Ferdinand Zvonimir von Habsburg
Ferdinand Zvonimir Maria Balthus Keith Michael Otto Antal Bahnam Leonhard von Habsburg-Lothringen, known colloquially as Ferdinand Habsburg, is the eldest son of Karl von Habsburg, head of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine. Habsburg is a racing driver competing in the DTM. In November 2017, he finished 4th in the 2017 Macau Grand Prix after crashing at the final corner of the last lap whilst attempting to complete an overtake for the lead, he has raced in the FIA Formula 3 European Championship. Habsburg is an Austrian citizen, his parents are Francesca von Habsburg. He was baptised on 20 September 1997 in Zagreb by Cardinal Franjo Kuharić, he was given the traditional Croatian name Zvonimir. He is the brother of Gloria von Habsburg. While his traditional titles are sometimes used abroad and in genealogical literature, they are not recognized by the Austrian government given that his grandfather Otto von Habsburg renounced all claims to the Austrian throne on 31 May 1961. Royal and noble titles were abolished in Austria by the Adelsaufhebungsgesetz of 3 April 1919.
The family name of the members of the former House of Austria was declared to be "Habsburg-Lothringen" by an Austrian ministerial decision in 1957, by a German court on 16 July 1958. The alternative family name "von Habsburg" may be used in all states apart from Austria. Habsburg began his racing career at the age of 14 with Speedworld Academy, he has worn racing number 62 since the beginning of his karting career. In 2014 after 4 years spent in ROTAX Junior category, winning multiple championship titles, he switched to Rotax DD2, he qualified three times for the Rotax Max Challenge Grand Finals Results2014 – Austrian champion in Rotax DD2, 12th place in the Rotax Max Challenge Grand Finals in Valencia, Spain 2013 – Hungarian Champion and Lower Austrian Champion, Central-Eastern European vice-champion in Rotax Junior,10th place in the Rotax Max Challenge Grand Finals in New Orleans, USA 2012 – Lower Austrian Champion, 33rd place in the RMC World Finals in Portimao, Portugal In 2014, Habsburg made his début in single seaters, taking part in the Formula Renault 1.6 NEC Championship with Lechner Racing.
He finished 4th with a 100% finishing rate in 15 races. For 2015, Habsburg contested New Zealand's Toyota Racing Series in January and February 2015 with Victory Motor Racing, finishing 11th in the championship and 5th in the rookie class with two podium finishes, he would return to the series with Giles Motorsport for 2016 and finished fourth in the championship behind Lando Norris, Jehan Daruvala and Brendon Leitch with four podium finishes. For 2015, Habsburg decided to switch to the Formula Renault 2.0 NEC for Fortec Motorsports. For 2017, Habsburg stepped up to the FIA European F3 Championship, he had a successful season, taking four podiums and a first series win at Spa. However his most impressive drive came in the end of year Macau Grand Prix. In the main race, he battled hard for the lead with Brazilian Sérgio Sette Câmara, but was unable to pass. On the final lap, Habsburg took the lead around the outside of the final corner at Fisherman's Bend, but braked too late and understeered into the barriers on the exit of the corner, with Sette Câmara doing the same thing, handing the race win to Câmara's teammate Dan Ticktum.
