Fender Bass VI
The Fender Bass VI known as the Fender VI, is a six-string electric bass guitar made by Fender. The Fender VI was released in 1961 and followed the concept of the Danelectro six-string bass released in 1956, having six strings tuned E to E, an octave below the Spanish guitar; the Bass VI was related to the Fender Jaguar, with which it shared styling and technical details, notably the Fender floating tremolo. The VI had an offset body similar but not identical to that of the Jazzmaster/Jaguar, it departed from the concept of the Fender Precision Bass in having six strings, a shorter scale and thinner strings, a mechanical vibrato arm. The Bass VI never caught on to the extent that the four-string Precision Bass and its derivatives did; the model was discontinued in 1975. In 2006, the Fender Custom Shop released a re-creation of the Bass VI, featuring three single-coil pickups and identical electronics; this format was available as a 1962 vintage reissue model made by Fender Japan in 1995. In 2013 Fender released a Bass VI model as part of its Pawn Shop series.
In line with the series' purpose to reconfigure classic Fender designs, the new Bass VI has a Jazzmaster-type P-90 bridge pickup and a Stratocaster-style five-position pickup selector, as opposed to separate switches. There are three available colors: brown sunburst with a tortoiseshell pickguard, black with a tortoiseshell pickguard, candy-apple red with a white pickguard and painted headstock. In 2013, Squier released a Bass VI as part of the Vintage Modified series; this model was similar to the traditional Bass VI design with four switches and a Jaguar-style control plate. It continued the trend set by the Squier Vintage Modified Jaguars and Jazzmasters of having a non-locking tremolo plate, it was available in three-color sunburst finish with tortoiseshell pickguard, Olympic White with a brown tortoiseshell pickguard and black with a tortoiseshell pickguard. It is available in three-color sunburst and Olympic white. In 2019, Squier released its Classic Vibe Bass VI, available in three-color black.
It has a wider width at the nut than the Vintage Modified Bass VI and is equipped with narrow, tall frets. Most of the other main features are similar to the Vintage Modified model. Like other Fenders of the time, the Fender VI had a 7.25-inch fingerboard radius. The Fender VI, along with the Jaguar, the Jazzmaster and the Electric XII, was given a cream/white-bound fretboard with rectangular pearloid block inlays in 1967, followed by a thicker black CBS-style headstock decal and polyester finishes instead of nitrocellulose lacquer in 1968. In 1970, as with the other Fender basses in production at the time, the Bass VI was offered with a black-bound Maple neck with black rectangular block inlays. Solid body fretted electric bass guitar, six strings in six courses tuned E-A-D-G-B-E an octave below the standard guitar tuning. Scale length 30" / 762 mm for the U. S. versions, 30.3" for the Japanese versions. Curved fingerboard, radius 7.25" / 184 mm, 21 frets Standard strings.095.075.055.045.035.025 inches, Fender stainless steel, P/N 073-5350-000.
Fender floating bridge and Fender Jaguar/Jazzmaster-style tremolo arm. Fender Mute The original issue Bass VI had three Stratocaster-style single coil pickups, which were mounted in special chrome rings and were controlled by a panel of three on/off slider switches rather than the conventional three-position switch; when the Fender Jaguar was released in 1962, it used the Jazzmaster body with its unusual lead/rhythm electrics and the floating tremolo, but with a short scale-length neck, the Bass VI switch panel and two unique "toothed" pickups. Having only two pickups to control, the Jaguar's third slider switch served as a bass cut switch. In 1963, the Bass VI electronics were revised to incorporate some features from the Jaguar, with the adoption of toothed pickups and the addition of a fourth slider switch to provide bass-cut; this remained the setup of the Bass VI throughout its remaining 12 years of continuous production. Electronics mentioned above were all passive electronics. Three pickup on/off slider switches.
