The Xhosa people are an ethnic group of people of Southern Africa found in the Eastern and Western Cape, South Africa, in the last two centuries throughout the southern and central-southern parts of the country. There is a small but significant Xhosa community in Zimbabwe, their language, IsiXhosa, is recognised as a national language; the Xhosa people are divided into several tribes with distinct heritages. The main tribes are the AmaGcaleka, AmaRharhabe, ImiDange, ImiDushane, AmaNdlambe. In addition, there are other tribes found near or amongst the Xhosa people such as AbaThembu, AmaBhaca, AbakoBhosha and AmaQwathi that are distinct and separate tribes which have adopted the Xhosa language and the Xhosa way of life; the name "Xhosa" comes from that of a legendary leader and King called uXhosa. There is a fringe theory that, in fact the King's name which has since been lost amongst the people was not Xhosa, but that "xhosa" was a name given to him by the San and which means "fierce" or "angry" in Khoisan languages.
The Xhosa people refer to themselves as the AmaXhosa, to their language as isiXhosa. Presently 8 million Xhosa are distributed across the country, the Xhosa language is South Africa's second-most-populous home language, after the Zulu language, to which Xhosa is related; the pre-1994 apartheid system of Bantustans denied Xhosas South African citizenship, but enabled them to have self-governing "homelands" namely. Many Xhosa live in Cape Town, East London, Port Elizabeth; as of 2003 the majority of Xhosa speakers 5.3 million, lived in the Eastern Cape, followed by the Western Cape, the Free State, KwaZulu-Natal, North West, the Northern Cape, Limpopo. The Xhosa are part of the South African Nguni migration which moved south from the region around the Great Lakes; these tribes lived peacefully together until the frontier wars. Xhosa people were well established by the time of the Dutch arrival in the mid-17th century, occupied much of eastern South Africa from around the Port Elizabeth area to lands inhabited by Zulu-speakers south of the modern city of Durban.
The Xhosa and white settlers first encountered one another around Somerset East in the early 18th century. In the late 18th century Afrikaner trekboers migrating outwards from Cape Town came into conflict with Xhosa pastoralists around the Great Fish River region of the Eastern Cape. Following more than 20 years of intermittent conflict, from 1811 to 1812, the Xhosas were forced east by the British Empire in the Third Frontier War. In the years following, many tribes found in the north eastern parts of South Africa were pushed west into Xhosa country by the expansion of the Zulus in Natal, as the northern Nguni put pressure on the southern Nguni as part of the historical process known as the mfecane, or "scattering"; the Xhosa-speaking people received these scattered tribes and assimilated them into their cultural way of life and followed Xhosa traditions. The Xhosa called these various tribes AmaMfengu, meaning wanderers, were made up of tribes such as the amaBhaca, amaBhele, amaHlubi, amaZizi and Rhadebe.
These newcomers are sometimes considered to be Xhosa. Xhosa unity and ability to resist colonial expansion was to be weakened by the famines and political divisions that followed the cattle-killing movement of 1856–1858. Historians now view this movement as a millennialist response, both directly to a lung disease spreading among Xhosa cattle at the time, less directly to the stress to Xhosa society caused by the continuing loss of their territory and autonomy; some historians argue that this early absorption into the wage economy is the ultimate origin of the long history of trade union membership and political leadership among Xhosa people. That history manifests itself today in high degrees of Xhosa representation in the leadership of the African National Congress, South Africa's ruling political party. Xhosa is an agglutinative tonal language of the Bantu family. While the Xhosas call their language "isiXhosa", it is referred to as "Xhosa" in English. Written Xhosa uses a Latin alphabet–based system.
