Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly
The culture of the ethnic Russian people has a long tradition of achievement in many fields when it comes to literature, folk dancing, classical music, traditional folk music, architecture, cinema and politics, which all have had considerable influence on world culture. Russia has a rich material culture and a tradition in technology. Russian culture grew from that of the East Slavs, with their pagan beliefs and specific way of life in the wooded and forest-steppe areas of Eastern Europe and Eurasia. Early Russian culture and Slavic people were much influenced by Turkic and Scandinavian influences, by Finno-Ugric tribes, by Tatar people, by Byzantine people, by Baltic tribes, by the nomadic tribes of the Eurasian Steppe and by the Varangians. Early Slavic tribes in European Russia were much shaped by the fusion of Nordic-European and Oriental-Asian cultures which formed Russian identity in the Volga region and in the states of Rus' Khaganate and Kievan Rus'. Orthodox Christian missionaries began arriving from the Eastern Roman Empire in the 9th century, Kievan Rus' converted to Orthodox Christianity in 988.
This defined the Russian culture of the next millennium as a synthesis of Slavic and Byzantine cultures. Russia or Rus' was formed and influenced through its location by Western European and Asian cultures so that a Eurasian culture developed. After Constantinople fell to the Ottmans in 1453, Russia remained the largest Orthodox nation in the world and claimed succession to the Byzantine legacy in the form of the Third Rome idea. At different periods in Russian history, the culture of Western Europe exerted strong influences over Russian citizens. Since the reforms of Peter the Great, for two centuries Russian culture developed in the general context of European culture rather than pursuing its own unique ways; the situation changed in the 20th century, when the distinctive Communist ideology imported from Europe became a major factor in the culture of the Soviet Union, where Russia, in the form of the Russian SFSR, was the largest and leading part. Nowadays, the Nation Brands Index ranks Russian cultural heritage seventh, based on interviews of some 20,000 people from Western countries and from the Far East.
Due to the late involvement of Russia in modern globalization and in international tourism, many aspects of Russian culture, like Russian jokes and Russian art, remain unknown to foreigners. Russia's 160 ethnic groups speak some 100 languages. According to the 2002 census, 142.6 million people speak Russian, followed by Tatar with 5.3 million and Ukrainian with 1.8 million speakers. Russian is the only official state language, but the Constitution gives the individual republics the right to make their native language co-official next to Russian. Despite its wide dispersal, the Russian language is homogeneous throughout Russia. Russian is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia and the most spoken Slavic language. Russian belongs to the Indo-European language family and is one of the living members of the East Slavic languages. Written examples of Old East Slavic are attested from the 10th century onwards. Over a quarter of the world's scientific literature is published in Russian.
Russian is applied as a means of coding and storage of universal knowledge—60-70% of all world information is published in the English and Russian languages. The language is one of the six official languages of the United Nations. New Russian folklore takes its roots in the pagan beliefs of ancient Slavs, nowadays still represented in the Russian folklore. Epic Russian bylinas are an important part of Slavic mythology; the oldest bylinas of Kievan cycle were recorded in the Russian North in Karelia, where most of the Finnish national epic Kalevala was recorded as well. Many Russian fairy tales and bylinas were adapted for Russian animations, or for feature movies by famous directors like Aleksandr Ptushko and Aleksandr Rou; some Russian poets, including Pyotr Yershov and Leonid Filatov, created a number of well-known poetical interpretations of classical Russian fairy tales, in some cases, like that of Alexander Pushkin created original fairy tale poems that became popular. Folklorists today consider the 1920s the Soviet Union's golden age of folklore.
The struggling new government, which had to focus its efforts on establishing a new administrative system and building up the nation's backwards economy, could not be bothered with attempting to control literature, so studies of folklore thrived. There were two primary trends of folklore study during the decade: the formalist and Finnish schools. Formalism focused on the artistic form of ancient byliny and faerie tales their use of distinctive structures and poetic devices; the Finnish school was concerned with connections amongst related legends of various Eastern European regions. Finnish scholars collected comparable tales from multiple locales and analyzed their similarities and differences, hoping to trace these epic stories’ migration paths. Once Joseph Stalin came to power and put his first five-year plan into motion in 1928, the Soviet government began to criticize and censor folklore studies. Stalin and the Soviet regime repressed folklore, believing that it supported the old tsarist system and a capitalist economy.