Tone control slider switch. Volume control potentiometer. Tone control potentiometer; the vibrato arm was the floating type with a locking device. This mechanism was developed for the Fender Jazzmaster and used on the Fender Jaguar, it was more elaborate than the synchronised tremolo of the earlier Fender Stratocaster, was claimed by Fender to be superior, but it failed to achieve the same popularity. Unlike the synchronised tremolo, it was copied by other makers and disappeared from the Fender catalogue with the withdrawal of the Jaguar line in the 1970s, it has since appeared on Fender reissues. In 2004, Fender issued the Fender Jaguar Baritone Custom, which in format was a combination of the Bass VI and the Fender Jaguar; the Jaguar Baritone Custom used the same string gauges and tuning as the Bass VI, but differed in that it has a Jaguar-shaped body, two pickups with Jaguar-style switching options, a fixed bridge and a shorter 28.5-inch scale length. Ibanez made the SCR-6 Crossover in 2014. Brian Molko and Stefan Olsdal of Placebo play Fender Bass VIs, with Molko saying, "Playing the Fender VI is like playing two instruments in one, it can be treated as a guitar and as a bass."Producer Mike McCa
Fender Musical Instruments Corporation
Fender Musical Instruments Corporation is an American manufacturer of stringed instruments and amplifiers. Fender produces acoustic guitars, electric basses, bass amplifiers and public address equipment, but is best known for its solid-body electric guitars and bass guitars the Stratocaster, Precision Bass, the Jazz Bass; the company was founded in Fullerton, California, by Clarence Leonidas "Leo" Fender in 1946. Its headquarters are in Arizona. FMIC is a held corporation, with Andy Mooney serving as the Chief Executive Officer; the company filed for an initial public offering in March 2012, but this was withdrawn five months later. In addition to its Scottsdale headquarters, Fender has manufacturing facilities in Corona and Ensenada, Baja California; as of July 10, 2012, the majority shareholders of Fender were the private equity firm of Weston Presidio, Japanese music distributors Yamano Music and Kanda Shokai and Servco Pacific. In December 2012, TPG Growth and Servco Pacific took control of the company after acquiring the shares held by Weston Presidio.
In 1950, Fender introduced the first mass-produced solid-body Spanish-style electric guitar, the Telecaster. Following its success, Fender created the Precision Bass. In 1954, Fender unveiled the Stratocaster guitar. With the Telecaster and Precision Bass having been on the market for some time, Leo Fender was able to incorporate input from working musicians into the Stratocaster's design; the company began as Fender's Radio Service in late 1938 in California. As a qualified electronics technician, Fender had repaired radios, home audio amplifiers, public address systems and musical instrument amplifiers, all designs based on research developed and released to the public domain by Western Electric in the 1930s using vacuum tubes for amplification; the business sidelined in carrying records for sale and the in rental of company-designed PA systems. Leo became intrigued by design flaws in contemporary musical instrument amplifiers and began building amplifiers based on his own designs or modifications to designs.
By the early 1940s, Leo Fender had entered into a partnership with Clayton Orr "Doc" Kauffman, they formed the K & F Manufacturing Corp to design and market electric instruments and amplifiers. Production began in 1945 with amplifiers, sold as sets. By the end of the year, Fender became convinced that manufacturing was more profitable than repair, decided to concentrate on that business instead. Kauffman remained unconvinced, he and Fender amicably parted ways by early 1946. At that point, Fender renamed the company the Fender Electric Instrument Company; the service shop remained open until 1951, although Leo Fender did not supervise it after 1947. Leo Fender's lap steel guitar made in 1946 for Noel Boggs was the first product of the new company, bearing an early presentation of the cursive "big F" Fender logo. In the late 1940s, Fender began to experiment with more conventional guitar designs. Early Broadcasters were plagued with issues. Fender's reluctant addition of a metal truss rod into the necks of his guitars allowed for the much needed ability to fine-tune the instrument to the musician's specific needs.