Habsburg limped across the line fourth despite broken front suspension. Nonetheless, the Austrian would gain much praise from both his team boss and journalists for his final lap maneuver, along with his great season as a whole, he is returning to the series again in 2018. Together with his mother Francesca von Habsburg, Habsburg launched a unique interpretation of racing and art in 2014; the famous Swiss designer group, Lang-Baumann and painted his race car. † As von Habsburg was a guest driver, he was ineligible to score championship points. House of Habsburg: Knight of the Austrian Imperial and Royal Order of the Golden Fleece House of Habsburg: Knight Grand Commander of the Imperial and Royal Order of Saint George Ferdinand Zvonimir von Habsburg career summary at DriverDB.com
Ferdinand II of Aragon
Ferdinand II, called the Catholic, was King of Aragon from 1479 until his death. His marriage in 1469 to Isabella, the future queen of Castile, was the marital and political "cornerstone in the foundation of the Spanish monarchy." As a consequence of his marriage to Isabella I, he was de jure uxoris King of Castile as Ferdinand V from 1474 until her death in 1504. At Isabella's death the crown of Castile passed to their daughter Joanna, by the terms of their prenuptial agreement and her last will and testament. Following the death of Joanna's husband Philip I of Spain, her alleged mental illness, Ferdinand was recognized as regent of Castile from 1508 until his own death. In 1504, after a war with France, he became King of Naples as Ferdinand III, reuniting Naples with Sicily permanently and for the first time since 1458. In 1512, he became King of Navarre by conquest. In 1506 he married Germaine of Foix of France, but Ferdinand's only son and child of that marriage died soon after birth. Ferdinand had a role in inaugurating the first European encounters in the future Americas, since he and Isabella sponsored the first voyage of Christopher Columbus, in 1492.
That year was the final victory in the war with Granada which defeated the last Muslim state in Iberia and all of Western Europe. This brought to a close the centuries-long Christian reconquest of Iberia. For that Christian victory, Pope Alexander VI, born in the Kingdom of Valencia, awarded the royal couple the title of Catholic Monarchs. At Ferdinand's death Joanna's son, Ferdinand's grandson, Charles I, co-ruler in name over all the several Iberian kingdoms except for Portugal, succeeded him, making Charles the first King of Spain. However, during the regency of Ferdinand, many called him the King of Spain as distinct from his daughter Joanna, "queen of Castile". Ferdinand was born in Sada Palace, Sos del Rey Católico, Kingdom of Aragon, as the son of John II of Aragon by his second wife, Juana Enríquez, he married Infanta Isabella, the half-sister and heiress of Henry IV of Castile, on 19 October 1469 in Valladolid, Kingdom of Castile and Leon. Isabella belonged to the royal House of Trastámara, the two were cousins by descent from John I of Castile.
They were married with a clear prenuptial agreement on sharing power, under the joint motto "tanto monta, monta tanto." He became jure uxoris King of Castile when Isabella succeeded her deceased brother in 1474 to be crowned as Queen Isabella I of Castile. The two young monarchs were obliged to fight a civil war against Joan of Castile, the purported daughter of Henry IV, were swiftly successful; when Ferdinand succeeded his father as King of Aragon in 1479, the Crown of Castile and the various territories of the Crown of Aragon were united in a personal union. The various states were not formally administered as a single unit, but as separate political units under the same Crown; the first years of Ferdinand and Isabella's joint rule saw the Spanish conquest of the Nasrid dynasty of the Emirate of Granada, the last Islamic al-Andalus entity on the Iberian peninsula, completed in 1492. The completion of the Reconquista was not the only significant act performed by Ferdinand and Isabella in that year.
In March 1492, the monarchs issued the Edict of Expulsion of the Jews called the Alhambra Decree, a document which ordered all Jews either to be baptised and convert to Christianity or to leave the country. It allowed Mudéjar Moors and converso Marrano Jews to stay, while expelling all unconverted Jews from Castile and Aragon. 1492 was the year in which the monarchs commissioned Christopher Columbus to find a westward maritime route for access to Asia, which resulted in the Spanish arrival in the Americas. In 1494 the Treaty of Tordesillas divided the entire world beyond Europe between Portugal and Castile for conquest and dominion purposes – by a north–south line drawn down the Atlantic Ocean. Ferdinand violated the 1491 Treaty of Granada peace treaty in 1502 by dismissing the guaranteed religious freedom for Mudéjar Muslims. Ferdinand forced all Muslims in Castile and Aragon to convert, converso Moriscos, to Catholicism, or else be expelled; some of the Muslims who remained were mudéjar artisans, who could design and build in the Moorish style.