Xhosa is spoken by about 18% of the South African population, has some mutual intelligibility with Zulu Zulu spoken in urban areas. Many Xhosa speakers those living in urban areas speak Zulu and/or Afrikaans and/or English. Traditional healers of South Africa include diviners; this job is taken by women, who spend five years in apprenticeship. There are herbalists and healers for the community; the Xhosas have a strong oral tradition with many stories of ancestral heroes. One of Xhosa's descendents named Phalo gave birth to two sons, Gcaleka kaPhalo, the heir, Rarabe ka Phalo, a son from the Right Hand house. Rarabe was a great warrior and a man of great ability, much loved by his father. Gcaleka was a meek and listless man who did not possess all the qualities befitting of a future king. Matters were complicated by Gcaleka's initiation as a diviner, a forbidden practice for members of the royal family. Seeing the popularity of his brother and fearing that he might one day challenge him for the throne, Gcaleka attempted to usurp the throne from his father, but Rarabe would come to his father's aid and quell the insurrection.
With the blessing of
Northern Ndebele people
The Northern Ndebele people are a Bantu nation and ethnic group in Southern Africa, who share a common Ndebele culture and Ndebele language. The Northern Ndebele were referred to as the Matabele, a seSotho corruption of'Ndebele', their history began when a Zulu chiefdom split from King Shaka in the early 19th century under the leadership of Mzilikazi, a former chief in his kingdom and ally. Under his command the disgruntled Zulus went on to conquer and rule the chiefdoms of the Southern Ndebele; this was where the identity of the eventual kingdom was adopted. During a turbulent period in Nguni and Sesotho-Tswana history known as the Mfecane or "the crushing", the Mzilikazi regiment numbering 500 soldiers, moved west towards the present-day city of Pretoria, where they founded a settlement called Mhlahlandlela; the Great trek in 1838 saw Mzilikazi defeated by the Voortrekkers at Vegkop after which he was exiled into present-day Zimbabwe where the Ndebele overwhelmed the local Rozvi carving out a home now called Matabeleland and encompassing the west and southwest region of the country.
In the course of the migration, large numbers of conquered local clans and individuals were absorbed into the Ndebele nation, adopting the Ndebele language and culture. The assimilated people came from the Southern Ndebele, Sotho-Tswana, amaLozwi/Rozvi ethnic groups, they were named Matabele in English, a name, still common in older texts, because, the name as the British first heard it from the Sotho and Tswana peoples. In the early 19th century, the Ndebele invaded and lived in territories populated by Sotho-Tswana peoples who used the plural prefix "Ma" for certain types of unfamiliar people or the Nguni prefix "Ama," so the British explorers, who were first informed of the existence of the kingdom by Sotho-Tswana communities they encountered on the trip north, would have been presented with two variations of the name, the Sotho-Tswana pronunciation and second, the Ndebele pronunciation, they are now known as the "Ndebele" or "amaNdebele". Another term for the Ndebele Kingdom is "Mthwakazi" and the people are referred to as "uMthwakazi" or "oMthwakazi".
The Khumalos were caught between the Ndwandwe led by Zwide and the Zulus led by Shaka. To please the Ndwandwe tribe, the Khumalo chief Mashobane married the daughter of the Ndwandwe chief Zwide and sired a son, Mzilikazi; the Ndwandwes were related to the Zulus and spoke the same language, using different dialects. When Mashobane did not tell Zwide about patrolling Mthethwa amabutho, Zwide had Mashobana killed, thus his son, became leader of the Khumalo. Mzilikazi mistrusted his grandfather and took 50 warriors to join Shaka. Shaka was overjoyed. After a few battles, Shaka gave Mzilikazi the extraordinary honour of being chief of the Khumalos and to remain semi-independent from the Zulu, if Zwide could be defeated; this caused immense jealousy among Shaka's older allies, but as warriors none realised their equal in Mzilikazi. Mzilikazi collected all intelligence for the defeat of Zwide. Hence, when Zwide was defeated, Shaka rightly acknowledged he could not have done it without Mzilikazi and presented him with an ivory axe.
