Louis, Grand Dauphin
Louis of France was the eldest son and heir of Louis XIV, King of France, and his spouse, Maria Theresa of Spain. As the heir apparent to the French throne, he was styled Dauphin and he became known as Le Grand Dauphin after the birth of his own son, Le Petit Dauphin. As he died before his father, he never became king, as a Fils de France he was entitled to the style of Royal Highness. He was baptised on 24 March 1662 at the chapel of the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, at the ceremony, Cardinal de Vendôme and the Princess of Conti acted as proxies for the godparents, Pope Clement IX and Queen Henrietta Maria of England. For this ceremony, Jean-Baptiste Lully composed the motet Plaude Laetare Gallia, when Louis reached the age of seven, he was removed from the care of women and placed in the society of men. No prince could have been deserving of such feelings. Monseigneur, as the heir to the throne was now known, had inherited his mothers docility, all his life he remained petrified with admiration of his formidable father and stood in fear of him even while lavish proofs of affection were showered upon him.
The best way for Monseigneur to do someone an injury was to him to the royal favour. He knew it, and did not conceal it from his rare petitioners, Louis XIV saw to it that his sons upbringing was quite the opposite of his own. Bossuet overwhelmed his backward pupil with such splendid lessons that the Dauphin developed a horror of books, learning. By the age of eighteen, Monseigneur had assimilated almost none of the knowledge amassed to so little purpose, and it was said that when Louis was an adult, he could pass a whole day simply tapping his cane against his foot in an armchair. Nonetheless, his generosity and liberality gave him popularity in Paris. Louis was one of six children of his parents. The others all died in childhood, the second longest-lived, Marie Thérèse of France. According to various reports, Marie Louise and Louis were in love, Louis XIV used Marie Louise to forge a link with Spain and forced her to marry the invalid Charles II of Spain, the Dauphins own half-uncle. Louis was engaged to his cousin, Maria Anna Victoria of Bavaria.
She was an older than Louis and, upon arriving at the French court, was described as being very unattractive. Nonetheless, she was a cultured princess
House of Bourbon-Parma
The House of Bourbon-Parma is an Italian cadet branch of the House of Bourbon. It is thus descended from the French Capetian dynasty in male line, the name of Bourbon-Parma comes from the main name and the other from the title of Duke of Parma. The title was held by the Spanish Bourbons as the founder was the great-grandson of Duke Ranuccio II Farnese, Duke of Parma. The Duchy of Parma was created in 1545 from that part of the Duchy of Milan south of the Po River, as a fief for Pope Paul IIIs illegitimate son, Pier Luigi Farnese, centered on the city of Parma. In 1556, the second Duke, Ottavio Farnese, was given the city of Piacenza, becoming thus Duke of Piacenza and he ruled until 1735 during the War of the Polish Succession, when Parma was ceded to Emperor Charles VI in exchange for the Two Sicilies. The Habsburgs only ruled until the conclusion of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748, as duke Philip, he became the founder of the House of Bourbon-Parma. In 1796, the duchy was occupied by French troops under Napoleon Bonaparte, in the Treaty of Aranjuez of 1801, duke Ferdinand formally agreed to cede the duchy to Napoleon.
In 1814, the duchies were restored under Napoleons Habsburg wife, Marie Louise, the duchy was renamed the duchy of Parma and Guastalla, the name that it retained until the end. After Marie Louises death in 1847, the duchy was restored to the Bourbon-Parma line, the Bourbons ruled until 1859, when they were driven out by a revolution following the Sardinian victory in their war against Austria. The House of Bourbon continues to claim the title of duke of Parma to this day, carlos-Hugo held the title from 1977 to his death. His son now claims the title, during the French ownership of the Duchy of Parma, the title of Duke of Parma was used as an honorary form and style. From 1808, the title was used by Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès and he kept the style of Duc de Parme till 1814. Only in 1847 was the title restored to the Bourbons, after a period of being held by Marie Louise of Austria, wife of Napoleon I. Jean was the son of Prince Felix of Bourbon-Parma, a son of Robert I of Parma. Charlottes descendants have reigned as the continued dynasty of Nassau.
