In Greek mythology, Styx is a deity and a river that forms the boundary between Earth and the Underworld called "Hades", the name of its ruler. The rivers Styx, Acheron and Cocytus all converge at the center of the underworld on a great marsh, which sometimes is called the Styx. According to Herodotus, the river Styx originates near Feneos. Styx is a goddess with prehistoric roots in Greek mythology as a daughter of Tethys, after whom the river is named and because of whom it had miraculous powers; the deities of the Greek pantheon swore all their oaths upon the river Styx because, according to classical mythology, during the Titan war, the goddess of the river, sided with Zeus. After the war, Zeus declared. Zeus swore to give Semele whatever she wanted and was obliged to follow through when he realized to his horror that her request would lead to her death. Helios promised his son Phaëton whatever he desired resulting in the boy's death. Myths related to such early deities did not survive long enough to be included in historic records, but tantalizing references exist among those that have been discovered.
According to some versions, Styx could make someone invulnerable. According to one tradition, Achilles was dipped in the waters of the river by his mother during his childhood, acquiring invulnerability, with exception of his heel, by which his mother held him; the only spot where Achilles was vulnerable was therefore that heel, where he was struck and killed by Paris's arrow during the Trojan War. This is the source of a metaphor for a vulnerable spot. Styx was a feature in the afterworld of classical Greek mythology, similar to the Christian area of Hell in texts such as The Divine Comedy and Paradise Lost; the ferryman Charon is described as having transported the souls of the newly dead across this river into the underworld. Dante put Phlegyas as ferryman over the Styx and made it the fifth circle of Hell, where the wrathful and sullen are punished by being drowned in the muddy waters for eternity, with the wrathful fighting each other. In ancient times some believed that a coin placed in the mouth of a dead person would pay the toll for the ferry across the river to the entrance of the underworld.
It was said. The ritual was performed by the relatives of the dead; the variant spelling Stix was sometimes used in translations of Classical Greek before the 20th century. By metonymy, the adjective stygian came to refer to anything dark and murky. Styx was the name of an Oceanid nymph, one of the three thousand daughters of Tethys and Oceanus, the goddess of the River Styx. In classical myths, her husband was Pallas and she gave birth to Zelus, Nike and Bia. In these myths, Styx supported Zeus in the Titanomachy, where she was said to be the first to rush to his aid. For this reason, her name was given the honor of being a binding oath for the deities. Knowledge of whether this was the original reason for the tradition did not survive into historical records following the religious transition that led to the pantheon of the classical era; as of 2 July 2013, Styx became the name of one of Pluto's moons. The other moons of Pluto have names from Greco-Roman mythology related to the underworld. Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Styx". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press
Anchises was a member of the royal family of Troy in Greek and Roman legend. He was said to have been the son of King Capys of Dardania and Themiste, daughter of Ilus, son of Tros, he is most famous for his treatment in Virgil's Aeneid. Anchises' brother was father of the priest Laocoon, he was a mortal lover of the goddess Aphrodite. One version is that Aphrodite seduced him, she revealed herself and informed him that they would have a son named Aeneas. Aphrodite had warned him that if he boasted of the affair, he would be blasted by the thunderbolt of Zeus, he did not heed her warning and was struck with a thunderbolt, which in different versions either blinds him or kills him. The principal early narrative of Aphrodite's seduction of Anchises and the birth of Aeneas is the Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite. According to the Bibliotheca and Aphrodite had another son, who died childless, he had a mortal wife named Eriopis, according to the scholiasts, he is credited with other children beside Aeneas and Lyrus.
Homer, in the Iliad, mentions a daughter named Hippodamia, their eldest, who married her cousin Alcathous. After the defeat of Troy in the Trojan War, the elderly Anchises was carried from the burning city by his son Aeneas, accompanied by Aeneas' wife Creusa, who died in the escape attempt, small son Ascanius; the subject is depicted in several paintings, including a famous version by Federico Barocci in the Galleria Borghese in Rome. The rescue is mentioned in a speech in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar when Cassius attempts to persuade Brutus to murder Caesar. Anchises himself was buried in Sicily many years later. Aeneas visited Hades and saw his father again in the Elysian Fields. Homer's Iliad mentions another Anchises, a wealthy native of Sicyon in Greece and father of Echepolus; the Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite details how Aphrodite seduced Anchises. It begins by describing, she has made goddesses fall in love with mortals. Not Zeus was able to escape her powers and to put her in her place, he caused her to lust after the handsome mortal Anchises.