There were only one for Shaka and one for Mzilikazi. Shaka himself placed the plumes on Mzilikazi's head after Zwide was vanquished; the Khumalos returned to peace in their ancestral homeland. This peace lasted until Shaka asked Mzilikazi to punish a tribe to the north of the Khumalo, belonging to one Raninsi a Sotho. After the defeat of Raninsi, Mzilikazi refused to hand over the cattle to Shaka. Shaka, loving Mzilikazi, did nothing about it, but his generals, long disliking Mzilikazi, pressed for action, thus a first force was sent to teach Mzilikazi a lesson. The force was soundly beaten compared to the Zulus' 3,000 warriors; this made Mzilikazi the only warrior to have defeated Shaka in battle. Shaka reluctantly sent his veteran division, the Ufasimbi, to put an end to Mzilikazi and the embarrassing situation. Mzilikazi was left with only 300 warriors, he was betrayed by his brother, who had wanted Mzilikazi's position for himself. Thus Mzilikazi was defeated, he gathered his people with their possessions and fled north to the hinterland to escape Shaka's reach.
After a temporary home was found near modern Pretoria, the Ndebele were defeated by the Boers and compelled to move away to the north of the Limpopo river. Mzilikazi chose a new headquarters on the western edge of the central plateau of modern-day Zimbabwe, leading some 20,000 Ndebele, descendants of the Nguni and Sotho of South Africa, he had incorporated some of the Rozvi people. The rest became satellite territories. Mzilikazi called his new nation Mthwakazi, a Zulu word which means something which became big at conception, in Zulu "into ethe ithwasa yabankulu." Europeans called the territory "Matabeleland." Mzilikazi organised this ethnically diverse nation into a militaristic system of regimental towns and established his capital at Bulawayo. He was a statesman of considerable stature, able to weld the many conquered tribes into a strong, centralised kingdom. In 1852 the Boer government in Transvaal made a treaty with Mzilikazi. However, gold was discovered in Mashonaland in 1867 and t
Afrikaners are a Southern African ethnic group descended from predominantly Dutch settlers first arriving in the 17th and 18th centuries. They traditionally dominated South Africa's agriculture and politics prior to 1994. Afrikaans, South Africa's third most spoken home language, is the mother tongue of Afrikaners and most Cape Coloureds, it evolved from the Dutch vernacular of South Holland, incorporating words brought from the Dutch East Indies and Madagascar by slaves. Afrikaners make up 5.2% of the total South African population based on the number of white South Africans who speak Afrikaans as a first language in the South African National Census of 2011. The arrival of Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama at Calicut in 1498 opened a gateway of free access to Asia from Western Europe around the Cape of Good Hope. One European power followed another, all eager to trade along this route; the Portuguese landed in Mossel Bay in 1500, explored Table Bay two years and by 1510 had started raiding inland.
Shortly afterwards the Dutch Republic sent merchant vessels to India, in 1602 founded the Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie. As the volume of traffic rounding the Cape increased, the Company recognised its natural harbour as an ideal watering point for the long voyage around Africa to the Orient and established a victualling station there in 1652. VOC officials did not favour the permanent settlement of Europeans in their trading empire, although during the 140 years of Dutch rule many VOC servants retired or were discharged and remained as private citizens. Furthermore, the exigencies of supplying local garrisons and passing fleets compelled the administration to confer free status upon employees and oblige them to become independent farmers. Encouraged by the success of this experiment, the Company extended free passage from 1685 to 1707 for Hollanders wishing to settle at the Cape. In 1688 it sponsored the immigration of 200 French Huguenot refugees forced into exile by the Edict of Fontainebleau.
The terms under which the Huguenots agreed to immigrate were the same offered to other VOC subjects, including free passage and requisite farm equipment on credit. Prior attempts at cultivating vineyards or exploiting olive groves for fruit had been unsuccessful, it was hoped that Huguenot colonists accustomed to Mediterranean agriculture could succeed where the Dutch had failed, they were augmented by VOC soldiers returning from Asia, predominantly Germans channeled into Amsterdam by the Company's extensive recruitment network and thence overseas. Despite their diverse nationalities, the colonists used a common language and adopted similar attitudes towards politics; the attributes they shared came to serve as a basis for the evolution of Afrikaner identity and consciousness. Afrikaner nationalism has taken the form of political parties and secret societies such as the Broederbond in the twentieth century. In 1914 the National Party was formed to promote Afrikaner economic interests and sever South Africa's ties to the United Kingdom.