In October 2000 Jean abdicated the Luxembourgian throne in favour of his eldest son, Grand Duke of Luxembourg
Pauline Bonaparte was the first sovereign Duchess of Guastalla, an imperial French Princess and the Princess consort of Sulmona and Rossano. She was the child of Letizia Ramolino and Carlo Buonaparte. Her elder brother, was the first Emperor of the French and she married Charles Leclerc, a French general, a union ended by his death in 1802. Later, she married Camillo Borghese, 6th Prince of Sulmona and her only child, Dermide Leclerc, born from her first marriage, died in childhood. She was the only Bonaparte sibling to visit Napoleon on his principality, maria Paola Buonaparte, the sixth child of Letizia Ramolino and Carlo Buonaparte, Corsicas representative to the court of King Louis XVI of France, was born on 20 October 1780 in Ajaccio, Corsica. She was popularly known as Paoletta, and her family took a French spelling of their surname. Little is known about her childhood, except that she received no formal education, following Carlos death in 1785, the family was plunged into poverty. Her brother Lucien Bonaparte made seditious comments at the local Jacobin chapter in the summer of 1793 and it was there on the mainland that she became known as Paulette.
The income the Bonapartes earned from their vineyards and other holdings on Corsica was interrupted by the English occupation and their existence became so dire that the Bonaparte women reportedly resorted to washing clothes for payment. Regardless, they received, like other Corsican refugees following the English invasion, from their landing place, they moved to Marseille, where General Napoleon Bonaparte, her elder brother, introduced her to Louis-Marie Stanislas Fréron, the proconsul of Marseille. He intended them to marry, but Letizia objected, despite the fact that Pauline loved Stanislas, married her to General Charles Leclerc in French-occupied Milan on 14 June 1797. Napoleon returned to Paris and delegated the office of commander-in-chief of the French army in Italy to his brother-in-law, Pauline gave birth to a boy, Dermide Louis Napoleon, on 20 April 1798. In celebration, General Leclerc acquired a property outside Novellara worth 160,000 French francs, ill-health forced Leclerc to resign from his military post in October of the same year, he was transferred to Paris.
Leclerc was again relocated upon arrival, this time to Brittany, Pauline stayed in Paris with Dermide. Laure de Permond—the future Duchesse dAbrantès—and her mother welcomed Pauline into their salon at the rue Saint-Croix, Napoleon seized power in Coup of Brumaire in November 1799, deposing the Directory, he pronounced himself First Consul. Saint-Domingue had been a French colony since 1697, but had been in rebellion against France since 1791, Napoleon wished to restore French authority there, and so organized an expedition. He put General Leclerc at its head, appointing him Governor-General of the island, Leclerc and Pauline embarked for the colony from Brest on 14 December 1801. The gubernatorial family occupied the flagship, lOcéan, after a 45-day journey, the fleet arrived in Le Cap harbour
Maria Luisa, Duchess of Lucca
Maria Luisa of Spain was a Spanish infanta, daughter of King Charles IV and his wife, Maria Luisa of Parma. In 1795, she married her first cousin Louis, Hereditary Prince of Parma and she spent the first years of her married life at the Spanish court where their first child, was born. In 1801 the Treaty of Aranjuez made her husband King of Etruria and they arrived in Florence, the capital of the new kingdom, in August 1801. During a brief visit to Spain in 1802, Maria Luisa gave birth to her second child and her husbands reign in Etruria was marred by his ill health. He died in 1803, at the age of 30, following an epileptic crisis, Maria Luisa acted as regent for their son. As part of the Treaty of Fontainebleau, Napoleon incorporated Etruria to his domains, after a futile interview with Napoleon in Milan, Maria Luisa looked for refuge in exile with her family in Spain. Napoleon invited father and son to Bayonne, with the excuse of acting as a mediator, Napoleon called the remaining members of the Spanish royal family to France and at their departure on 2 May 1808, the citizens of Madrid rose up against the French occupation.