This was practised by the Spanish inquisitors on the converso Marrano Jewish population of Spain. The main architect behind the Spanish Inquisition was King Ferdinand II. Ferdinand destroyed over ten thousand Arabic manuscripts in Granada alone; the latter part of Ferdinand's life was taken up with disputes with successive Kings of France over control of Italy, the so-called Italian Wars. In 1494, Charles VIII of France invaded Italy and expelled Alfonso II, Ferdinand's first cousin once removed and stepson of Ferdinand's sister, from the throne of Naples. Ferdinand allied with various Italian princes and with Emperor Maximilian I to expel the French by 1496 and install Alfonso's son, Ferdinand, on the Neapolitan throne. In 1501, following the death of Ferdinand II of Naples and accession of his uncle Frederick, Ferdinand signed an agreement with Charles VIII's successor, Louis XII, who had just asserted his claims to the Duchy of Milan, to partition Naples between them, w
Ferdinand I of Austria
Ferdinand I was the Emperor of Austria from 1835 until his abdication in 1848. As ruler of Austria, he was President of the German Confederation, King of Hungary and Bohemia, King of Lombardy–Venetia and holder of many other lesser titles. Ferdinand succeeded on the death of his father Francis II and I on 2 March 1835, he was incapable of ruling his empire because of his mental deficiency, so his father, before he died, made a will which promulgated that Ferdinand should consult Archduke Louis on all aspects of internal policy and urged him to be influenced by Prince Metternich, Austria's Foreign Minister. Following the Revolutions of 1848, Ferdinand abdicated on 2 December 1848, he was succeeded by Franz Joseph. Following his abdication, he lived in Hradčany Palace, until his death in 1875. Ferdinand married Maria Anna of the sixth child of Victor Emmanuel I of Sardinia, they had no children. Ferdinand was the eldest son of Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor and Maria Theresa of Naples and Sicily.
As a result of his parents' genetic closeness, Ferdinand suffered from epilepsy, neurological problems, a speech impediment. He was educated by Baron Josef Kalasanz von Erberg, his wife Josephine, by birth a Countess von Attems. Ferdinand has been depicted as feeble-minded and incapable of ruling, but although he had epilepsy, he kept a coherent and legible diary and has been said to have had a sharp wit, but having as many as twenty seizures per day restricted his ability to rule with any effectiveness. Though he was not declared incapacitated, a Regent's Council steered the government; when Ferdinand married Princess Maria Anna of Savoy, the court physician considered it unlikely that he would be able to consummate the marriage. When he tried to consummate the marriage, he had five seizures, he is best remembered for his command to his cook: when told he could not have apricot dumplings because apricots were out of season, he said "I am the Emperor, I want dumplings!". As the revolutionaries of 1848 were marching on the palace, he is supposed to have asked Metternich for an explanation.
When Metternich answered that they were making a revolution, Ferdinand is supposed to have said "But are they allowed to do that?" He was convinced by Felix zu Schwarzenberg to abdicate in favour of his nephew, Franz Joseph who would occupy the Austrian throne for the next sixty-eight years. Ferdinand recorded the events in his diary: "The affair ended with the new Emperor kneeling before his old Emperor and Lord, to say, me, asking for a blessing, which I gave him, laying both hands on his head and making the sign of the Holy Cross... I embraced him and kissed our new master, we went to our room. Afterwards I and my dear wife heard Holy Mass... After that I and my dear wife packed our bags." Ferdinand was the last King of Bohemia to be crowned as such. Due to his sympathy with Bohemia he was given the Czech nickname "Ferdinand V, the Good". In Austria, Ferdinand was nicknamed "Ferdinand der Gütige", but ridiculed as "Gütinand der Fertige", he is interred in tomb number 62 in the Imperial Crypt in Vienna.