Rising to prominence by winning the 1948 general elections, it has been noted for enforcing a harsh policy of racial segregation while declaring South Africa a republic and withdrawing from the British Commonwealth. The term "Afrikaner" presently denotes the politically and dominant group among white South Africans, or the Afrikaans-speaking population of Dutch origin—although their original progenitors included smaller numbers of Flemish, French Huguenot, German immigrants; the terms "burgher" and "Boer" have both been used to describe white Afrikaans speakers as a group. The term was in common usage in both the Boer republics and the Cape Colony by the late nineteenth century. At one time, burghers denoted Cape Dutch, settlers who were influential in the administration, able to participate in urban affairs, did so regularly. Boers referred to the settled European farmers or nomadic cattle herders. During the Batavian Republic, "burgher" was popularised among Dutch communities both at home and abroad as a popular revolutionary form of address, or citizen.
In South Africa, it remained in use as late as the Second Boer War. The first recorded instance of a colonist identifying as an "Afrikaner" occurred in March 1707, during a disturbance in Stellenbosch; when the magistrate, Johannes Starrenburg, ordered an unruly crowd to desist, a white teenager named Hendrik Biebouw retorted, "Ik ben een Afrikaander - al slaat de landdrost mij dood, of al zetten hij mij in de tronk, ik zal, nog wil niet zwijgen!". Biebouw was flogged for his insolence and banished to Jakarta, it is believed that "Afrikaner" in question indicated Cape Coloureds or other groups claiming mixed ancestry. Biebouw himself may have identified with Coloureds socially. However, this defiant secession from Dutch law and sovereignty was a leap towards defining another consciousness for white South Africa, suggesting for the first time a group identification with the Cape Colony rather than any ancestral homeland in Europe; the Dutch East India Company had no intention of planting a permanent European settlement at the Cape of Good Hope.
From the VOC's perspective, there
The Swazi or Swati are a Bantu ethnic group of Southern Africa, predominantly inhabiting modern Eswatini and South Africa's Mpumalanga province. The Swati are part of the Nguni family that can be archaeologically traced in East Africa where the same tradition and cultural practices are found; the Swati share a unique experience and Royal lineage. This lineage is exclusive to the inhabitants of Eswatini though there have been more Swazi people that have moved to South Africa and the United Kingdom in the 20th century; the original inhabitants of Eswatini no longer reside in Eswatini as a majority population while some remain in the land. The Swazi people and the Kingdom of Eswatini today are named after Mswati II, who became king in 1839 after the death of his father King Sobhuza who strategically defeated the British who occupied Swaziland; the Kingdom of Swaziland was a region occupied by the San people of Southern Africa and the current Swazis came in from North Eastern regions through to Mozambique and Swaziland in the 15th century.
Mixtures with the San people and other Nguni tribes occurred. Their royal lineage can be traced to a chief named Dlamini I. About three-quarters of the clan groups are Nguni; these groups have intermarried freely. There are slight differences among Swazis as a nation with varying features and skin tones yet Swazi identity extends to all those with allegiance to the twin monarchs Ingwenyama "the Lion" and Indlovukati "the She-Elephant"; the dominant Swati language and culture are factors that unify Swazis as a nation since there is no other language spoken except for English. The Swazis are Nguni clans, who migrated from North East Africa and originated in South-east Africa in the fifteenth century, moved into southern Mozambique, into present-day Eswatini; the term bakaNgwane is still used as an alternative to emaSwati. The Swazis are people who are predominantly Nguni in culture; however some of the Swazi people originate from Sotho clans that were inhabitants of Eswatini, why the surname Maseko as the original Royal rulers in Eswatini is similar to Maseho in Lesotho.