In France, Maria Luisa was reunited in exile with her parents and she was the only member of the Spanish royal family to directly oppose Napoleon. After her secret plan to escape was discovered, Maria Luisa was separated from her son, Maria Luisa, mostly known as the Queen of Etruria during her lifetime, regained her freedom in 1814 at the fall of Napoleon. In the following years she continued to live in Rome, hoping to recover her sons former domains, as a consolation she was allowed to retain the honors of a queen. Initially reluctant to accept this accord, Maria Luisa did not take the government of Lucca until December 1817, as a reigning duchess of Lucca, she disregarded the constitution imposed by the Congress of Vienna. While spending time in her palace in Rome, she died of cancer at the age of 41. Born at the Palace of San Ildefonso, Spain, Maria Luisa was the surviving daughter of King Charles IV of Spain and his wife Maria Luisa of Parma. She was given the names Maria Luisa Josefina Antonieta, after a sister, Maria Luisa Carlota, who died just four days before Maria Luisas birth, on 2 July.
In 1795, Maria Luisas first cousin, Hereditary Prince of Parma, there was an understanding between the two royal families that Louis would marry one of the daughters of Charles IV. It was anticipated that he would marry the Infanta Maria Amalia and she was fifteen years old at the time and of a timid and melancholic nature. Louis, who was shy and reserved, preferred her younger sister, Maria Luisa. All four daughters of Charles IV were short and plain, but Maria Luisa was clever and she had dark curly hair, brown eyes and a Grecian nose
Third Treaty of San Ildefonso
The Third Treaty of San Ildefonso was a treaty between France and Spain in which Spain returned the colonial territory of Louisiana to France. The treaty was concluded on 1 October 1800 between Louis Alexandre Berthier representing France and Don Mariano Luis de Urquijo for Spain, the treaty was negotiated under some duress, as Spain was under pressure from Napoleon, although Spain did gain the Tuscany area. This treaty affirmed the earlier Treaty of Alliance signed at San Ildefonso on 19 August 1796. The French Revolution ended in Napoleons taking of executive and legislative power in his coup of 18 Brumaire on 9 November 1799, whilst France was immersed in the War of the Second Coalition. It was this alliance led to Spains entry into the war against Great Britain, leading to the loss of Trinidad and Menorca in 1798. Spains financial system was facing serious trouble, from 1780, banknotes were circulating as legal currency, Charles IV and Maria Luisa of Parma ruled Spain, with Manuel Godoy as prime minister.
One month after the takeover, Spain would hand over six 74-gun ships-of-the-line to France. Six months after, Spain would retrocede the colony of Louisiana to France—under Spanish possession since the Treaty of Paris that ended the Seven Years War. The agreement would be kept under top secrecy—even Manuel Godoy, Charles IVs favourite and this agreement was known as Third Treaty of San Ildefonso to be distinguished from those signed in 1777 and 1796. Minister Urquijo was removed from office by the end of 1800 because of his disagreements with the Catholic clergy. On 9 February 1801, France and the Holy Roman Empire signed the Treaty of Lunéville which empowered Napoleon to force Ferdinand III, Grand Duke of Tuscany to resign and leave the duchy. The duke was rewarded with the Archbishopric of Salzburg that had been secularised and transformed into the Electorate of Salzburg—of which he was appointed Prince Elector, with Tuscany dominated by Napoleonic France the way to implement territorial exchanges became open.
The final treaty was signed on 21 March 1801, by Manuel Godoy, the conditions of this new treaty renewed those of the former one, expanding them, Resignation of Ferdinand I to the Duchy of Parma, for himself and his heirs. Cession by France of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany to Louis-Francis of Bourbon-Parma, recognition of Louis as King of Tuscany with French support. If there were not successors in Louiss family the rights to Tuscanys throne would go to the Spanish Royal House, cession of the vast territories of Louisiana to France. Joint Franco-Spanish indemnization to Ferdinand in exchange for his resignation to the Duchy of Parma and this new agreement was signed by Charles IV on 11 April, that same year. Even though not written in the treaty, the French delegation pledged that in case France wished to leave Louisiana, it only would be back to Spain. The new kingdom was named Etruria, after the name in ancient Roman times
French First Republic
In the history of France, the First Republic, officially the French Republic, was founded on 21 September 1792 during the French Revolution. The First Republic lasted until the declaration of the First Empire in 1804 under Napoleon, under the Legislative Assembly, which was in power before the proclamation of the First Republic, France was engaged in war with Prussia and Austria. The foreign threat exacerbated Frances political turmoil amid the French Revolution and deepened the passion, in the violence of 10 August 1792, citizens stormed the Tuileries Palace, killing six hundred of the Kings Swiss guards and insisting on the removal of the king. A renewed fear of action prompted further violence, and in the first week of September 1792, mobs of Parisians broke into the citys prisons. This included nobles and political prisoners, but numerous common criminals, such as prostitutes and petty thieves, many murdered in their cells—raped and this became known as the September Massacres. The resulting Convention was founded with the purpose of abolishing the monarchy.