With the design of the Telecaster finalized, mass production began in 1950. The Telecaster's bolted-on neck allowed for the instrument's body and neck to be milled and finished separately, for the final assembling to be done and cheaply by unskilled workers. In 1959, Fender released the Jazzmaster guitar. Like the Stratocaster before it, the Jazzmaster was a radical departure from previous guitar designs; the offset body, vibrato system and innovative electronics were designed to capture the Jazz guitar market which until was dominated by acoustic guitars. Fender promoted the Jazzmaster as a premium successor to the Stratocaster, an accolade it never achieved. Despite being shunned by the Jazz community, the guitar found a home in the growing surf rock music scene, one that would go into influence the Jazzmaster's successor, the Jaguar in 1962. In early 1965, Leo Fender sold his companies to the Columbia Broadcasting System for $13 million; this was two million more than they had paid for The New York Yankees a year before.
CBS entered the musical instruments field by acquiring the Fender companies, as well as Electro-Music Inc. Rogers drums, Steinway pianos, Gemeinhardt flutes, Lyon & Healy harps, Rodgers organs, Gulbransen home organs; the sale was taken as a positive development, considering CBS's ability to bring in money and personnel who acquired a large inventory of Fender parts and unassembled guitars that were assembled and put to market. However, the sale led to a reduction of the quality of Fender's guitars while under the management of "cost-cutting" CBS. Several cosmetic changes occurred after 1965/1966, such as a larger headstock shape on certain guitars. Bound necks with block shaped position markers were introduced in 1966. A bolder black headstock logo, as well as a brushed aluminum
The Fender Mustang is a solid body electric guitar produced by the Fender Musical Instruments Corporation. It was introduced in 1964 as the basis of a major redesign of Fender's student models, the Musicmaster and Duo-Sonic, it was produced until 1982 and reissued in 1990. In the 1990s, the Mustang attained cult status as a result of its use by a number of alternative rock bands. Early examples are seen as the most collectible of all the short-scale Fender guitars; the Mustang features two single-coil pickups, an unusual pickup switching configuration, a unique vibrato system. It was available in two scale lengths; the Mustang has an offset waist, reminiscent of the Jazzmaster, but its overall styling followed the existing student models the Musicmaster and Duo-Sonic, the slight waist offset being the main change. After the release of the Mustang, the Musicmaster and Duo-Sonic were redesigned using the Mustang body. All three Mustang-bodied models were offered with optionally the 21 fret 22.5-inch neck, or a 22 fret 24-inch neck, but the 24-inch was overwhelmingly more popular and 3/4 scale examples are rare.
A 24-inch scale is still short, the same as the Fender Jaguar but a full inch and a half shorter than the Stratocaster and three-quarters of an inch shorter than the Gibson Les Paul. The short scale may improve ease of use for people with small hands, enhances the ability to use the tremolo arm for upbends; this short scale, combined with a unique and direct tremolo arm would make the Mustang a cult guitar in the 1990s. Before that, its low cost and marketing as a student guitar made it an obvious candidate for aftermarket upgrades pickup changes and amateur finishes, its wiring with the original pickups lent itself to custom modifications. In 1966 Fender issued the Fender Mustang Bass. A new bass body was designed for this with a similar offset body style to the Mustang guitar, a short scale was used. In 1969 Fender released the "Competition" Mustang with a "racing stripe" paint job and painted headstocks. Body contours were added at this time; the Competition Mustangs came in Competition Red, Competition Blue, Competition Orange.
This paint scheme was influenced by the Shelby Mustang cars of the late 1960s. In 1982 Fender discontinued both the Mustang and the Musicmaster II; these were the last of the offset student models to be made. Fender replaced the Mustang line with the short-lived Fender Bullet line of guitars and basses before relegating production of their student guitars to their Squier division. In 2016, Fender released the "Offset Series" lineup which included reissues of both the Duo-Sonic and the Mustang, the latter of, redesigned to include a six-saddle hardtail bridge similar to that of the Stratocaster and eliminating the usual switching array for a simplified two-pickup, three-position pickup selector; the pickups are out of phase with each other, so the middle both-pickup position has the twanginess of the out-of-phase position of the original instruments. In the following year, Squier would re-release the classic design as the Vintage Modified Mustang and a simplified, HH version of the Offset Series instrument as the Bullet Mustang.