As part of the Nguni expansion southwards, the Swazis crossed the Limpopo River and settled in southern Tongaland in the late fifteenth century. The Ngwane people are recorded as having entered the present territory of Eswatini around the year 1600. Under the leadership of Dlamini III who took over from the Maseko and settlement took place in 1750, along the Pongola River where it cuts through the Lubombo mountains. On, they moved into a region on the Pongola River, in close proximity to the Ndwandwe people. Dlamini III's successor was Ngwane III, considered the first King of modern Eswatini, his rule occurred from around 1745 until 1780, he ruled from the Shiselweni region of Swaziland. In 1815, Sobhuza I became the king of Swaziland and was responsible for the establishment of Swazi power in central Swaziland. Here the Swazis continued the process of expansion by conquering numerous small Sotho and Nguni speaking tribes to build up a large composite state today called Swaziland. Sobhuza I's rule occurred during the umfecane wars, resulting from the expansion of the Zulu state under Shaka.
Under Sobhuza's leadership, the Nguni and Sotho peoples as well as remnant San groups were integrated into the Swazi nation. It was during his rule that the present boundaries of Swaziland were under the rule of the Dlamini kings. In the late 1830s, initial contact occurred with the Boers, who had defeated the Zulus at the Battle of Blood River, were settling in the territory that would become the South African Republic. To establish a peaceful coexistence, a substantial portion of Swazi territory was ceded to the Transvaal Boers who were settled around the Lydenburg area in the 1840s; the territory of Swaziland, their king, Mswati II, were recognized by both the Transvaal and by Britain. It was during the rule of Mswati II, that the Swazi nation was further unified and the people and their country became known as they are today. Thereafter, the label "Swazi" was applied to all the peoples who gave allegiance to the Ingwenyama. Under Mbandzeni, many commercial and mining concessions were granted to British and Boer settlers.
This move led to further loss of land to the South African Republic. The result was that a substantial Swazi population ended up residing outside Swaziland in South Africa; the Pretoria Convention for the Settlement of the Transvaal in 1881 recognized the independence of Swaziland and defined its boundaries. The Ngwenyama was not a signatory, the Swazi claim that their territory extends in all directions from the present state. Britain claimed authority over Swaziland in 1903, independence was regained in 1968. Today, Swazi people reside in both South Africa. People of Swazi descent in South Africa are identifiable by speaking SiSwati, or a dialect of the language. There are many Swazi immigrants who go to South Africa and the United Kingdom for study, or work opportunities; the number of Swazis in South Africa is larger than that of Swazis in Swaziland, 1.1 million people. In modern day Swaziland, Swazi people include Swazi citizens regardless of ethnicity; the Kings of Eswatini date back to some considerable time to when the Royal line of Dlamini lived in the vicinity of Delagoa Bay.
The Swazi people as a nation were formed by 16 clans known as bemdzabuko who accompanied the Dlamini kin
History of the Cape Colony from 1806 to 1870
The history of the Cape Colony from 1806 to 1870 spans the period of the history of the Cape Colony during the Cape Frontier Wars, which lasted from 1811 to 1858. The wars were fought between the European colonists and the native Xhosa who, having acquired firearms, rebelled against continuing European rule; the Cape Colony was the first European colony in South Africa, controlled by the Dutch but subsequently invaded and taken over by the British. After war broke out again, a British force was sent once more to the Cape. After a battle in January 1806 on the shores of Table Bay, the Dutch garrison of Cape Castle surrendered to the British under Sir David Baird, in 1814, the colony was ceded outright by the Netherlands to the British crown. At that time, the colony extended to the mountains in front of the vast central plateau called "Bushmansland", had an area of about 194,000 square kilometres and a population of some 60,000, of whom 27,000 were white, 17,000 free Khoikhoi, the rest slaves.