He used the titles:His Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty Ferdinand the First, By the Grace of God Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, fifth by this name, King of the Lombardy and Venice, King of Dalmatia, Slavonia, Galicia and Illyria. Archduke of Austria Grand duke of Tuscany and Cracow. Lord of Trieste and over the Windic March. Ferdinand's parents were double first cousins. Therefore, Ferdinand only had four great-grandparents, being descended from each of them twice. Further back in his ancestry there is more pedigree collapse due to the close intermarriage between the Houses of Austria and Spain and other Catholic monarchies. Charles II of Spain List of heirs to the Austrian throne Rulers of Germany family tree, he was related to every other ruler of Germany. Tomáš Kleisner, "Medals of the Emperor Ferdinand the Good 1793-1875" Prague 2013 ISBN 978-80-7036-396-6 "Biography of Emperor Ferdinand" Literature by and about Ferdinand I in the German National Library catalogue Works by and about Ferdinand I of Austria in the Deutsche Digitale Bibliothek Ferdinand I In: Brockhaus Bilder-Conversations-Lexikon, 2, Leipzig, 1837, pp. 25–26 Ferdinand I In: Brockhaus' Kleines Konversations-Lexikon, 1, Leipzig, 1911, p. 569 Ferdinand I of Austria in: Austria-Forum Entry about Ferdinand I of Austria in the database Gedächtnis des Landes on the history of the state of Lower Austria
Fernando Alonso Díaz audio is a Spanish racing driver and former Formula One racing driver. He is a two-time Formula One World Champion and is regarded as one of the greatest Formula One drivers in the history of the sport, he has contested 17 seasons of Formula One. Outside Formula One, Alonso is leading the 2018–19 FIA World Endurance Championship with Toyota Gazoo Racing, he won the 2018 24 Hours of Le Mans on his first attempt and won the 2019 24 Hours of Daytona, after his debut in 2018. He contested the 2017 Indianapolis 500. Born in Oviedo, the capital of the autonomous region of Asturias, Alonso started in karting from the age of 3, he won three consecutive karting championships in Spain from 1994 to 1997, he became world karting champion in 1996. He made his Formula One debut in the 2001 season with Minardi, moved to the Renault team as a test driver the next year; as a main Renault driver from 2003, he was crowned Formula One World Drivers' Champion in both 2005 and 2006. At the age of 24 years and 58 days upon clinching the title, he was the youngest Formula One World Drivers' Champion, subsequently the youngest double Champion at the time.
He joined McLaren in 2007, before returning to Renault for two seasons in 2008 and 2009. Alonso raced for Scuderia Ferrari for five seasons between 2010 and 2014. During that time he finished second in the championship behind Sebastian Vettel three times, won 11 further Grands Prix. Two of those years, he narrowly lost the title at the final race, he returned to McLaren for four seasons between 2015 and 2018. Alonso has held various driving records in Formula One, he was the youngest driver to qualify on pole position and to win a Grand Prix at the 2003 Malaysian Grand Prix and the 2003 Hungarian Grand Prix respectively. He was the youngest World champion upon clinching the title at the age of 24 years and 58 days, subsequently the youngest double World Champion. From 2013 until 2015, he held the record for most career championship points; each of these records were surpassed by Sebastian Vettel. As of February 2019, Alonso is the only Spanish driver to have won a Formula One Grand Prix and is the driver with the sixth highest number of Grand Prix wins, with 32.
As a winner of the Monaco Grand Prix and the 24 Hours of Le Mans, Alonso is one of just thirteen drivers to have won two of the three races that make up the Triple Crown of Motorsport. Alonso is nicknamed a typical diminutive for Fernando in Asturias, his place of birth, he is a Goodwill Ambassador for UNICEF. Fernando Alonso was born in Asturias in northern Spain, his mother worked in a department store and his father was employed as a mechanic in an explosives factory near Oviedo. Alonso has Lorena. Alonso's father José Luis, an amateur kart racer, wanted to pass on his passion to his children, he built a kart meant for eight-year-old Lorena, but unlike her three-year-old brother, she showed no interest in the sport. Alonso attended the Holy Guardian Angel Primary School in Oviedo until he was 14 when he attended the Instituto Leopoldo Alas Clarín of San Lázaro, he dropped out in 2000. Since winning his first world championship in 2005, Alonso became an ambassador of Oxford Brookes University, to promote the new field of study of Motorsport of Business for Social Science financing 12 students from all parts of the world.