Yiddish is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews. It originated during the 9th century in Central Europe, providing the nascent Ashkenazi community with a High German-based vernacular fused with elements taken from Hebrew and Aramaic as well as from Slavic languages and traces of Romance languages. Yiddish is written with a vocalized version of the Hebrew alphabet; the earliest surviving references date from the 12th century and call the language לשון־אַשכּנז or טײַטש, a variant of tiutsch, the contemporary name for Middle High German. Colloquially, the language is sometimes called מאַמע־לשון, distinguishing it from לשון־קודש, meaning Hebrew and Aramaic; the term "Yiddish", short for Yidish Taitsh, did not become the most used designation in the literature until the 18th century. In the late 19th and into the 20th century the language was more called "Jewish" in non-Jewish contexts, but "Yiddish" is again the more common designation today. Modern Yiddish has two major forms. Eastern Yiddish is far more common today.
It includes Southeastern and Northeastern dialects. Eastern Yiddish differs from Western both by its far greater size and by the extensive inclusion of words of Slavic origin. Western Yiddish is divided into Southwestern and Northwestern dialects. Yiddish is used in a number of Haredi Jewish communities worldwide; the term "Yiddish" is used in the adjectival sense, synonymously with "Jewish", to designate attributes of Yiddishkeit. Prior to the Holocaust, there were 11–13 million speakers of Yiddish among 17 million Jews worldwide. 85% of the 6 million Jews who died in the Holocaust were Yiddish speakers, leading to a massive decline in the use of the language. Assimilation following World War II and aliyah, immigration to Israel, further decreased the use of Yiddish both among survivors and among Yiddish-speakers from other countries. However, the number of speakers is increasing in Hasidic communities; the established view is that, as with other Jewish languages, Jews speaking distinct languages learned new co-territorial vernaculars, which they Judaized.
In the case of Yiddish, this scenario sees it as emerging when speakers of Zarphatic and other Judeo-Romance languages began to acquire varieties of Middle High German, from these groups the Ashkenazi community took shape. What German base lies behind the earliest form of Yiddish is disputed. In Max Weinreich's model, Jewish speakers of Old French or Old Italian who were literate in either liturgical Hebrew or Aramaic, or both, migrated through Southern Europe to settle in the Rhine Valley in an area known as Lotharingia extending over parts of Germany and France. Both Weinreich and Solomon Birnbaum developed this model further in the mid-1950s. In Weinreich's view, this Old Yiddish substrate bifurcated into two distinct versions of the language and Eastern Yiddish, they retained the Semitic vocabulary and constructions needed for religious purposes and created a Judeo-German form of speech, sometimes not accepted as a autonomous language. Linguistic research has finessed the Weinreich model or provided alternative approaches to the language's origins, with points of contention being the characterization of its Germanic base, the source of its Hebrew/Aramaic adstrata, the means and location of this fusion.
Some theorists argue. The two main candidates for the germinal matrix of Yiddish, the Rhineland and Bavaria, are not incompatible. There may have been parallel developments in the two regions, seeding the Western and Eastern dialects of Modern Yiddish. Dovid Katz proposes that Yiddish emerged from contact between speakers of High German and Aramaic-speaking Jews from the Middle East; the lines of development proposed by the different theories do not rule out the others. In more recent work, Wexler has argued that Eastern Yiddish is unrelated genetically to Western Yiddish. Wexler's model has met with little academic support, strong critical challenges among historical linguists. By the 10th century, a distinctive Jewish culture had formed in Central Europe which came to be called אַשכּנזי Ashkenazi, "Ashkenazi Jews, from Hebrew: אַשכּנז Ashkenaz, the medieval Hebrew name for northern Europe and Germany. Ashkenaz was centered on the Rhineland and the Palatinate, in what is now the westernmost part of Germany.