In 1990 Fender re-issued the Mustang as a result of the vintage movement prevalent at the time. Among grunge and punk rock guitarists, Fender's discontinued models had become popular; such models had Fender quality, but were less expensive secondhand than vintage Stratocasters and Telecasters. The reissued Mustang is made in Japan and available in only the 24-inch scale. While the original Mustangs used poplar wood for the body, MG-72 Mustang reissues are made of the similar basswood, the newer MG-65 reissues revert to the original poplar; the natural-finished MG-77 reissue is made of ash. In 2011 Fender released a new Mustang model in the Pawn Shop series, called the Mustang Special; the model features an offset Mustang body shape and a 24-inch scale neck, but with humbucking pickups and a hard-tail Stratocaster bridge. In 2012 Fender announced a Kurt Cobain Signature Mustang; this model is based on Kurt's modified Mustangs. Instead of having 2 single coil pickups it has a Seymour Duncan JB humbucker in the bridge and a normal Mustang single coil in the neck.
It has an angled Fender adjusto-matic bridge instead of the standard Mustang bridge. Finish colors included Fiesta Red, Sonic Blue, Dark Lake Placid Blue with Competition Stripe, though by 2015 the Kurt Cobain Mustang was only produced in Sonic Blue, it will be the first Mustang model that will be sold in both right and left-handed versions in Europe. In Summer 2012, Squier released a new Mustang in the Vintage Modified series, with similar specs to the original versions, but using more modern materials. In mid-2013, Fender released the Modern Player Mustang, it featured two Fender-branded P-90 pickups, a modern 9.5" neck radius, was offered in Daphne Blue and Honeyburst. In late 2013, Fender introduced the American Special Mustang, the first production Mustang made in the United States since the original run was discontinued; the American Special Mustang was different from vintage models, eliminated many unconventional features of the original Mustang. It featured the traditional
The Fender Prodigy is a discontinued model of electric guitar produced by Fender from 1991 to 1993. It is one of Fender's attempts to compete with the superstrat-style guitars produced by Ibanez, Jackson/Charvel, Carvin Corporation and Yamaha. Since the Prodigy series was discontinued after about two and half years of production without a clear reason, it is considered one of Fender's rare models because of its limited production. Fender produced a Prodigy bass based on the Precision Bass Plus Deluxe featuring a P/J pickup layout, 2-band active circuitry and a "fine-tuner" Schaller Elite bridge assembly; the Prodigy series featured one humbucker at bridge position. The body shape was similar to that of the Stratocaster; the Prodigy was different from Fender's HM Stratocaster since it used Leo Fender's classic Synchronized tremolo system. The Prodigy II was introduced in 1992 with the Kahler locking nut system instead; the electronics differed in that the Prodigy featured a single volume and single tone control.
Traditional Stratocasters have a single volume, but have separate tone controls for the neck and middle pickup, with no tone control for the bridge pickup. Traditional Stratocasters have a rout on the face of the guitar for a somewhat large and angled output jack; this is missing from the Prodigy. It instead uses the third hole in the pickguard as the mounting position for the output jack. While Tony Bacon's book 50 Years of Fender mentions the Prodigy as being "among the first Fender guitars to receive attention at the company's new factory in Ensenada, Mexico", the headstock is imprinted with "Made in U. S. A." Sources at Fender attribute the majority of manufacture to the Corona, California plant
Acer is a genus of trees and shrubs known as maple. The genus is placed in the family Sapindaceae. There are 128 species, most of which are native to Asia, with a number appearing in Europe, northern Africa, North America. Only one species, Acer laurinum, extends to the Southern Hemisphere; the type species of the genus is the sycamore maple, Acer pseudoplatanus, the most common maple species in Europe. The maples have recognizable palmate leaves and distinctive winged fruits; the closest relatives of the maples are the horse chestnuts. Most maples are trees growing to a height of 10–45 m. Others are shrubs less than 10 meters tall with a number of small trunks originating at ground level. Most species are deciduous, many are renowned for their autumn leaf colour, but a few in southern Asia and the Mediterranean region are evergreen. Most are shade-tolerant when young and are riparian, understory, or pioneer species rather than climax overstory trees. There are a few exceptions such as sugar maple.