Alonso lived in Oxford, England until he moved his residence to Switzerland in 2006. Alonso owned a house in Mont-sur-Rolle, near Lake Geneva from 2006 to 2010, in February 2010 he moved house to Lugano in order to be closer to his new Formula One employer Ferrari, it is common for Formula One stars to take up residence in Switzerland to reduce their tax bills. In the winter of 2010–11, Alonso moved back to Oviedo in order to be closer to friends and family, costing him an estimated £50 million in tax. Alonso married Raquel del Rosario, lead singer of Spanish pop band El Sueño de Morfeo, on 17 November 2006, they announced their intention to divorce in December 2011. In mid-2012, Alonso started dating Russian model Dasha Kapustina; the couple split in 2014. Since early 2015, Alonso had a relationship with Spanish journalist Lara Álvarez, they separated in 2016. Since 2017 Alonso is in a relationship with Italian model Linda Morselli. Alonso is a supporter of the football teams Real Real Oviedo. In addition to Spanish, he speaks English and French.
Alonso has a tattoo of a samurai on his back. He revealed that the tattoo showed strength in his muscles and force of will with inspiration from the Hagakure, the spiritual guide written by Yamamoto Tsunetomo in the 18th century, he lives in Dubai. Alonso confirmed his atheism in a 2005 interview. In 2017 he was asked. Alonso replied "I believe things happen. All the things that happen in a race or happen in a championship or in your life, there is maybe a reason behind, and that reason is because better times are coming, I prefer to think that way." As a child, Alonso participated in karting competitions around Spain, supported by his father, who doubled as his mechanic. His family lacked the financial resources needed to develop a career in motorsport, but his victories attracted sponsorship and the required funds. Alonso has attributed his ability to adapt his driving style to different conditions to his karting career: having started racing at the age of three, he tended to be "four or five years younger" than his competitors, had to cope with the challenges of racing at that age: "you can't reach the pedals, you can't reach
Ferdinand of Fürstenberg (1626–1683)
Ferdinand of Fürstenberg, contemporaneously known as Ferdinandus liber baro de Furstenberg, was, as Ferdinand II, Prince Bishop of Paderborn from 1661 to 1683 and Prince Bishop of Münster from 1678 to 1683, having been its coadjutor since 1667/68. He was brought complete restoration to the Bishopric of Paderborn after the devastation of the Thirty Years' War. In foreign policy, he followed the principle of armed neutrality, but tended clearly to lean towards the French position, he distinguished himself as an author of historical works, a poet of Latin poetry and a correspondent with the great scholars of his time. He emerged as a patron of the arts and religion and had numerous churches built or renovated, he is considered one of the most outstanding representatives of Baroque Catholicism. Ferdinand of Fürstenberg was born on 26 October 1626 at Bilstein Castle in the Duchy of Westphalia into the Westphalian family of Fürstenberg, his father, Frederick of Furstenberg, was the Landesdrost or state governor for the Electorate of Cologne.
His mother was Anna Maria. He was the eleventh child of their marriage, his siblings include clergyman and officer, Caspar Dietrich of Furstenberg, the cathedral provost in Münster and Paderborn, John Adolphus of Fürstenberg, the diplomat and head of the family, Frederick of Furstenberg, the dean William of Furstenberg and the Landkomtur Francis William of Furstenberg. His godfather was Elector Ferdinand of Bavaria. To the latter he owed the fact that he was given a diocesan stipend from Hildesheim at the age of seven, and thanks to the intercession of the emperor, in 1639 a benefice in the cathedral chapter of Paderborn was added to his income. As was customary in the family, Ferdinand of Fürstenberg was given an exceptionally good education for a member of the nobility at that time. Fürstenberg attended the Jesuit grammar school in Siegen. After that he studied philosophy in Münster. After the death of his parents Fürstenberg returned for a time to Bilstein Castle, where the castellan introduced him to the basics of jurisprudence.