Its geographic extent did not
Romeo and Juliet
Romeo and Juliet is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare early in his career about two young star-crossed lovers whose deaths reconcile their feuding families. It was among Shakespeare's most popular plays during his lifetime and along with Hamlet, is one of his most performed plays. Today, the title characters are regarded as archetypal young lovers. Romeo and Juliet belongs to a tradition of tragic romances stretching back to antiquity; the plot is based on an Italian tale translated into verse as The Tragical History of Romeus and Juliet by Arthur Brooke in 1562 and retold in prose in Palace of Pleasure by William Painter in 1567. Shakespeare borrowed from both but expanded the plot by developing a number of supporting characters Mercutio and Paris. Believed to have been written between 1591 and 1595, the play was first published in a quarto version in 1597; the text of the first quarto version was of poor quality and editions corrected the text to conform more with Shakespeare's original.
Shakespeare's use of his poetic dramatic structure has been praised as an early sign of his dramatic skill. The play ascribes different poetic forms to different characters, sometimes changing the form as the character develops. Romeo, for example, grows more adept at the sonnet over the course of the play. Romeo and Juliet has been adapted numerous times for stage, film and opera venues. During the English Restoration, it was revived and revised by William Davenant. David Garrick's 18th-century version modified several scenes, removing material considered indecent, Georg Benda's Romeo und Julie omitted much of the action and added a happy ending. Performances in the 19th century, including Charlotte Cushman's, restored the original text and focused on greater realism. John Gielgud's 1935 version kept close to Shakespeare's text and used Elizabethan costumes and staging to enhance the drama. In the 20th and into the 21st century, the play has been adapted in versions as diverse as George Cukor's 1936 film Romeo and Juliet, Franco Zeffirelli's 1968 version Romeo and Juliet, Baz Luhrmann's 1996 MTV-inspired Romeo + Juliet.
The play, set in Verona, begins with a street brawl between Montague and Capulet servants who, like their masters, are sworn enemies. Prince Escalus of Verona intervenes and declares that further breach of the peace will be punishable by death. Count Paris talks to Capulet about marrying his daughter Juliet, but Capulet asks Paris to wait another two years and invites him to attend a planned Capulet ball. Lady Capulet and Juliet's nurse try to persuade Juliet to accept Paris's courtship. Meanwhile, Benvolio talks with Montague's son, about Romeo's recent depression. Benvolio discovers that it stems from unrequited infatuation for a girl named Rosaline, one of Capulet's nieces. Persuaded by Benvolio and Mercutio, Romeo attends the ball at the Capulet house in hopes of meeting Rosaline. However, Romeo instead falls in love with Juliet. Juliet's cousin, Tybalt, is enraged at Romeo for sneaking into the ball but is only stopped from killing Romeo by Juliet's father, who does not wish to shed blood in his house.
After the ball, in what is now called the "balcony scene", Romeo sneaks into the Capulet orchard and overhears Juliet at her window vowing her love to him in spite of her family's hatred of the Montagues. Romeo makes himself known to her and they agree to be married. With the help of Friar Laurence, who hopes to reconcile the two families through their children's union, they are secretly married the next day. Tybalt, still incensed that Romeo had sneaked into the Capulet ball, challenges him to a duel. Romeo, now considering Tybalt his kinsman, refuses to fight. Mercutio is offended by Tybalt's insolence, as well as Romeo's "vile submission", accepts the duel on Romeo's behalf. Mercutio is fatally wounded. Grief-stricken and wracked with guilt, Romeo slays Tybalt. Benvolio argues; the Prince, now having lost a kinsman in the warring families' feud, exiles Romeo from Verona, under penalty of death if he returns. Romeo secretly spends the night in Juliet's chamber. Capulet, misinterpreting Juliet's grief, agrees to marry her to Count Paris and threatens to disown her when she refuses to become Paris's "joyful bride".