Many of the root systems are dense and fibrous, inhibiting the growth of other vegetation underneath them. A few species, notably Acer cappadocicum produce root sprouts, which can develop into clonal colonies. Maples are distinguished by opposite leaf arrangement; the leaves in most species are palmate veined and lobed, with 3 to 9 veins each leading to a lobe, one of, central or apical. A small number of species differ in having palmate compound, pinnate compound, pinnate veined or unlobed leaves. Several species, including Acer griseum, Acer mandshuricum, Acer maximowiczianum and Acer triflorum, have trifoliate leaves. One species, Acer negundo, has pinnately compound leaves that may be trifoliate or may have five, seven, or nine leaflets. A few, such as Acer laevigatum and Acer carpinifolium, have pinnately veined simple leaves. Maple species, such as Acer rubrum, may be dioecious or polygamodioecious; the flowers are regular and borne in racemes, corymbs, or umbels. They have four or five sepals, four or five petals about 1 – 6 mm long, four to ten stamens about 6 – 10 mm long, two pistils or a pistil with two styles.
The ovary is superior and has two carpels, whose wings elongate the flowers, making it easy to tell which flowers are female. Maples flower in late winter or early spring, in most species with or just after the appearance of the leaves, but in some before the trees leaf out. Maple flowers are green, orange or red. Though individually small, the effect of an entire tree in flower can be striking in several species; some maples are an early spring source of nectar for bees. The distinctive fruits are called samaras, "maple keys", "helicopters", "whirlybirds" or "polynoses"; these seeds occur in distinctive pairs each containing one seed enclosed in a "nutlet" attached to a flattened wing of fibrous, papery tissue. They are shaped to carry the seeds a considerable distance on the wind. People call them "helicopters" due to the way that they spin as they fall. During World War II, the US Army developed a special air drop supply carrier that could carry up to 65 pounds of supplies and was based on the Maple seed.
Seed maturation is in a few weeks to six months after flowering, with seed dispersal shortly after maturity. However, one tree can release hundreds of thousands of seeds at a time. Depending on the species, the seeds can be green to orange and big with thicker seed pods; the green seeds are released in pairs, sometimes with the stems still connected. The yellow seeds are released individually and always without the stems. Most species require stratification in order to germinate, some seeds can remain dormant in the soil for several years before germinating; the genus Acer together with genus Dipteronia are either classified in a family of their own, the Aceraceae, or else classified as members of the family Sapindaceae. Recent classifications, including the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group system, favour inclusion in Sapindaceae; when put in family Sapindaceae, genus Acer is put in subfamily Hippocastanoideae. The genus is subdivided by its morphology into a multitude of subsections. Fifty-four species of maples meet the International Union for Conservation of Nature criteria for being under threat of extinction in their native habitat.
The leaves are used as a food plant for the larvae of a number of the Lepidoptera order.. In high concentrations, like the greenstriped mapleworm, can feed on the leaves so much that they cause temporary defoliation of host maple trees. Aphids are very common sap-feeders on maples. In horticultural applications a dimethoate spray will solve this. In the United States and Canada, all maple species are threatened by the Asian long-horned beetle. Infestations have resulted in the destruction of thousands of maples and other tree species in Illinois, New Jersey and New York. Maples are affected by a number of fungal diseases. Several are susceptible to Verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium species, which can cause significant local mortality. Sooty bark disease, caused by Cryptostroma species, can kill trees that are under stress due to drought. Death of maples can be caused by Phytophthora root rot and Ganoderma root decay. Maple leaves in late summer and autumn are disfigured by "tar spot" caused by Rhytisma species and mildew caused by Uncinula species, though these diseases do not have an adverse effect on th
Pickup (music technology)
A pickup is a transducer that captures or senses mechanical vibrations produced by musical instruments stringed instruments such as the electric guitar, converts these to an electrical signal, amplified using an instrument amplifier to produce musical sounds through a loudspeaker in a speaker enclosure. The signal from a pickup can be recorded directly. Most electric guitars and electric basses use magnetic pickups. Acoustic guitars, upright basses and fiddles use a piezoelectric pickup. A typical magnetic pickup is a transducer that consists of one or more permanent magnets wrapped with a coil of several thousand turns of fine enameled copper wire; the magnet creates a magnetic field, focused by the pickup's pole piece or pieces. The permanent magnet in the pickup magnetises the guitar string above it. So the string is, in essence, a magnet itself and its magnetic field is in alignment with that of the permanent magnet that magnetized it; when the string is plucked, the magnetic field around it moves down with the string.
This moving magnetic field induces a current in the coil of the pickup. The pickup is connected with a patch cable to an amplifier, which amplifies the signal to a sufficient magnitude of power to drive a loudspeaker. A pickup can be connected to recording equipment via a patch cable; the pickup is most mounted on the body of the instrument, but can be attached to the bridge, neck or pickguard. Pickups have magnetic polepieces centered on each string. On most guitars, the strings are not parallel: they converge at the nut and diverge at the bridge. Thus, bridge and middle pickups have different polepiece spacings on the same guitar. There are string spacing between the poles. Spacing is measured either as a distance between 1st to 6th polepieces' centers, or as a distance between adjacent polepieces' centers; some high-output pickups employ strong magnets, thus creating more flux and thereby more output. This can be detrimental to the final sound because the magnet's pull on the strings can cause problems with intonation as well as damp the strings and reduce sustain.
Other high-output pickups have more turns of wire to increase the voltage generated by the string's movement. However, this increases the pickup's output resistance/impedance, which can affect high frequencies if the pickup is not isolated by a buffer amplifier or a DI unit; the turns of wire in proximity to each other have an equivalent self-capacitance that, when added to any cable capacitance present, resonates with the inductance of the winding. This resonance can accentuate certain frequencies; the more turns of wire in the winding, the higher the output voltage but the lower this resonance frequency. The inductive source impedance inherent in this type of transducer makes it less linear than other forms of pickups, such as piezo-electric or optical; the tonal quality produced by this nonlinearity is, subject to taste, some guitarists and luthiers consider it aesthetically superior to a more linear transducer. The external load consists of resistance and capacitance between the hot lead and shield in the guitar cable.
The electric cable has a capacitance, which can be a significant portion of the overall system capacitance. This arrangement of passive components forms a resistively-damped second-order low-pass filter. Pickups are designed to feed a high input impedance a megohm or more, a lowimpedance load reduces the high-frequency response of the pickup because of the filtering effect of the inductance.|date=January 2019 Single-coil pickups act like a directional antenna and are prone to pick up mains hum — nuisance alternating current electromagnetic interference from electrical power cables, power transformers, fluorescent light ballasts, video monitors or televisions — along with the musical signal. Mains hum consists of a fundamental signal at a nominal 50 or 60 Hz, depending on local current frequency, some harmonic content. To overcome this, the humbucking pickup was invented by Joseph Raymond "Ray" Butts, but Seth Lover of Gibson was working on one. Who developed it first is a matter of some debate, but Ray Butts was awarded the first patent and Seth Lover came next.
A humbucking pickup is composed of two coils. Each set of six magnetic poles is opposite in polarity. Since ambient hum from electrical devices reaches the coils as common-mode noise, it induces an equal voltage in each coil, but with opposite amplitudes; these cancel each other, while the signal from the guitar string is doubled. When wired in series, as is most common, the overall inductance of the pickup is increased, which lowers its resonance frequency and attenuates the higher frequencies, giving a less trebly tone than either of the two component single-coil pickups would give alone. An alternative wiring places the coils in buck parallel, which has a more neutral effect on resonant frequency; this pickup wiring is rare, as guitarists have come to expect that humbucking pickups'have a sound', are not so neutral. On fine jazz guitars, the parallel wiring produces cleaner sound, as the lowered so
Jazz bass is the use of the double bass or bass guitar to improvise accompaniment basslines and solos in a jazz or jazz fusion style. Players began using the double bass in jazz in the 1890s to supply the low-pitched walking basslines that outlined the chord progressions of the songs. From the 1920s and 1930s Swing and big band era, through 1940s Bebop and 1950s Hard Bop, to the 1960s-era "free jazz" movement, the resonant, woody sound of the double bass anchored everything from small jazz combos to large jazz big bands. Beginning in the early 1950s, some jazz bass players began to use the electric bass guitar in place of the double bass; the electric bass, easier to amplify to loud volumes onstage, gained particular prominence in the late 1960s and early 1970s jazz subgenre which blended jazz with the powerfully amplified electric instruments of rock music, creating jazz fusion. Most jazz bassists specialize in either the double bass or the electric bass, although the ability to "double" is common.