In 1648 he began his studies into law at the University of Cologne. There he came into contact with important scholars among the Jesuits, he came into contact with other leading scholars of his time in Münster and Cologne. They included Aegidius Gelenius. In this period Fürstenberg began to carry out historical studies himself. In Münster he came to know Fabio Chigi, the nuntius in the peace negotiations of the Thirty Years' War and Pope Alexander VII. In 1649 after completing his studies, he was given a place and vote in Paderborn's cathedral chapter. One year he was installed as a subdeacon, he was invited to Rome by Fabio Chigi. There he met his brother, John Adolphus in 1652. In Rome Fürstenberg worked as part of the retinue of Chigis. Through Chigis he came into contact with scholars there, he lived under the same roof with philologist Nikolaes Heinsius and they formed a lifelong friendship. He had a close friendship with Lukas Holste; the latter motivated Ferdinand to undertake further language studies and arranged for him to have access to the Vatican library, which he ran.
Fürstenberg came into close contact with many Italian scholars. On the election of Fabio Chigi to the Papacy as Pope Alexander VII in 1655, Fürstenberg was appointed as Papal Private Chamberlain. Like his brother William Fürstenberg acted as an advisor to the Pope on German matters, he was a member of an Academy of Fine Arts even becoming its president. In 1657 he was chamberlain to the archsodality at Campo Santo and Provisor of the German Kirche Anima, but above all, he devoted himself to academic work, for example, producing numerous copies of documents from the Vatican archives. These included the Capitulatio de partibus Saxoniae by Charlemagne; some finds he left to others to publish, some he published himself. In addition, he emerged as a sponsor of large-scale academic projects such as the publication of Acta Sanctorum by Jean Bolland and his successor, the Bollandists; the discovery of documents from his Westphalian homeland prompted Ferdinand's decision to write a history of the Bishopric of Paderborn.
In 1659 Ferdinand was ordained as a priest. As a result, he was given several benefices; these included the Priory of the Holy Cross in Hildesheim, a cathedral chapter position in Münster and the opportunity of another in Halberstadt. In 1660 he handed over the cardinalate to Francis William of Wartenberg. In addition he had to undertake diplomatic missions to many of the imperial princes. In Westphalia he studied sources for his planned history of the bishopric. After his return to Rome Fürstenberg devoted himself to historical research in the Vatican Archives. Ferdinand had his brother, William, to thank for his election in 1661 as Bishop of Paderborn, his defeated opponent for the post was Maximilian Henry of Bavaria. Ferdinand was consecrated a bishop while still in Rome, he received his mitre in the German national church of Santa Maria dell’Anima from cardinal state secretary, Giulio Rospigliosi. He did not enter Paderborn 4 October 1661; the state of Paderborn was still suffering from the consequences of the Thirty Years' War, because Ferdinand's predecessor had been unable to rebuild the economy for financial reasons.
A primary objective for Ferdinand of Fürstenberg was thus the internal health of the land. His numerous construction projects were designed not least to employ the tradesmen of the prince bishopric. In addition, he encouraged the re-cultivation of fields, he had a forestry act passed an
Kareem Abdul-Jabbar is an American retired professional basketball player who played 20 seasons in the National Basketball Association for the Milwaukee Bucks and the Los Angeles Lakers. During his career as a center, Abdul-Jabbar was a record six-time NBA Most Valuable Player, a record 19-time NBA All-Star, a 15-time All-NBA selection, an 11-time NBA All-Defensive Team member. A member of six NBA championship teams as a player and two more as an assistant coach, Abdul-Jabbar twice was voted NBA Finals MVP. In 1996, he was honored as one of the 50 Greatest Players in NBA History. NBA coach Pat Riley and players Isiah Thomas and Julius Erving have called him the greatest basketball player of all time. After winning 71 consecutive basketball games on his high school team in New York City, Alcindor was recruited by Jerry Norman, the assistant coach of UCLA, where he played for coach John Wooden on three consecutive national championship teams and was a record three-time MVP of the NCAA Tournament.