When she pleads for the marriage to be delayed, her mother rejects her. Juliet visits Friar Laurence for help, he offers her a potion that will put her into a deathlike coma for "two and forty hours"; the Friar promises to send a messenger to inform Romeo of the plan so that he can rejoin her when she awakens. On the night before the wedding, she takes the drug and, when discovered dead, she is laid in the family crypt; the messenger, does not reach Romeo and, Romeo learns of Juliet's apparent death from his servant, Balthasar. Heartbroken, Romeo goes to the Capulet crypt, he encounters Paris. Believing Romeo to be a vandal, Paris, in the ensuing battle, Romeo kills Paris. Still believing Juliet to be dead, he drinks the poison. Juliet awakens and, discovering that Romeo is dead, stabs herself with his dagger and joins him in death; the feuding families and the Prince meet at the tomb to find all three dead. Friar Laurence recounts the story of the two "star-cross'd lovers"; the families are reconciled by their children's deaths and agree t
The Gulag Archipelago
The Gulag Archipelago is a three-volume text written between 1958 and 1968 by Russian writer and historian Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn. It was first published followed by an English translation the following year, it covers life in the gulag, the Communist Soviet forced labour camp system, through a narrative constructed from various sources including reports, statements, legal documents, Solzhenitsyn's own experience as a gulag prisoner. Following its publication, the book circulated in samizdat underground publication in the Soviet Union until its appearance in the literary journal Novy Mir in 1989, in which a third of the work was published in three issues. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, The Gulag Archipelago has been published, since 2009, is mandatory reading as part of the Russian school curriculum. An abridged fiftieth anniversary edition was released on 1 November 2018 with a new foreword by Jordan Peterson; the accuracy of some semantic details of the book have been questioned by historians.
Structurally, the text comprises seven sections divided into three volumes: parts 1–2, parts 3–4, parts 5–7. At one level, the Gulag Archipelago traces the history of the system of forced labor camps that existed in the Soviet Union from 1918 to 1956. Solzhenitsyn begins with V. I. Lenin's original decrees. Note 1 The book describes and discusses the waves of purges and the assembling of show trials in the context of the development of the greater Gulag system; the legal and historical narrative ends in 1956 at the time of Nikita Khrushchev's Secret Speech. Khrushchev gave the speech at the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, denouncing Stalin's personality cult, his autocratic power, the surveillance that pervaded the Stalin era. Although Khrushchev's speech was not published in the Soviet Union for a long time, it was a break with the most atrocious practices of the Gulag system. Despite the efforts by Solzhenitsyn and others to confront the legacy of the Gulag, the realities of the camps remained a taboo subject until the 1980s.
Solzhenitsyn was aware that although many practices had been stopped, the basic structure of the system had survived and it could be revived and expanded by future leaders. While Khrushchev, the Communist Party, the Soviet Union's supporters in the West viewed the Gulag as a deviation of Stalin and many among the opposition tended to view it as a systemic fault of Soviet political culture – an inevitable outcome of the Bolshevik political project. Parallel to this historical and legal narrative, Solzhenitsyn follows the typical course of a zek, derived from the used abbreviation "z/k" for "zakliuchennyi" through the Gulag, starting with arrest, show trial, initial internment. Along the way, Solzhenitsyn's examination details the trivial and commonplace events of an average prisoner's life, as well as specific and noteworthy events during the history of the Gulag system, including revolts and uprisings. Solzhenitsyn states: "Macbeth's self-justifications were feeble – and his conscience devoured him.
Yes Iago was a little lamb, too. The imagination and spiritual strength of Shakespeare's evildoers stopped short at a dozen corpses; because they had no ideology. Ideology –, what gives evildoing its long-sought justification and gives the evildoer the necessary steadfastness and determination; that is the social theory which helps to make his acts seem good instead of bad in his own and others' eyes.... That was. Without evildoers there would have been no Archipelago." Solzhenitsyn draws on his own and fellow prisoners' long experiences in the gulag as the basis for this non-fiction work. Solzhenitsyn spent time as an inmate at a sharashka or scientific prison, an experience that he used as the basis of the 1968 novel The First Circle. However, the ultimate integrity and authority of The Gulag Archipelago is rooted in the first-hand testimony of 227 fellow prisoners; the sheer volume of firsthand testimony and primary documentation that Solzhenitsyn managed to assemble in this work made all subsequent Soviet and KGB attempts to discredit the work useless.
Much of the impact of the treatise stems from the detailed stories of interrogation routines, prison indignities and camp massacres and inhuman practices. Solzhenitsyn poetically re-introduces his character of Ivan Denisovich towards the conclusion of the book; when questioned by the book's author if he has faithfully recounted the story of the Gulag, Denisovich replies that "you have not begun...". One chapter of the third volume of the book wa
Russian chanson is a neologism for a musical genre covering a range of Russian songs, including city romance songs, author song performed by singer-songwriters, blatnaya pesnya or "criminals' songs" that are based on the themes of the urban underclass and the criminal underworld. The Russian chanson originated in the Russian Empire; the songs sung by serfs and political prisoners of the Tsar are similar in content to the songs sung in the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation today. However, during the Soviet Union, the style changed, the songs became part of the culture of samizdat and dissent. During the Khrushchev thaw, the Soviet Union released millions of prisoners from the gulag; when the former prisoners returned from the gulags back to their homes in the 1950s, the songs that they had sung in the camps became popular with Soviet students and nonconformist intelligentsia. In the second half of the 1960s, the more conservative Leonid Brezhnev and Alexei Kosygin made a slight reversal to this process, albeit never reaching the tight, stringent controls experienced during the Stalin era.
