action in the high fret positions facilitates more accurate intonation with less compensation at the bridge. Relief achieved through the truss rod combines with the height of the bridge to affect the playability of the instrument; the two should be adjusted in concert with each other. Too much relief can make a neck feel floppy and lifeless—while too little can make the strings buzz on the frets. Relief is measured as the distance between the string and the 7th fret while holding down the first and last fret; the amount of relief many guitar manufacturers prefer for an electric guitar is about.007 inches at the 7th fret. Truss rods are required for instruments with steel strings. Without a truss rod, the guitar's wooden neck would warp beyond repair due to applied high tension; such devices are not needed on instruments with lower tension strings, such as the classical guitar, which uses nylon strings. Truss rods allow builders to make instrument necks from less rigid materials, such as cheaper grade of wood, or man-made composites.
Without a truss rod, many of these materials would be unable to properly handle string tension at normal neck dimensions. The neck can be made thinner, which may improve playability. In fact, the 1923 patent touts the possibility of using cheaper materials as an advantage of the truss rod. Before truss rods, builders had to make the neck out of a rigid wood, achieve relief by laboriously planing the fingerboard; the truss rod is not for adjusting intonation or action though adjusting it can make an instrument more playable. Truss rods are made out of steel, though graphite and other materials are sometimes used; the truss rod can be adjusted to compensate for expansion or contraction in the neck wood due to changes in humidity or temperature, or to compensate for changes in the tension of the strings or using different tunings. The truss rod of a brand-new instrument is adjusted by the manufacturer before sale. Turning the truss rod's adjustment bolt clockwise tightens it, counteracting the tension of the strings and straightening the neck or creating a backward bow.
Turning the bolt counter-clockwise loosens it, allowing string tension to act on the neck and creating a forward bow. Some guitars come with dual truss rods that are more stable and not affected by seasonal climate changes; these rods are regarded as being more difficult to adjust. The truss rod tension is controlled using an adjustment bolt. Depending on the model of guitar, this bolt can be located: On older Fender-style electric guitars with bolt-on necks — on the heel of the neck. Adjustment of such truss rods can be done by a Phillips screwdriver and requires prior removal of the guitar's pickguard or neck. On newer Fender-style electric guitars — behind the nut and can be adjusted by a 1/8" Allen wrench. On set-neck electrics — under a cover-plate behind the nut. Gibson & Epiphone guitars have their truss rod bolt covered with a signature bell-shaped plate. Most Gibson electrics have a 5/16” or a 1/4" hex adjustable truss rod nut that can be adjusted with a hex box spanner wrench. On acoustic guitars — inside the guitar body, accessible through the sound hole, or on the headstock.
Martins use Gibson uses the same as for the Gibson electrics above. Modern designs include adjustment from the side of the heel of a bolt-on neck; when looking from the body of the guitar to the head, counterclockwise adjustment decreases the truss rod tension and clockwise adjustment increases the truss rod tension. Installing a truss rod in a newly constructed guitar requires woodworking capabilities. Special tools are required including a router with a variety of bits and ability to work with metals. Completed truss rods can be purchased through suppliers or manufactured according to specifications given in literature. A dual action truss rod is a more modern design and it is being used by some luthiers in lieu of the vintage single truss rod; the dual action rod is installed in a straight channel in the wood as opposed to the curved channel used by vintage rods. The two-way rod can warp the neck in eit