Drafted with the first overall pick by the one-season-old Bucks franchise in the 1969 NBA draft, Alcindor spent six seasons in Milwaukee. After leading the Bucks to its first NBA championship at age 24 in 1971, he took the Muslim name Kareem Abdul-Jabbar. Using his trademark "skyhook" shot, he established himself as one of the league's top scorers. In 1975, he was traded to the Lakers, with whom he played the final 14 seasons of his career and won five additional NBA championships. Abdul-Jabbar's contributions were a key component in the "Showtime" era of Lakers basketball. Over his 20-year NBA career, his teams succeeded in making the playoffs 18 times and got past the first round 14 times. At the time of his retirement at age 42 in 1989, Abdul-Jabbar was the NBA's all-time leader in points scored, games played, minutes played, field goals made, field goal attempts, blocked shots, defensive rebounds, career wins, personal fouls, he remains the all-time leader in points scored and career wins.
He is ranked third all-time in blocked shots. In 2007, ESPN voted him the greatest center of all time, in 2008, they named him the "greatest player in college basketball history", in 2016, they named him the second best player in NBA history. Abdul-Jabbar has been an actor, a basketball coach, a best-selling author. In 2012, he was selected by Secretary of State Hillary Clinton to be a U. S. global cultural ambassador. In 2016, President Barack Obama awarded him the Presidential Medal of Freedom. Ferdinand Lewis Alcindor Jr. was born in New York City, the only child of Cora Lillian, a department store price checker, Ferdinand Lewis Alcindor Sr. a transit police officer and jazz musician. He grew up in the Dyckman Street projects in the Inwood neighborhood of Upper Manhattan. Alcindor was unusually tall from a young age. At birth he weighed 12 lb 11 oz and was 22 1⁄2 inches long, by the age of nine he was 5 ft 8 in tall. By the eighth grade he had grown to 6 ft 8 in tall and could slam dunk a basketball.
Alcindor began his record-breaking basketball accomplishments when he was in high school, where he led coach Jack Donahue's Power Memorial Academy team to three straight New York City Catholic championships, a 71-game winning streak, a 79–2 overall record. This earned him a nickname—"The tower from Power", his 2,067 total points were a New York City high school record. The team won the national high school boys basketball championship when Alcindor was in 10th and 11th grade and was runner-up his senior year. Alcindor had a strained relationship with his coach. In his 2017 book "Coach Wooden and Me," Abdul-Jabbar relates an incident where Donahue called him a nigger. Alcindor played on the UCLA freshman team in 1966 only because the "freshman rule" was in effect, but his prowess was well known, he received national coverage when he made his varsity debut in 1967: Sports Illustrated described him as "The New Superstar." From 1967 to 1969, he played on the varsity under head coach John Wooden. He was the main contributor to the team's three-year record of 88 wins and only two losses: one to the University of Houston in which Alcindor had an eye injury, the other to crosstown rival USC who played a "stall game".
In his first game, Alcindor scored 56 points. During his college career, Alcindor was twice named Player of the Year. In 1967 and 1968, he won USBWA College Player of the Year, which became the Oscar Robertson Trophy. Alcindor became the only player to win the Helms Foundation Player of the Year award three times; the 1965–66 UCLA Bruin team was the preseason #1. On November 27, 1965, the freshman team, led by Alcindor, defeated the varsity 75–60 in the first game in the new Pauley Pavilion. Alcindor had 21 rebounds in what was a good indication of things to come. After the game, the UCLA varsity was # 2 on campus. If the "freshman rule" had not been in effect at that time, UCLA would have had a much better chance of winning the 1966 National Championship. Alcindor had considered transferring to Michigan because of unfulfilled recruiting promises. UCLA player Willie Naul
Ferdinand VII of Spain
Ferdinand VII was twice King of Spain: in 1808 and again from 1813 to his death. He was known to his detractors as the Felon King. After being overthrown by Napoleon in 1808 he linked his monarchy to counter-revolution and reactionary policies that produced a deep rift in Spain between his forces on the right and liberals on the left. Back in power in 1814, he reestablished the absolutist monarchy and rejected the liberal constitution of 1812. A revolt in 1820 led by Rafael de Riego forced him to restore the constitution thus beginning the Liberal Triennium: a three year period of liberal rule. In 1823 the Congress of Verona authorized a successful French intervention restoring him to absolute power for the second time, he jailed many of its editors and writers. Under his rule, Spain lost nearly all of its American possessions, the country entered into civil war on his death, his reputation among historians is low. Historian Stanley Payne writes: He proved in many ways the basest king in Spanish history.