These slaves were people brought in from other parts of Africa and Malays. The first of several wars with the Xhosa had been fought by the time that the Cape Colony had been ceded to the United Kingdom; the Xhosa that crossed the colonial frontier had been expelled from the district between the Sundays River and Great Fish River known as the Zuurveld, which became a neutral ground of sorts. For some time before 1811, the Xhosa had taken possession of the neutral ground and attacked the colonists. In order to expel them from the Zuurveld, Colonel John Graham took the area with a mixed-race army in December 1811, the Xhosa were forced to fall back beyond the Fish River. On the site of Colonel Graham’s headquarters arose a town bearing his name: Graham's Town, subsequently becoming Grahamstown. A difficulty between the Cape Colony government and the Xhosa arose in 1817, the immediate cause of, an attempt by the colonial authorities to enforce the restitution of some stolen cattle. On 22 April 1817, led by a prophet-chief named Makana, they attacked Graham’s Town held by a handful of white troops.
Upon the arrival of reinforcements, the Xhosa troops retreated. It was agreed that the land between the Fish and the Keiskamma rivers should be neutral territory; the war of 1817–19 led to the first wave of immigration of British settlers of any considerable scale, an event with far-reaching consequences. The governor, Lord Charles Somerset, whose treaty arrangements with the Xhosa chiefs had proved untenable, desired to erect a barrier against the Xhosa by having white colonists settle in the border region. In 1820, upon the advice of Lord Somerset, parliament voted to spend £50,000 to promote migration to the Cape, prompting 4,000 British people to emigrate; these immigrants, who are now known as the 1820 Settlers, formed the Albany settlement Port Elizabeth, made Grahamstown their headquarters. Intended as a measure to secure the safety of the frontier, regarded by the British government chiefly as a way of finding employment for a few thousand of the unemployed in Britain. Yet, the emigration scheme accomplished something with more far reaching implications than its authors had intended.
The new settlers, drawn from every part of the United Kingdom and from every grade of society, retained strong loyalty to Britain. In the course of time, they formed a counterpoint to the Dutch colonists; the arrival of these immigrants introduced the English language to the Cape. English language ordinances were issued for the first time in 1825, in 1827, its use was extended to the conduct of judicial proceedings. Dutch was not, however and the colonists became bilingual. Over the ensuing decades there was considerable political tension between the eastern and the western halves of the Cape Colony; the Eastern Cape, from its major port and urban centre Port Elizabeth, resented being ruled from Cape Town in the Western Cape and agitated to become a separate colony. These separatist tensions did not die down until the 1870s when Prime Minister John Molteno restructured the Cape administration to meet the major eastern concerns and, in the Constitutional Amendment Bill of 1873, abolished the last formal distinctions.
Although the colony was prosperous, many Dutch farmers were as dissatisfied with British rule as they had been with that of the Dutch East India Company, though their grievances were not the same. In 1792, Moravian missions had been established for the benefit of the Khoikhoi, in 1799, the London Missionary Society began to try to convert both the Khoikhoi and the Xhosa; the championship of Khoikhoi grievances by the missionaries caused much dissatisfaction among the majority of the colonists, whose conservative views temporarily prevailed, for in 1812, an ordinance was issued which gave magistrates the power to bind Khoikhoi children as apprentices under conditions little different from those of slavery. In the meantime, the movement for the abolition of slavery was gaining strength in England, the missionaries appealed at length, from the colonists to Britain. An incident, which occurred from 1815 to 1816, did much to make the Dutch frontiersmen permanently hostile to the British. A farmer named Bezuidenhout refused to obey a summons issued to him after a complaint from Khoikhoi was registered.