The Conventions first act, on 10 August 1792, was to establish the French First Republic, the King, by a private citizen bearing his family name of Capet, was subsequently put on trial for crimes of high treason starting in December 1792. On 16 January 1793 he was convicted, and on 21 January, throughout the winter of 1792 and spring of 1793, Paris was plagued by food riots and mass hunger. The new Convention did little to remedy the problem until late spring of 1793, despite growing discontent with the National Convention as a ruling body, in June the Convention drafted the Constitution of 1793, which was ratified by popular vote in early August. The Committees laws and policies took the revolution to unprecedented heights, after the arrest and execution of Robespierre in July 1794, the Jacobin club was closed, and the surviving Girondins were reinstated. A year later, the National Convention adopted the Constitution of the Year III and they reestablished freedom of worship, began releasing large numbers of prisoners, and most importantly, initiated elections for a new legislative body.
On 3 November 1795, the Directory was established, the period known as the French Consulate began with the coup of 18 Brumaire in 1799. Members of the Directory itself planned the coup, indicating clearly the failing power of the Directory, Napoleon Bonaparte was a co-conspirator in the coup, and became head of the government as the First Consul. He would proclaim himself Emperor of the French, ending the First French Republic and ushering in the French First Empire
Louis XIV of France
Louis XIV, known as Louis the Great or the Sun King, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1643 until his death in 1715. His reign of 72 years and 110 days is the longest of any monarch of a country in European history. In the age of absolutism in Europe, Louis XIVs France was a leader in the centralization of power. Louis began his rule of France in 1661, after the death of his chief minister. By these means he became one of the most powerful French monarchs, under his rule, the Edict of Nantes, which granted rights to Huguenots, was abolished. The revocation effectively forced Huguenots to emigrate or convert in a wave of dragonnades, which managed to virtually destroy the French Protestant minority. During Louis reign, France was the leading European power, and it fought three wars, the Franco-Dutch War, the War of the League of Augsburg. There were two lesser conflicts, the War of Devolution and the War of the Reunions, warfare defined Louis XIVs foreign policies, and his personality shaped his approach.
Impelled by a mix of commerce and pique, in peacetime he concentrated on preparing for the next war. He taught his diplomats their job was to create tactical and strategic advantages for the French military, Louis XIV was born on 5 September 1638 in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, to Louis XIII and Anne of Austria. He was named Louis Dieudonné and bore the title of French heirs apparent. At the time of his birth, his parents had married for 23 years. His mother had experienced four stillbirths between 1619 and 1631, leading contemporaries thus regarded him as a divine gift and his birth a miracle of God. Sensing imminent death, Louis XIII decided to put his affairs in order in the spring of 1643, in defiance of custom, which would have made Queen Anne the sole Regent of France, the king decreed that a regency council would rule on his sons behalf. His lack of faith in Queen Annes political abilities was his primary rationale and he did, make the concession of appointing her head of the council.
Louis relationship with his mother was uncommonly affectionate for the time and eyewitnesses claimed that the Queen would spend all her time with Louis. Both were greatly interested in food and theatre, and it is likely that Louis developed these interests through his close relationship with his mother. This long-lasting and loving relationship can be evidenced by excerpts in Louis journal entries, such as, but attachments formed by shared qualities of the spirit are far more difficult to break than those formed merely by blood
William the Conqueror
William I, usually known as William the Conqueror and sometimes William the Bastard, was the first Norman King of England, reigning from 1066 until his death in 1087. A descendant of Rollo, he was Duke of Normandy from 1035 onward, after a long struggle to establish his power, by 1060 his hold on Normandy was secure, and he launched the Norman conquest of England six years later. The rest of his life was marked by struggles to consolidate his hold over England and his continental lands, William was the son of the unmarried Robert I, Duke of Normandy, by Roberts mistress Herleva. His illegitimate status and his youth caused some difficulties for him after he succeeded his father, during his childhood and adolescence, members of the Norman aristocracy battled each other, both for control of the child duke and for their own ends. In 1047 William was able to quash a rebellion and begin to establish his authority over the duchy and his marriage in the 1050s to Matilda of Flanders provided him with a powerful ally in the neighbouring county of Flanders.