Cowardly, grasping and vengeful, seemed incapable of any perception of the commonwealth. He thought only in terms of his power and security and was unmoved by the enormous sacrifices of Spanish people to retain their independence and preserve his throne. Ferdinand was the eldest surviving son of Maria Luisa of Parma. Ferdinand was born in the palace of El Escorial near Madrid. In his youth Ferdinand occupied the position of an heir apparent, excluded from all share in government by his parents and their favourite advisor and Prime Minister, Manuel Godoy. National discontent with the government produced a rebellion in 1805. In October 1807, Ferdinand was arrested for his complicity in the El Escorial Conspiracy in which the rebels aimed at securing foreign support from the French Emperor Napoleon; when the conspiracy was discovered, Ferdinand submitted to his parents. Following a popular riot at Aranjuez Charles IV abdicated in March 1808. Ferdinand turned to Napoleon for support, he abdicated on 6 May 1808 and thereafter Napoleon kept Ferdinand under guard in France for six years at the Château de Valençay.
Historian Charles Oman records that the choice of Valençay was a practical joke by Napoleon on his former foreign minister Talleyrand, the owner of the château, for his lack of interest in Spanish affairs. While the upper echelons of the Spanish government accepted his abdication and Napoleon's choice of his brother Joseph Bonaparte as king of Spain, the Spanish people did not. Uprisings broke out throughout the country. Provincial juntas were established to control regions in opposition to the new French king. After the Battle of Bailén proved that the Spanish could resist the French, the Council of Castile reversed itself and declared null and void the abdications of Bayonne on 11 August 1808. On 24 August, Ferdinand VII was proclaimed king of Spain again, negotiations between the Council and the provincial juntas for the establishment of a Supreme Central Junta were completed. Subsequently, on 14 January 1809, the British government acknowledged Ferdinand VII as king of Spain. Five years after experiencing serious setbacks on many fronts, Napoleon agreed to acknowledge Ferdinand VII as king of Spain on 11 December 1813 and signed the Treaty of Valençay, so that the king could return to Spain.
The Spanish people, blaming the policies of the Francophiles for causing the Napoleonic occupation and the Peninsular War by allying Spain too to France, at first welcomed Fernando. Ferdinand soon found that in the intervening years a new world had been born of foreign invasion and domestic revolution. In his name Spain fought for its independence and in his name as well juntas had governed Spanish America. Spain was no longer the absolute monarchy. Instead he was now asked to rule under the liberal Constitution of 1812. Before being allowed to enter Spanish soil, Ferdinand had to guarantee the liberals that he would govern on the basis of the Constitution, only gave lukewarm indications he would do so. On 24 March the French handed him over to the Spanish Army in Girona, thus began his procession towards Madrid. During this process and in the following months, he was encouraged by conservatives and the Church hierarchy to reject the Constitution. On 4 May he ordered its abolition and on 10 May had the liberal leaders responsible for the Constitution arrested.
Ferdinand justified his actions by claiming that the Constitution had been made by a Cortes illegally assembled in his absence, without his consent and without the traditional form. Ferdinand promised to convene a traditional Cortes, but never did so, thereby reasserting the Bourbon doctrine that sovereign authority resided in his person only. Meanwhile, the wars of independence had broken out in the Americas, although many of the republican rebels were divided and royalist sentiment was strong in many areas, the Manila galleons and the Spanish treasure fleets - tax revenues from the Spanish Empire - were interrupted. Spain was all but bankrupt. Ferdinand's restored autocracy was guided by a small camarilla of his favorites, although his government seemed unstable. Whimsical and ferocious by turns, he changed his ministers every few months. "The king," wrote Friedrich von Gentz in 1814, "himself enters the houses of his prime ministers, arrests them, hands them over to their cruel enemies.