Aphrodite first happens upon Anchises on the hills of Mount Ida. Anchises is described as having the beauty of an immortal. Aphrodite bathes, she returns to the Troad disguised as a mortal, finds Anchises alone in a hut. When Anchises first sees Aphrodite, he is convinced that she is a grace, or a nymph, she convinces him that she is a Phrygian princess and that Hermes brought her there to marry Anchises. Anchises is overcome with desire for her and declares that he must have her and the two of them make love. After they have sex, Aphrodite dresses herself; when she is finished dressing, she reveals herself to him. When Anchises realizes her identity he is terrified and full of regret, says that no good comes from sleeping with a goddess. Aphrodite comforts him by telling him that she will bear him a son by the name of Aeneas, who will be respected among the Trojans and whose offspring will prosper. To further comfort Anchises she goes on to tell him about two relationships: the relationship between Zeus and Ganymede and the relationship between Eos and Tithonus.
Both relationships are between a mortal who survives the relationship. She details how their son will be raised by nymphs until he is five years old, at which time she will bring Aeneas to him, she leaves, warning him not to reveal that she is the mother of his child or Zeus will smite him. The Aeneid by Virgil describes the journey of Aeneas after the fall of Troy. Anchises, the father of Aeneas, is a character in the epic. Though Anchises is dead for most of the epic, he still makes multiple appearances in it, oftentimes to advise Aeneas. Anchises' first major appearance comes in Book 2, he is mentioned. During the fall of Troy, Aeneas makes his way home to save Anchises, his wife Creusa, his son Ascanius. At first Anchises tells Aeneas to leave without him. Aeneas declares that they will all die in Troy. Creusa argues with Aeneas over his decision and while they are arguing a painless flame appears on Ascanius' head. Anchises notices prays to Jupiter for a sign that they must leave. Just they hear thunder and see a falling star.
This convinces Anchises to go willingly with Aeneas. Aeneas carries Anchises on his back, Anchises carries their household gods, Ascanius walks beside his father as they all flee Troy. Creusa is killed during the escape; as they leave Troy they meet up with other fleeing Trojans. Anchises is mentioned in Book 3 while Aeneas continues his tale of how the Trojans came to be in Carthage. Anchises serves as a advisor for the fleeing Trojans. After leaving Troy, the refugees make their way to Thrace and to Delos. In Delos. Apollo tells them. Anchises misinterprets this to mean Crete and so the Trojans head for Crete. There they establish a city but they are soon overwhelmed by a plague. Anchises instructs Aeneas to seek out the Delian oracle. Before he does, he is visited in his dreams by their household gods who inform him they are in the wrong place and they must go to Italy. Aeneas tells Anchises of this dream. Anchises realizes that Apollo must have meant for them to establish a ho
Stymfalia is a village and a former municipality in Corinthia, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform, it has formed part of the municipality of Sikyona, of which it is a municipal unit; the municipal unit has an area of 205.07 km2, while its population as of 2011 was 2,427. The seat of the municipality was in 41 km southwest of the town of Kiato; the municipal unit occupies a mountain valley with an average altitude of 600 metres. Mount Kyllene dominates it to the NW; the largest village is Kaisari, but the principal antiquities are just south of the modern village of Stymfalia, a hamlet of c. 150 inhabitants. In ancient Greece, lying in this valley of northwestern Arcadia, was famous as the site of one of the Labors of Hercules, the slaying of the Stymphalian birds. Hera, whose presence is never far from Heracles, was venerated at the site in an archaic form in which she took three phases, as maiden and widow. Pindar mentions an Olympic victor in the mule-cart race in his sixth Olympian Ode, urges the members of the choir to venerate their virginal Hera, a survival of pre-Olympian religion.
Pausanias mentions a statue of Dromeus, a long-distance runner from Stymphalos who won at all the Panhellenic Games in the mid-5th century BC. Little else is known of Stymphalos from ancient literature. Artemis was the principal divinity of the town and her temple seems still to have been in use in Roman times. One unusual aspect of the goddess is that her sanctuary is referred to in an inscription of the early 2nd century BC as that of Brauronian Artemis, an Athenian cult. An inscription commemorating Stymphalian hospitality to the people of Elateia was to be set up in the agora of Elateia and in the sanctuary of Brauronian Artemis at Stymphalos. Demeter and Hermes are epigraphically attested. Anastasios Orlandos excavated parts of the site for the Archaeological Society of Athens between 1924 and 1930. Since 1982, excavations of the site on the north shore of Lake Stymphalia have been under way, directed by Hector Williams for the University of British Columbia. Archaeological surveys and excavations have revealed a town refounded in the 4th century BC.
The city was laid out on a grid plan, with six-meter wide roads running north-south every thirty metres, which intersected major east-west avenues at intervals over a hundred metres. Houses have been identified, as have a theatre, a palaestra, a fountain house, several temples, the sanctuary, where an inscription preserving the letters POLIAD... found by Orlandos in 1925, but now lost, seems to indicate Athena Polias as the divinity worshipped, though no further confirmation of this has been found. A graffito on a sherd from the site refers to the goddess of Eilythyia. Large quantities of jewelry suggest a sanctuary frequented by women. In an annex to the temple, several dozen loom weights suggest the further presence of Athena in a weaving workshop; the sanctuary was destroyed by the Romans in 146 BC, but seems to have been at least revisited to judge from early to mid Roman pottery lamps from the area. There are four early Christian cemeteries. Just to the north of the ancient city are the remains of the medieval Cistercian monastery of Zaraka partially excavated by the Royal Canadian Institute.
There are various other smaller sites scattered around the valley, but as yet there has been no systematic survey of them. Stymphalos Excavations Kiato Greater Area
Corinthia is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of Peloponnese, it is situated in the north-eastern part of the Peloponnese peninsula. Corinthia borders on Achaea to the west and southwest, the Gulf of Corinth and Attica to the north, the Saronic Gulf to the east, Argolis to the south and Arcadia to the southwest; the Corinth Canal, carrying ship traffic between the Ionian and the Aegean seas, is about 4 km east of Corinth, cutting through the Isthmus of Corinth. Corinthia is seen as part of the wider metropolitan area of Athens, with municipalities, such as Agioi Theodoroi in the easternmost part of the regional unit, being considered suburbs of Athens; the area around Corinth and the western Saronic including the southeastern part are made up of fault lines including the Corinth Fault, the Poseidon Fault and a fault running from Perahcora to Agioi Theodoroi. More faults are near Kiras Sofiko; the eastern coastlands of Corinthia are made up of pastures and farmlands where olives, grapes and vegetables are cultivated.
The rest of Corinthia is mountainous. Its tallest mountain is Kyllini in its west and the largest lake is Lake Stymphalos, situated in the southwest; the reservoir will become one of the largest lakes after its completion. The climate of Corinthia consists of hot summers and mild winters in the coastal areas and somewhat colder winters with occasional snowfalls in the mountainous areas; the regional unit Corinthia is subdivided into 6 municipalities. These are: Corinth Loutraki-Perachora-Agioi Theodoroi Nemea Sikyona Velo-Vocha Xylokastro-Evrostina As a part of the 2011 Kallikratis government reform, the regional unit Corinthia was created out of the former prefecture Corinthia; the prefecture had the same territory as the present regional unit. At the same time, the municipalities were reorganised, according to the table below; the main cities and towns of Corinthia are: Corinth 30,176 Loutraki 13,353 Kiato 9,812 Xylokastro 5,715 From 1833 to 1899, the Corinthia prefecture included Argolis and was known as Argolidocorinthia.
It included Hydra and Kythira. Argolis joined Corinthia to reform Argolidocorinthia again in 1909. Forty years in 1949, the prefecture was separated from Argolis; the highway was first paved at the turn of the 20th century. The mid to late-20th century saw the population shifting from agriculture to other jobs, as people migrated to larger towns and cities as well as other parts of the world. In the 1960s, the motorway GR-8A was constructed to handle the increasing traffic between Corinth and Athens and allow higher speed limits; the section from the old Corinth interchange eastward in Corinthia was opened in 1962 and the section west of Corinth was added in 1969. The new highway had a significant effect on the local industry, as it lowered the cost of transportation of goods between Corinthia and the Athens metropolitan area. In late 2006, the prefect of Corinthia announced the construction of a new dam, to be located 5 to 7 km south of Kiato and Sicyon, near Stimanika, over the Elissos River.
It will be the second largest body of water in Corinthia. The dam will be designed to withstand natural disasters, including flooding. On July 17, 2007, a forest fire struck the area around its castle; the main sources of income are goods and services, manufacturing and agriculture. Several major roadways are situated within Corinthia. Motorways: Olympia Odos Moreas Motorway Highways-National Roads: Greek National Road 7 Greek National Road 8 Greek National Road 66 Top Channel - Corinth Notable attractions include Ancient Corinth with its acropolis, the Corinth Canal, the thermal springs of Loutraki, the archaeological sites of Nemea and the Heraion of Perachora. List of settlements in Corinthia korinthia.net The Ultimate guide for Corinthia GTP - Corinthia Geomorphological Survey of Eastern Korinthia KRRC Geomorphology Xenios Magazine articles on Corinthia Kiato
Publius Vergilius Maro called Virgil or Vergil in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period. He wrote three of the most famous poems in Latin literature: the Eclogues, the Georgics, the epic Aeneid. A number of minor poems, collected in the Appendix Vergiliana, are sometimes attributed to him. Virgil is traditionally ranked as one of Rome's greatest poets, his Aeneid has been considered the national epic of ancient Rome since the time of its composition. Modeled after Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, the Aeneid follows the Trojan refugee Aeneas as he struggles to fulfill his destiny and reach Italy, where his descendants Romulus and Remus were to found the city of Rome. Virgil's work has had wide and deep influence on Western literature, most notably Dante's Divine Comedy, in which Virgil appears as Dante's guide through Hell and Purgatory. Virgil's biographical tradition is thought to depend on a lost biography by Varius, Virgil's editor, incorporated into the biography by Suetonius and the commentaries of Servius and Donatus, the two great commentators on Virgil's poetry.
Although the commentaries no doubt record much factual information about Virgil, some of their evidence can be shown to rely on inferences made from his poetry and allegorizing. The tradition holds that Virgil was born in the village near Mantua in Cisalpine Gaul. Analysis of his name has led to beliefs. Modern speculation is not supported by narrative evidence either from his own writings or his biographers. Macrobius says, he attended schools in Cremona, Mediolanum and Naples. After considering a career in rhetoric and law, the young Virgil turned his talents to poetry. According to Robert Seymour Conway, the only ancient source which reports the actual distance between Andes and Mantua is a surviving fragment from the works of Marcus Valerius Probus. Probus flourished during the reign of Nero. Probus reports. Conway translated this to a distance of 28 English miles. Little is known about the family of Virgil, his father belonged to gens Vergilia, his mother belonged to gens Magia. According to Conway, gens Vergilia is poorly attested in inscriptions from the entire Northern Italy, where Mantua is located.
Among thousands of surviving ancient inscriptions from this region, there are only 8 or 9 mentions of individuals called "Vergilius" or "Vergilia". Out of these mentions, three appear in inscriptions from Verona, one in an inscription from Calvisano. Conway theorized. Calvisano is located 30 Roman miles from Mantua, would fit with Probus' description of Andes; the inscription in this case is a votive offering to the Matronae by a woman called Vergilia, asking the goddesses to deliver from danger another woman, called Munatia. Conway notes that the offering belongs to a common type for this era, where women made requests for deities to preserve the lives of female loved ones who were pregnant and were about to give birth. In most cases, the woman making the request was the mother of a woman, pregnant or otherwise in danger. Though there is another inscription from Calvisano, where a woman asks the deities to preserve the life of her sister. Munatia, the woman who Vergilia wished to protect, was a close relative of Vergilia or Vergilia's daughter.
The name "Munatia" indicates that this woman was a member of gens Munatia, makes it that Vergilia married into this family. According to the commentators, Virgil received his first education when he was five years old and he went to Cremona and Rome to study rhetoric and astronomy, which he soon abandoned for philosophy. From Virgil's admiring references to the neoteric writers Pollio and Cinna, it has been inferred that he was, for a time, associated with Catullus' neoteric circle. According to Servius, schoolmates considered Virgil shy and reserved, he was nicknamed "Parthenias" or "maiden" because of his social aloofness. Virgil seems to have suffered bad health throughout his life and in some ways lived the life of an invalid. According to the Catalepton, he began to write poetry while in the Epicurean school of Siro the Epicurean at Naples. A group of small works attributed to the youthful Virgil by the commentators survive collected under the title Appendix Vergiliana, but are considered spurious by scholars.
One, the Catalepton, consists of fourteen short poems, some of which may be Virgil's, another, a short narrative poem titled the Culex, was attributed to Virgil as early as the 1st century AD. The biographical tradition asserts that Virgil began the hexameter Eclogues in 42 BC and it is thought that the collection was published around 39–38 BC, although this is controversial; the Eclogues are a group of ten poems modeled on the bucolic hexameter poetry of the Hellenistic poet Theocritus. After his victory in the Battle of Philippi in 42 BC, fought against the army led by the assassins of Julius Caesar, Octavian tried to pay off his veterans with land expropriated from towns in northern Italy including, according to the traditi
Evander of Pallene
In Roman mythology, Evander was a culture hero from Arcadia, who brought the Greek pantheon and alphabet to Italy, where he founded the city of Pallantium on the future site of Rome, sixty years before the Trojan War. He instituted the festival of the Lupercalia. Evander was deified after his death and an altar was constructed to him on the Aventine Hill. In addition, mention that one of the stories about Rome is that it was an Arcadian colony and was founded by Evander. Dionysius of Halicarnassus writes that Evander was the son of Hermes and a local nymph of the Arcadians, called Themis, he mention that the writers of the early history of Rome called her, in their native language, Carmenta. Strabo writes that the Romans honour the mother of Evander, regarding her as one of the nymphs, have renamed her Carmenta. Evander wisdom was beyond that of all Arcadians, his son Pallas died childless. Dionysius of Halicarnassus mention that some writers, including Polybius of Megalopolis say that Lavinia was the daughter of Evander and had a son with Heracles, named Pallas.
Evander plays a major role in Virgil's Aeneid Books VIII-XII. Previous to the Trojan War, Evander gathered a group of natives to a city he founded in Italy near the Tiber river, which he named Pallantium. Virgil states that he named the city in honor of his Arcadian ancestor, although Pausanias and Dionysius of Halicarnassus say that Evander's birth city was Pallantium in Arcadia, after which he named the new city; the oldest tradition of its founding ascribes to Evander the erection of the Great Altar of Hercules in the Forum Boarium. In Aeneid, VIII, where Aeneas and his crew first come upon Evander and his people, they were venerating Hercules for dispatching the giant Cacus. Virgil's listeners would have related this scene to the same Great Altar of Hercules in the Forum Boarium of their own day, one detail among many in the Aeneid that Virgil used to link the heroic past of myth with the Age of Augustus. According to Virgil, Hercules was returning from Gades with Geryon's cattle when Evander entertained him.