A small number of players, such as Stanley Clarke and John Patitucci, have achieved virtuoso skill on both instruments. Whether a jazz bassist is "comping" with a walking bassline or soloing, or playing on a double bass or an electric bass, they aim to create a rhythmic drive and "timefeel" that creates a sense of swing and groove. Beginning around 1890, the African-American communities in early New Orleans used a jazz ensemble which played a mixture of marches and dixieland music; this ensemble was a marching band with sousaphone supplying the bass line. As the music moved from playing for funerals on the street and into bars and brothels, the double bass replaced these wind instruments. Many early bassists doubled on both the "brass bass" and "string bass," as the instruments were often referred to. Bassists played "walking" basslines—scale-based lines that outlined the harmony and provided a foundation for the tunes; because an unamplified double bass is the quietest instrument in a jazz band, many players of the 1920s and 1930s used the slap style and pulling the strings to make a rhythmic "slap" sound against the fingerboard.
The slap style cuts through the sound of a band better than plucking the strings, make the bass more heard on early sound recordings, as the recording equipment of that time did not capture low frequencies well. For more about the slap style, see "Playing styles," below. Double bass players who have contributed to the evolution of jazz include the Swing era player Jimmy Blanton, who played with Duke Ellington, Oscar Pettiford, who pioneered the instrument's soloistic use in Bebop; the "cool" style of jazz was influenced by players such as Scott LaFaro and Percy Heath, whose solos were melodic. Paul Chambers achieved renown for being one of the early jazz bassists to play Bebop solos in arco style; the first player known to do, Slam Stewart, who would scat in octaves with his bowed bass in his solos, good examples of which can be found on the trio recordings he made with Art Tatum and Tiny Grimes. Ron Carter, is credited as a key figure of the modern school of jazz bass playing, he is one of the most-recorded bassists in jazz.
Free jazz was influenced by the composer/bassist Charles Mingus and Charlie Haden, best known for his work with Ornette Coleman. In the 1950s, some big band bandleaders began to ask their upright players to use the then-newly available Fender bass, the first available electric bass. In the 1970s, as jazz and rock music were blended by performers to create the "fusion" genre, players such as Jaco Pastorius began to develop a unique sound using the electric bass. Apart from jazz fusion and Latin-influenced jazz, the double bass is still used in jazz in the 2010s; the deep sound and woody tone of the plucked double bass is distinct from the sound of the fretted bass guitar. The bass guitar produces a different sound than the double bass, because its strings are stopped with the aid of metal frets; as well, bass guitars have a solid wood body, which means that the sound is produced by electronic amplification of the vibration of the strings. The solid body upright known as a "stick" bass or "EUB" variation is still used by bass players in salsa and timba bands, because its sound is so well suited to those styles.
The EUB is smaller and lighter than a double bass, making touring and travelling easier, its solid body enables bassists to play at a much higher volume with a bass amp without feedback. In jazz, since the 1950s, the double bass is played with amplification and it is played with the fingers, pizzicato style, except during some solos, where players may use the bow; the pizzicato style varies between different genres. Some players perform with the sides of one, two, or three fingers for walking basslines and slow tempo ballads, because this is purported to create a stronger and more solid tone; some players use the more nimble tips of the fingers to play fast-moving solo passages or to pluck for quiet tunes. Using amplification gives the player more control over the tone of the instrument, because amplifiers have equalization controls that can accentuate certain frequencies while de-accentuating some frequencies. While jazz double bass players use amplification, they use much smaller, lower-powered bass amplifiers and smaller speaker cabinets than those used by an