This, combined with the influx of cheap and portable magnetic tape recorders led to an increase in the popularity and consumption of the criminal songs. These songs were performed by Soviet bards. Since Soviet culture officials did not approve of the songs, many of the bards became popular playing at small, private student parties; the attendees at these gatherings would record the concert with a tape recorder. The songs of the bards spread through the recopying of these tapes. After the fall of the Soviet Union and the establishment of the Russian Federation, the musical style of the songs began to shift, although the content did not. Modern artists affiliated with the Chanson genre sing not in the traditional style used by the Khrushchev-era performers, but more professionally, borrowing musical arrangements from pop and jazz. Although the strict cultural control of the Soviet Union has ended, many Russian officials still publicly denounce the genre. Russia’s prosecutor general, Vladimir Ustinov, referred to the songs as “propaganda of the criminal subculture”.
The official disapproval of chansons has led to an absence of the songs from Russian radio. They are only played late at night, if they are played at all. Still, many politicians are fans of the genre, one of the popular modern chanson singers, Alexander Rosenbaum, was a member of the Duma as part of the United Russia Party. Rosenbaum was awarded the title of People’s Artist of Russia by a decree of Vladimir Putin. Many of the Soviet bards worked as writers and actors for the Soviet state; these artists were required to submit their works to government censors for approval. When bards performed uncensored pieces which fans would distribute, they risked their official jobs. In December 1971 a popular Soviet bard, Alexander Galich, was expelled from the Union of Soviet Writers for publishing uncensored works abroad and making his views known to large groups of people in the Soviet Union, which Galich claims happened after a Politburo member heard a tape of Galich’s uncensored songs at his daughter's wedding reception.
Galich describes the official backlash following his expulsion from the Union of Soviet Writers in an open letter to the International Committee on Human Rights that he wrote after being denied permission to travel abroad: “I am deprived of...the right to see my work published, the right to sign a contract with a theater, film studio, or publishing house, the right to perform in public”. Other bards who were not official Soviet artist still risked their job by performing uncensored songs. In 1968 Yuli Kim, a Russian language and literature teacher at a boarding school attached to Moscow State University, was dismissed for performing uncensored songs critical of the Soviet Union. Although the official stance of the Soviet Union towards these songs was intolerant, many Soviet officials enjoyed the uncensored tapes. Bulat Okudzhava, a bard criticized by Soviet officials, was invited to give a concert at the Soviet embassy in Warsaw. In addition to active repression from the state, Soviet bards faced criticisms on the literary merit of their songs from Soviet officials.
Songs that were not critical of the Soviet union, like the songs of Vladimir Vysotsky, came under attack for their content and the way they were performed. The transgression was not anti-Soviet content, like the songs of Galich, but content, considered “un-soviet”, contributed the denigration of the Soviet people. During a meeting of 140 writers and film workers in 1962, Leonid Ilyichev, chairman of the Ideological Commission of the Soviet Communist Party’s Central Committee, criticized the songs of Okudzhava. Ilyichev called them “vulgar songs...designed to appeal to low and cheap tastes” and said they were “out of keeping with the entire structure of life”. Artists in Soviet service criticized the bards that sung unapproved songs; the newspaper Sovetskaia Rossiia attacked Vysotsky for offering “Philistinism and immorality” under the “guise of art”. Although Vysotsky was criticized by officials, he never faced imprisonment or exile like other bards; this was in part due to his use of sarcasm as opposed to criticism, his lack of political activity, but due to his immense popularity among the Soviet People.
Soviet authorities eased their reactions to the bards who sang outlaw songs. In 1981, after Vysotsky’s death, the state allowed the publication of a collection of his poetry (although official state poets still attacked
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr