Binomial nomenclature called binominal nomenclature or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a binomen, binominal name or a scientific name; the first part of the name – the generic name – identifies the genus to which the species belongs, while the second part – the specific name or specific epithet – identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong within this genus to the species Homo sapiens. Tyrannosaurus rex is the most known binomial; the formal introduction of this system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus beginning with his work Species Plantarum in 1753. But Gaspard Bauhin, in as early as 1623, had introduced in his book Pinax theatri botanici many names of genera that were adopted by Linnaeus; the application of binomial nomenclature is now governed by various internationally agreed codes of rules, of which the two most important are the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature for animals and the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants.
Although the general principles underlying binomial nomenclature are common to these two codes, there are some differences, both in the terminology they use and in their precise rules. In modern usage, the first letter of the first part of the name, the genus, is always capitalized in writing, while that of the second part is not when derived from a proper noun such as the name of a person or place. Both parts are italicized when a binomial name occurs in normal text, thus the binomial name of the annual phlox is now written as Phlox drummondii. In scientific works, the authority for a binomial name is given, at least when it is first mentioned, the date of publication may be specified. In zoology "Patella vulgata Linnaeus, 1758"; the name "Linnaeus" tells the reader who it was that first published a description and name for this species of limpet. "Passer domesticus". The original name given by Linnaeus was Fringilla domestica; the ICZN does not require that the name of the person who changed the genus be given, nor the date on which the change was made, although nomenclatorial catalogs include such information.
In botany "Amaranthus retroflexus L." – "L." is the standard abbreviation used in botany for "Linnaeus". "Hyacinthoides italica Rothm. – Linnaeus first named this bluebell species Scilla italica. The name is composed of two word-forming elements: "bi", a Latin prefix for two, "-nomial", relating to a term or terms; the word "binomium" was used in Medieval Latin to mean a two-term expression in mathematics. Prior to the adoption of the modern binomial system of naming species, a scientific name consisted of a generic name combined with a specific name, from one to several words long. Together they formed a system of polynomial nomenclature; these names had two separate functions. First, to designate or label the species, second, to be a diagnosis or description. In a simple genus, containing only two species, it was easy to tell them apart with a one-word genus and a one-word specific name; such "polynomial names" may sometimes look like binomials, but are different. For example, Gerard's herbal describes various kinds of spiderwort: "The first is called Phalangium ramosum, Branched Spiderwort.
The other... is aptly termed Phalangium Ephemerum Virginianum, Soon-Fading Spiderwort of Virginia". The Latin phrases are short descriptions, rather than identifying labels; the Bauhins, in particular Caspar Bauhin, took some important steps towards the binomial system, by pruning the Latin descriptions, in many cases to two words. The adoption by biologists of a system of binomial nomenclature is due to Swedish botanist and physician Carl von Linné, more known by his Latinized name Carl Linnaeus, it was in his 1753 Species Plantarum that he first began using a one-word "trivial name" together with a generic name in a system of binomial nomenclature. This trivial name is what is now known as specific name; the Bauhins' genus names were retained in many of these, but the descriptive part was reduced to a single word. Linnaeus's trivial names introduced an important new idea, namely that the function of a name could be to give a species a unique label; this meant. Thus Gerard's Phalangium ephemerum virginianum became Tradescantia virgi
Plants are multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. Plants were treated as one of two kingdoms including all living things that were not animals, all algae and fungi were treated as plants. However, all current definitions of Plantae exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes. By one definition, plants form the clade Viridiplantae, a group that includes the flowering plants and other gymnosperms and their allies, liverworts and the green algae, but excludes the red and brown algae. Green plants obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts that are derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria, their chloroplasts contain b, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic or mycotrophic and have lost the ability to produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations, although asexual reproduction is common.
There are about 320 thousand species of plants, of which the great majority, some 260–290 thousand, are seed plants. Green plants provide a substantial proportion of the world's molecular oxygen and are the basis of most of Earth's ecosystems on land. Plants that produce grain and vegetables form humankind's basic foods, have been domesticated for millennia. Plants have many cultural and other uses, as ornaments, building materials, writing material and, in great variety, they have been the source of medicines and psychoactive drugs; the scientific study of plants is known as a branch of biology. All living things were traditionally placed into one of two groups and animals; this classification may date from Aristotle, who made the distincton between plants, which do not move, animals, which are mobile to catch their food. Much when Linnaeus created the basis of the modern system of scientific classification, these two groups became the kingdoms Vegetabilia and Animalia. Since it has become clear that the plant kingdom as defined included several unrelated groups, the fungi and several groups of algae were removed to new kingdoms.
However, these organisms are still considered plants in popular contexts. The term "plant" implies the possession of the following traits multicellularity, possession of cell walls containing cellulose and the ability to carry out photosynthesis with primary chloroplasts; when the name Plantae or plant is applied to a specific group of organisms or taxon, it refers to one of four concepts. From least to most inclusive, these four groupings are: Another way of looking at the relationships between the different groups that have been called "plants" is through a cladogram, which shows their evolutionary relationships; these are not yet settled, but one accepted relationship between the three groups described above is shown below. Those which have been called "plants" are in bold; the way in which the groups of green algae are combined and named varies between authors. Algae comprise several different groups of organisms which produce food by photosynthesis and thus have traditionally been included in the plant kingdom.
The seaweeds range from large multicellular algae to single-celled organisms and are classified into three groups, the green algae, red algae and brown algae. There is good evidence that the brown algae evolved independently from the others, from non-photosynthetic ancestors that formed endosymbiotic relationships with red algae rather than from cyanobacteria, they are no longer classified as plants as defined here; the Viridiplantae, the green plants – green algae and land plants – form a clade, a group consisting of all the descendants of a common ancestor. With a few exceptions, the green plants have the following features in common, they undergo closed mitosis without centrioles, have mitochondria with flat cristae. The chloroplasts of green plants are surrounded by two membranes, suggesting they originated directly from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria. Two additional groups, the Rhodophyta and Glaucophyta have primary chloroplasts that appear to be derived directly from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria, although they differ from Viridiplantae in the pigments which are used in photosynthesis and so are different in colour.
These groups differ from green plants in that the storage polysaccharide is floridean starch and is stored in the cytoplasm rather than in the plastids. They appear to have had a common origin with Viridiplantae and the three groups form the clade Archaeplastida, whose name implies that their chloroplasts were derived from a single ancient endosymbiotic event; this is the broadest modern definition of the term'plant'. In contrast, most other algae not only have different pigments but have chloroplasts with three or four surrounding membranes, they are not close relatives of the Archaeplastida having acquired chloroplasts separately from ingested or symbiotic green and red algae. They are thus not included in the broadest modern definition of the plant kingdom, although they were in the past; the green plants or Viridiplantae were traditionally divided into the green algae (including
Frithia pulchra, fairy elephant’s feet, is a species of flowering plant in the fig‑marigold family Aizoaceae, endemic to Gauteng Province, South Africa. Its natural habitat is temperate grassland with high summer rainfall. A tiny stemless succulent growing to just 10 cm tall and 20 cm broad, it has bulbous oblong leaves with leaf windows at the tip. During periods of drought it has the ability to shrink beneath the soil surface, thus avoiding excessive desiccation, but making it difficult to find, it is named for Frank Frith, a Johannesburg gardener who showed specimens to N. E. Brown, a botanist at Kew Gardens, while on a visit to London, UK, in 1925; the Latin specific epithet pulchra means “beautiful”. It does not survive frosts, so in temperate areas it needs to be cultivated under glass. In the UK it has gained the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit. Pfab, M. F. & Victor, J. 2003. Frithia pulchra. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 21 August 2007
Namibia the Republic of Namibia, is a country in southern Africa. Its western border is the Atlantic Ocean. Although it does not border Zimbabwe, less than 200 metres of the Zambezi River separates the two countries. Namibia gained independence from South Africa on 21 March 1990, following the Namibian War of Independence, its capital and largest city is Windhoek, it is a member state of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community, the African Union, the Commonwealth of Nations. Namibia, the driest country in Sub-Saharan Africa, was inhabited since early times by the San and Nama peoples. Around the 14th century, immigrating Bantu peoples arrived as part of the Bantu expansion. Since the Bantu groups, the largest being the Ovambo, have dominated the population of the country. In 1878, the Cape of Good Hope a British colony, had annexed the port of Walvis Bay and the offshore Penguin Islands. In 1884 the German Empire established rule over most of the territory as a protectorate.
It began to develop infrastructure and farming and maintained this German colony until 1915, when South African forces defeated its military. In 1920, after the end of World War I, the League of Nations mandated the country to the United Kingdom, under administration by South Africa, it imposed its laws, including racial rules. From 1948, with the National Party elected to power, South Africa applied apartheid to what was known as South West Africa. In the 20th century and demands for political representation by native African political activists seeking independence resulted in the UN assuming direct responsibility over the territory in 1966, but South Africa maintained de facto rule. In 1973 the UN recognised the South West Africa People's Organisation as the official representative of the Namibian people. Following continued guerrilla warfare, South Africa installed an interim administration in Namibia in 1985. Namibia obtained full independence from South Africa in 1990. However, Walvis Bay and the Penguin Islands remained under South African control until 1994.
Namibia has a population of a stable multi-party parliamentary democracy. Agriculture, herding and the mining industry – including mining for gem diamonds, gold and base metals – form the basis of its economy; the large, arid Namib Desert has resulted in Namibia being overall one of the least densely populated countries in the world. The name of the country is derived from the Namib Desert, considered to be the oldest desert in the world; the name Namib itself is of Nama origin and means "vast place". Before its independence in 1990, the area was known first as German South-West Africa as South-West Africa, reflecting the colonial occupation by the Germans and the South Africans; the dry lands of Namibia have been inhabited since early times by San and Nama. Around the 14th century, immigrating Bantu people began to arrive during the Bantu expansion from central Africa. From the late 18th century onward, Oorlam people from Cape Colony crossed the Orange River and moved into the area that today is southern Namibia.
Their encounters with the nomadic Nama tribes were peaceful. They received the missionaries accompanying the Oorlam well, granting them the right to use waterholes and grazing against an annual payment. On their way further north, the Oorlam encountered clans of the Herero at Windhoek and Okahandja, who resisted their encroachment; the Nama-Herero War broke out in 1880, with hostilities ebbing only after the German Empire deployed troops to the contested places and cemented the status quo among the Nama and Herero. The first Europeans to disembark and explore the region were the Portuguese navigators Diogo Cão in 1485 and Bartolomeu Dias in 1486, but the Portuguese did not try to claim the area. Like most of interior Sub-Saharan Africa, Namibia was not extensively explored by Europeans until the 19th century. At that time traders and settlers came principally from Sweden. In the late 19th century, Dorsland Trekkers crossed the area on their way from the Transvaal to Angola; some of them settled in Namibia instead of continuing their journey.
Namibia became a German colony in 1884 under Otto von Bismarck to forestall perceived British encroachment and was known as German South West Africa. The Palgrave Commission by the British governor in Cape Town determined that only the natural deep-water harbor of Walvis Bay was worth occupying and thus annexed it to the Cape province of British South Africa. From 1904 to 1907, the Herero and the Namaqua took up arms against brutal German colonialism. In calculated punitive action by the German occupiers, government officials ordered extinction of the natives in the Herero and Namaqua genocide. In what has been called the "first genocide of the 20th century", the Germans systematically killed 10,000 Nama and 65,000 Herero; the survivors, when released from detention, were subjected to a policy of dispossession, forced labor, racial segregation, and
Caryophyllales is an order of flowering plants that includes the cacti, amaranths, ice plants and many carnivorous plants. Many members are succulent, having fleshy leaves; the members of Caryophyllales include about 6% of eudicot species. This order is part of the core eudicots; the Caryophyllales contains 33 families, 692 genera and 11,155 species. The monophyly of the Caryophyllales has been supported by DNA sequences, cytochrome c sequence data and heritable characters such as anther wall development and vessel-elements with simple perforations; as with all taxa, the circumscription of Caryophyllales has changed within various classification systems. All systems recognize a core of families with centrospermous seeds. More recent treatments have expanded the Caryophyllales to include many carnivorous plants. Although the monophyly of the order has been supported, their placement is still uncertain. Systematists are undecided on whether Caryophyllales should be placed within the rosid complex or sister to the asterid clade.
The possible connection between sympetalous angiosperms and Caryophyllales was presaged by Bessey and others. This primitive flower might well be found in centrospermal stock as Wernham and Hutchinson have suggested.' "Caryophyllales is separated into two suborders: Polygonineae. These two suborders were recognized as two orders and Caryophyllales. Kewaceae, Macarthuriaceae and Petiveriaceae were added in APG IV; as circumscribed by the APG III system, this order includes the same families as the APG II system plus the new families, Lophiocarpaceae, Montiaceae and Anacampserotaceae. Family Achatocarpaceae family Aizoaceae family Amaranthaceae family Anacampserotaceae family Ancistrocladaceae family Asteropeiaceae family Barbeuiaceae family Basellaceae family Cactaceae family Caryophyllaceae family Didiereaceae family Dioncophyllaceae family Droseraceae family Drosophyllaceae family Frankeniaceae family Gisekiaceae family Halophytaceae family Kewaceae family Limeaceae family Lophiocarpaceae family Macarthuriaceae family Microteaceae family Molluginaceae family Montiaceae family Nepenthaceae family Nyctaginaceae family Petiveriaceae family Physenaceae family Phytolaccaceae family Plumbaginaceae family Polygonaceae family Portulacaceae family Rhabdodendraceae family Sarcobataceae family Simmondsiaceae family Stegnospermataceae family Talinaceae family Tamaricaceae As circumscribed by the APG II system, this order includes well-known plants like cacti, spinach, rhubarb, venus fly traps, bougainvillea.
Recent molecular and biochemical evidence has resolved additional well-supported clades within the Caryophyllales. Order Caryophyllales family Achatocarpaceae family Aizoaceae family Amaranthaceae family Anacampserotaceae family Ancistrocladaceae family Asteropeiaceae family Barbeuiaceae family Basellaceae family Cactaceae family Caryophyllaceae family Didiereaceae family Dioncophyllaceae family Droseraceae family Drosophyllaceae family Frankeniaceae family Gisekiaceae family Halophytaceae family Limeaceae family Lophiocarpaceae family Molluginaceae family Montiaceae family Nepenthaceae family Nyctaginaceae family Physenaceae family Phytolaccaceae family Plumbaginaceae family Polygonaceae family Portulacaceae family Rhabdodendraceae family Sarcobataceae family Simmondsiaceae family Stegnospermataceae family Talinaceae family Tamaricaceae This represents a slight change from the APG system, of 1998 order Caryophyllales family Achatocarpaceae family Aizoaceae family Amaranthaceae family Ancistrocladaceae family Asteropeiaceae family Basellaceae family Cactaceae family Caryophyllaceae family Didiereaceae family Dioncophyllaceae family Droseraceae family Drosophyllaceae family Frankeniaceae family Molluginaceae family Nepenthaceae family Nyctaginaceae family Physenaceae family Phytolaccaceae family Plumbaginaceae family Polygonaceae family Portulacaceae family Rhabdodendraceae family Sarcobataceae family Simmondsiaceae family Stegnospermataceae family Tamaricaceae The Cronquist system recognised the order, with this circumscription: order Caryophyllales family Achatocarpaceae family Aizoaceae family Amaranthaceae family Basellaceae family Cactaceae family Caryophyllaceae family Chenopodiaceae family Didiereaceae family Nyctaginaceae family Phytolaccaceae family Portulacaceae family MolluginaceaeThe difference with the order as recognized by APG lies in the first place in the concept of "order".
The APG favours much larger orders and families, the order Caryophyllales sensu APG should rather be compared to subclass Caryophyllidae sensu Cronquist. A part of the difference lies with; the plants in the Stegnospermataceae and Barbeuiaceae were included in Cronquist's Phytolaccaceae. The Chenopodiaceae are included in Amaranthaceae by APG. New to the order are the Asteropeiaceae and Physenaceae, each containing a single genus, two genera from Cronquist's order Nepenthales. Earlier systems, such as the Wettstein system, last edition in 1935, the Engler system
Leaf window known as epidermal window, is a specialized leaf structure consisting of a translucent area where sunlight can enter into the interior surfaces of the plant's modified leaf where photosynthesis can occur. This is known as fenestration; the translucent structure may include epidermal tissue, in some succulent plants it consists of several cell layers of parenchyma, which may function as water-storage tissue. It can appear as a large continuous patch, a variegated or reticulated region, or as numerous small spots; this structural adaptation is found in certain succulent plants native to arid climates, which allow much of the plant to remain beneath the soil surface where it is protected from desiccation of extreme winds and heat while optimizing the absorption of light by increasing the photosynthetic surface area. Many of the known species containing leaf windows are native to South Africa and neighbouring countries; the primary function of the translucent windows on the leaf epidermis is to increase the absorption of radiant energy, thereby the rate of photosynthesis.