By the time of his marriage, William was able to arrange the appointments of his supporters as bishops and his consolidation of power allowed him to expand his horizons, and by 1062 William was able to secure control of the neighbouring county of Maine. In the 1050s and early 1060s William became a contender for the throne of England, held by the childless Edward the Confessor, his first cousin once removed. There were other claimants, including the powerful English earl Harold Godwinson. William argued that Edward had previously promised the throne to him, William built a large fleet and invaded England in September 1066, decisively defeating and killing Harold at the Battle of Hastings on 14 October 1066. After further military efforts William was crowned king on Christmas Day 1066 and he made arrangements for the governance of England in early 1067 before returning to Normandy. Several unsuccessful rebellions followed, but by 1075 Williams hold on England was mostly secure, Williams final years were marked by difficulties in his continental domains, troubles with his eldest son, and threatened invasions of England by the Danes.
In 1086 William ordered the compilation of the Domesday Book, a listing all the landholders in England along with their holdings. William died in September 1087 while leading a campaign in northern France and his reign in England was marked by the construction of castles, the settling of a new Norman nobility on the land, and change in the composition of the English clergy. He did not try to integrate his various domains into one empire, Williams lands were divided after his death, Normandy went to his eldest son, Robert Curthose, and his second surviving son, William Rufus, received England. Norsemen first began raiding in what became Normandy in the late 8th century, permanent Scandinavian settlement occurred before 911, when Rollo, one of the Viking leaders, and King Charles the Simple of France reached an agreement surrendering the county of Rouen to Rollo. The lands around Rouen became the core of the duchy of Normandy. Normandy may have used as a base when Scandinavian attacks on England were renewed at the end of the 10th century.
In an effort to improve matters, King Æthelred the Unready took Emma of Normandy, sister of Duke Richard II, as his second wife in 1002
Ranuccio II Farnese, Duke of Parma
Ranuccio II Farnese was the sixth Duke of Parma and Piacenza from 1646 until his death nearly 50 years and Duke of Castro from 1646 until 1649. Ranuccio was the eldest son of Odoardo Farnese, the sovereign duke of Parma. After his fathers death, Ranuccio succeeded as duke. As he was a minor and had not yet reached his majority, Ranuccio belonged to the House of Farnese, founded by Pope Paul III, formerly Alessandro Farnese. The Farnese Dukes had been ruling Parma and Piacenza since Pope Pauls illegitimate son Pier Luigi Farnese was given it as a possession and they found the excuse when Odoardo was unable to repay his creditors, from whom he had incurred debts. Urban responded to the plea for help and had Castro occupied. However, the first war ended with Papal defeat, Ranuccio refused to repay the debts incurred by his father, despite the latter having a signed a peace treaty agreeing to do so. He refused to recognise the new bishop of Castro, appointed by Urbans successor, in 1649, the new bishop, Cardinal Cristoforo Giarda, was murdered on his way to Castro.
Innocent accused Ranuccio of the murder and in retaliation, forces loyal to the Pope besieged Castro, and razed it to the ground. In August of that year the Parmense troops had been crushed not far from Bologna. In 1672 he bought the principate of Bardi and Compiano from Gianandrea Doria Landi, in the last days of his reign, the Duchy suffered heavily from the presence of Imperial troops, who were fighting in the dispute between Victor Amadeus II of Savoy and France. Ranuccio II was married three times, On 29 April 1660, Ranuccio married firstly Marguerite Yolande of Savoy, a daughter of Victor Amadeus I, Duke of Savoy and Christine Marie of France. They had two children, On 18 February 1664 Ranuccio married secondly Isabella dEste of Modena, a daughter of Francesco I dEste and they had three children, On 1 October 1668 he married Maria dEste of Modena, his second wifes sister. They had nine children, http, //www. comune. piacenza. it/english/history/Ifarnese. htm http, //www. italycyberguide.
com/History/factspersons/wxyz. htm http, //page. freett. com/mako_vl/name/hausf. html