He fired on the party sent to arrest him, was killed by the return fire. This caused a miniature rebellion, in its suppression five ringleaders were publicly hanged by the British at Slagter's Nek where they had sworn to expel "the English tyrants." The resentment caused by the hanging of these men was deepened by the circumstances of the execution, for the scaffold on which the rebels were hanged br
Women's rights are the rights and entitlements claimed for women and girls worldwide, formed the basis for the women's rights movement in the nineteenth century and feminist movement during the 20th century. In some countries, these rights are institutionalized or supported by law, local custom, behavior, whereas in others they are ignored and suppressed, they differ from broader notions of human rights through claims of an inherent historical and traditional bias against the exercise of rights by women and girls, in favor of men and boys. Issues associated with notions of women's rights include the right: to bodily integrity and autonomy. Women in ancient Sumer could buy, own and inherit property, they could engage in commerce, testify in court as witnesses. Nonetheless, their husbands could divorce them for mild infractions, a divorced husband could remarry another woman, provided that his first wife had borne him no offspring. Female deities, such as Inanna, were worshipped; the Akkadian poetess Enheduanna, the priestess of Inanna and daughter of Sargon, is the earliest known poet whose name has been recorded.
Old Babylonian law codes permitted a husband to divorce his wife under any circumstances, but doing so required him to return all of her property and sometimes pay her a fine. Most law codes forbade a woman to request her husband for a divorce and enforced the same penalties on a woman asking for divorce as on a woman caught in the act of adultery; the majority of East Semitic deities were male. In ancient Egypt women enjoyed the same rights under the law as a men, however rightful entitlements depended upon social class. Landed property descended in the female line from mother to daughter, women were entitled to administer their own property. Women in ancient Egypt could buy, sell, be a partner in legal contracts, be executor in wills and witness to legal documents, bring court action, adopt children. Women during the early Vedic period enjoyed equal status with men in all aspects of life. Works by ancient Indian grammarians such as Patanjali and Katyayana suggest that women were educated in the early Vedic period.
Rigvedic verses suggest that women married at a mature age and were free to select their own husbands in a practice called swayamvar or live-in relationship called Gandharva marriage. Although most women lacked political and equal rights in the city states of ancient Greece, they enjoyed a certain freedom of movement until the Archaic age. Records exist of women in ancient Delphi, Thessaly and Sparta owning land, the most prestigious form of private property at the time. However, after the Archaic age, legislators began to enact laws enforcing gender segregation, resulting in decreased rights for women. Women in Classical Athens had no legal personhood and were assumed to be part of the oikos headed by the male kyrios; until marriage, women were under the guardianship of other male relative. Once married, the husband became a woman's kyrios; as women were barred from conducting legal proceedings, the kyrios would do so on their behalf. Athenian women could only acquire rights over property through gifts and inheritance, though her kyrios had the right to dispose of a woman's property.
Athenian women could only enter into a contract worth less than the value of a "medimnos of barley", allowing women to engage in petty trading. Women were excluded both in principle and in practice. Slaves could become Athenian citizens after being freed, but no woman acquired citizenship in ancient Athens. In classical Athens women were barred from becoming poets, politicians, or artists. During the Hellenistic period in Athens, the philosopher Aristotle thought that women would bring disorder and evil, therefore it was best to keep women separate from the rest of the society; this separation would entail living in a room called a gynaikeion, while looking after the duties in the home and having little exposure with the male world. This was to ensure that wives only had legitimate children from their husbands. Athenian women received little education, except home tutorship for basic skills such as spin, weave and some knowledge of money. Although Spartan women were formally excluded from military and political life they enjoyed considerable status as mothers of Spartan warriors.
As men engaged in military activity, women took responsibility for running estates. Following protracted warfare in the 4th century BC Spartan women owned between 35% and 40% of all Spartan land and property. By the Hellenistic Period, some of the wealthiest Spartans were women. Spartan women controlled their own properties, as well as the properties of male relatives who were away with the army. Girls as well as boys received an education, but despite greater freedom of movement for Spartan women, their role in politics was just as the same as Athenian women. Plato acknowledged that extending civil and political rights to women would substantively alter the nature of the household and the state. Aristotle, taught by Plato, denied that women were slaves or subject to property, arguing that "nature has distinguished between the female and the slave", but he considered wives to be "bought", he argued that women's main economic activity is that of safeguarding the household property created by men.