Epidermal windows are situated at the apex of leaves, allowing unobstructed sunlight to be captured and utilized when the plant is buried below the surface of the soil. The absence of stomata in the translucent tissue of the window prevents water loss in the plant; this allows succulents to minimize the exposure of leaf surface area to the outside environment and reduce the risk of desiccation under intense heat. The actual green, photosynthesizing surface is hidden in the underground part of the plant, so that it collects only the diffused light that strikes the windows, which in turn focusses and channels it to the leaves' inside surface. Experiments in the Lithops species of succulents, have shown that the size of leaf windows correlates inversely with habitat solar irradiance. Epidermal windows of plants growing in regions of high irradiance and low-rainfall were smaller than of those plants which grew in cloudy, high-rainfall regions, it is presumed that the size variation evolved to allow individual plants to set their optimal uptake of sunlight based on its environment.
Carnivorous plants can make use of by growing traps which use sunlight to lure and/or confuse insects and increase the effectiveness of the trap. Genera of plants with numerous species having translucent epidermal windows include: Bulbine spp. Conophytum spp. Fenestraria spp. Frithia spp. Haworthia spp. Lithops spp. Pleiospilos spp. Sarracenia spp. Peperomia spp.: notably P. columella and P. nivalisSeveral other plant species have epidermal windows: Cephalotus follicularis Darlingtonia californica Senecio rowleyanusPlants with leaf windows are sometimes known as window plants, though this is the common name used to refer to Fenestraria rhopalophylla. Perforate leaf, leaves which have holes
Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation. Its aim is to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species. Jimmy Wales stated that editors are not required to fax in their degrees, but that submissions will have to pass muster with a technical audience. Wikispecies is available under the GNU Free Documentation License and CC BY-SA 3.0. Started in September 2004, with biologists across the world invited to contribute, the project had grown a framework encompassing the Linnaean taxonomy with links to Wikipedia articles on individual species by April 2005. Benedikt Mandl co-ordinated the efforts of several people who are interested in getting involved with the project and contacted potential supporters in early summer 2004. Databases were evaluated and the administrators contacted, some of them have agreed on providing their data for Wikispecies. Mandl defined two major tasks: Figure out how the contents of the data base would need to be presented—by asking experts, potential non-professional users and comparing that with existing databases Figure out how to do the software, which hardware is required and how to cover the costs—by asking experts, looking for fellow volunteers and potential sponsorsAdvantages and disadvantages were discussed by the wikimedia-I mailing list.
The board of directors of the Wikimedia Foundation voted by 4 to 0 in favor of the establishment of a Wikispecies. The project is hosted at species.wikimedia.org. It was merged to a sister project of Wikimedia Foundation on September 14, 2004. On October 10, 2006, the project exceeded 75,000 articles. On May 20, 2007, the project exceeded 100,000 articles with a total of 5,495 registered users. On September 8, 2008, the project exceeded 150,000 articles with a total of 9,224 registered users. On October 23, 2011, the project reached 300,000 articles. On June 16, 2014, the project reached 400,000 articles. On January 7, 2017, the project reached 500,000 articles. On October 30, 2018, the project reached 600,000 articles, a total of 1.12 million pages. Wikispecies comprises taxon pages, additionally pages about synonyms, taxon authorities, taxonomical publications, institutions or repositories holding type specimen. Wikispecies asks users to use images from Wikimedia Commons. Wikispecies does not allow the use of content.
All Species Foundation Catalogue of Life Encyclopedia of Life Tree of Life Web Project List of online encyclopedias The Plant List Wikispecies, The free species directory that anyone can edit Species Community Portal The Wikispecies Charter, written by Wales