Evander became the first to raise an altar to Hercules' heroism. This archaic altar was destroyed in the Great Fire of Rome, AD 64; because of their traditional ties, Evander aids Aeneas in his war against Turnus and the Rutuli: the Arcadian had known the father of Aeneas, before the Trojan War, shares a common ancestry through Atlas with Aeneas's family. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Evander". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press
Pausanias was a Greek traveler and geographer of the second-century AD, who lived in the time of Roman emperors Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius. He is famous for his Description of Greece, a lengthy work that describes ancient Greece from his first-hand observations; this work provides crucial information for making links between classical literature and modern archaeology. Andrew Stewart assesses him as: A careful, pedestrian writer...interested not only in the grandiose or the exquisite but in unusual sights and obscure ritual. He is careless or makes unwarranted inferences, his guides or his own notes sometimes mislead him, yet his honesty is unquestionable, his value without par. Pausanias was born in 110 AD into a Greek family and was a native of Lydia. Before visiting Greece, he had been to Antioch and Jerusalem, to the banks of the River Jordan. In Egypt, he had seen the pyramids. While at the temple of Ammon, he had been shown the hymn once sent to that shrine by Pindar. In Macedonia, he appears to have seen.
Crossing over to Italy, he had seen something of the wonders of Rome. He was one of the first known to write of seeing the ruins of Troy, Alexandria Troas, Mycenae. Pausanias' Description of Greece is in each dedicated to some portion of Greece, he begins his tour in Attica, where the city of its demes dominate the discussion. Subsequent books describe Corinthia, Messenia, Achaea, Boetia and Ozolian Locris; the project is more than topographical. Pausanias digresses from the description of architectural and artistic objects to review the mythological and historical underpinnings of the society that produced them; as a Greek writing under the auspices of the Roman empire, he was in an awkward cultural space, between the glories of the Greek past he was so keen to describe and the realities of a Greece beholden to Rome as a dominating imperial force. His work bears the marks of his attempt to navigate that space and establish an identity for Roman Greece, he is not a naturalist by any means, although from time to time, he does comment on the physical realities of the Greek landscape.
He notices the pine trees on the sandy coast of Elis, the deer and the wild boars in the oak woods of Phelloe, the crows amid the giant oak trees of Alalcomenae. It is in the last section that Pausanias touches on the products of nature, such as the wild strawberries of Helicon, the date palms of Aulis, the olive oil of Tithorea, as well as the tortoises of Arcadia and the "white blackbirds" of Cyllene. Pausanias is most of Delphi, yet in the most secluded regions of Greece, he is fascinated by all kinds of depictions of deities, holy relics, many other sacred and mysterious objects. At Thebes he views the shields of those who died at the Battle of Leuctra, the ruins of the house of Pindar, the statues of Hesiod, Arion and Orpheus in the grove of the Muses on Helicon, as well as the portraits of Corinna at Tanagra and of Polybius in the cities of Arcadia. Pausanias has the instincts of an antiquary; as his modern editor, Christian Habicht, has said, In general, he prefers the old to the new, the sacred to the profane.
Some magnificent and dominating structures, such as the Stoa of King Attalus in the Athenian Agora or the Exedra of Herodes Atticus at Olympia are not mentioned. Unlike a Baedeker guide, in Periegesis Pausanias stops for a brief excursus on a point of ancient ritual or to tell an apposite myth, in a genre that would not become popular again until the early nineteenth century. In the topographical part of his work, Pausanias is fond of digressions on the wonders of nature, the signs that herald the approach of an earthquake, the phenomena of the tides, the ice-bound seas of the north, the noonday sun that at the summer solstice, casts no shadow at Syene. While he never doubts the existence of the deities and heroes, he sometimes criticizes the myths and legends relating to them, his descriptions of monuments of art are unadorned. They bear the impression of reality, their accuracy is confirmed by the extant remains, he is frank in his confessions of ignorance. When he quotes a book at second hand he takes pains to say so.
The work left faint traces in the known Greek corpus. "It was not read", Habicht relates. The only manuscripts of Pausanias are three fifteenth-century copies, full of errors and lacunae, which all appear to depend on a single manuscript that survived to be copied. Niccolò Niccoli had this archetype in Florence in 1418. At his death in 1437, it went to the library of San Marco, Florence it disappeared after 1500; until twentieth-century archaeologists concluded that Pausanias was a reliable guide to the sites they were excavating, Pausanias was la