According to Aristotle the la
Bantu people are the speakers of Bantu languages, comprising several hundred indigenous ethnic groups in sub-Saharan Africa, spread over a vast area from Central Africa across the African Great Lakes to Southern Africa. Linguistically, Bantu languages belong to the Southern Bantoid branch of Benue–Congo, one of the language families grouped within the Niger–Congo phylum; the total number of Bantu languages ranges in the hundreds, depending on the definition of "language" vs. "dialect" estimated at between 440 and 680 distinct languages. The total number of Bantu speakers is in the hundreds of millions, ranging at 350 million in the mid-2010s. About 60 million Bantu speakers, divided into some 200 ethnic or tribal groups, are found in the Democratic Republic of Congo alone; the larger of the individual Bantu groups have populations of several million, e.g. the Shona of Zimbabwe, the Zulu of South Africa the Luba of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Sukuma of Tanzania, or the Kikuyu of Kenya.
The word Bantu for the language families and its speakers is an artificial term based on the reconstructed Proto-Bantu term for "people" or "humans". It was first introduced by Wilhelm Bleek in 1857 or 1858, popularised in his Comparative Grammar of 1862; the name was coined to represent the word for "people" in loosely reconstructed Proto-Bantu, from the plural noun class prefix *ba- categorizing "people", the root *ntʊ̀ - "some, any". There is no native term for the group, as populations refer to their languages by ethnic endonyms but did not have a concept for the larger ethno-linguistic phylum. Bleek's coinage was inspired by the anthropological observation of groups self-identifying as "people" or "the true people"; that is, idiomatically the reflexes of *bantʊ in the numerous languages have connotations of personal character traits as encompassed under the values system of ubuntu known as hunhu in Chishona or botho in Sesotho, rather than just referring to all human beings. The root in Proto-Bantu is reconstructed as *-ntʊ́.
Versions of the word Bantu occur in all Bantu languages: for example, as watu in Swahili. Bantu languages derive from a Proto-Bantu language, estimated to have been spoken about 4,000 to 3,000 years ago in West/Central Africa, they were spread across Central and Southern Africa in the Bantu expansion, a rapid succession of migrations during the 1st millennium BC, in one wave moving across the Congo basin towards East Africa, in another moving south along the African coast and the Congo River system towards Angola. The geographical origin of the Bantu expansion is somewhat open to debate. Two main scenarios are proposed, an early expansion to Central Africa, a single origin of the migration radiating from there, or an early separation into an eastward and a southward wave of migration. Genetic analysis shows a significant clustering of Bantu peoples by region, suggesting admixture from local populations, with the Eastern Bantu forming a separate ancestral cluster, the Southern Bantu showing derivation from Western Bantu by Khoisan admixture and low levels of Eastern Bantu admixture.
According to the early-split scenario described in the 1990s, the southward migration had reached the Central African rain forest by about 1500 BC, the southern Savannahs by 500 BC, while the eastward migration reached the Great Lakes by 1000 BC, expanding further from there, as the rich environment supported a dense population. Movements by small groups to the southeast from the Great Lakes region were more rapid, with initial settlements dispersed near the coast and near rivers, due to comparatively harsh farming conditions in areas farther from water. Pioneering groups had reached modern KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa by about AD 300 along the coast, the modern Northern Province by AD 500; the Bantu peoples assimilated and/or displaced a number of earlier inhabitants that they came across, such as Pygmy and Khoisan populations in the centre and south, respectively. They encountered some Afro-Asiatic outlier groups in the southeast, as well as Nilo-Saharan groups; as cattle terminology in use amongst the few modern Bantu pastoralist groups suggests, the Bantu migrants would acquire cattle from their new Cushitic neighbors.
Linguistic evidence indicates that Bantus borrowed the custom of milking cattle directly from Cushitic peoples in the area. Interactions between Bantu and Cushitic peoples resulted in Bantu groups with significant Cushitic ethnic admixture, such as the Tutsi of the African Great Lakes region. Between the 14th and 15th centuries, Bantu-speaking states began to emerge in the Great Lakes region and in the savannah south of the Central African rain forest. On the Zambezi river, the Monomatapa kings built the Great