Corriere della Sera
The Corriere della Sera is an Italian daily newspaper published in Milan with an average daily circulation of 410,242 copies in December 2015. First published on 5 March 1876, Corriere della Sera is one of Italys oldest newspapers and it reached a circulation of over 1 million under editor and co-owner Luigi Albertini, 1900-1925. He was an opponent of Socialism, of clericalism. Albertinis opposition to the Fascist regime forced the other co-owners to oust him 1925, today its main competitors are Romes la Repubblica and Turins La Stampa. Corriere della Sera was first published on Sunday 5 March 1876 by Eugenio Torelli Viollier, in 1899 the paper began to offer a weekly illustrated supplement, Domenica del Corriere. In the 1910s and 1920s, under the direction of Luigi Albertini, Corriere della Sera became the most widely read newspaper in Italy and it was Corriere della Sera which introduced comics in Italy in 1908 through a supplement for children, namely Corriere dei piccoli. As the name indicates, it was originally an evening paper, during the fascist regime in Italy Corriere della Sera funded the Mussolini Prize which was awarded to the writers Ada Negri and Emilio Cecchi among the others.
Mario Borsa, a militant anti-fascist, was appointed the editor-in-chief of Corriere della Sera in May 1945 and he was fired because of his political leanings in August 1946 and was replaced by Guglielmo Emanuel, a right-wing journalist. Emanuel served in the post until 1952, in the 1950s Corriere della Sera was the organ of the conservative establishment in Italy and was strongly anti-communist and pro-NATO. The paper was functional in shaping the views of the Italian upper, the owners of the Corriere della Sera, the Crespi family, sold a share to RCS Media in the 1960s and was listed in the Italian stock exchange. Its main shareholders were Mediobanca, the Fiat group and some of the biggest industrial and financial groups in Italy, in 1974 the RCS Media moved on to control the majority of the paper. Alberto Cavallari was the editor-in-chief of the paper during the early 1980s, in September 1987 the paper launched a weekly magazine supplement, which is the first in its category in Italy. From 1987 to 1992 the editor-in-chief of Corriere della Sera was Ugo Stille, the 1988 circulation of Corriere della Sera was 715,000 copies, making it the second most read newspaper in Italy.
The paper started its Saturday supplement, IO Donna, in 1996, in 1997 Corriere della Sera was the best-selling Italian newspaper with a circulation of 687,000 copies. Corriere della Sera had a circulation of 715,000 copies in 2001, in 2002 it fell to 681,000 copies. In 2003, its editor Ferruccio de Bortoli resigned from the post, the journalists and opposition politicians claimed the resignation was due to the papers criticism of Silvio Berlusconi. In 2004, Corriere della Sera launched an online English section focusing on Italian current affairs, the same year it was the best-selling newspaper in Italy with a circulation of 677,542 copies. Its circulation in December 2007 was 662,253 copies and it is one of the most visited Italian-language news websites, attracting over 1.6 million readers every day
Lausanne is a city in the French-speaking part of Switzerland, and the capital and biggest city of the canton of Vaud. The city is situated on the shores of Lake Geneva and it faces the French town of Évian-les-Bains, with the Jura Mountains to its north-west. Lausanne is located 62 kilometres northeast of Geneva, Lausanne has a population of 146,372, making it the fourth largest city in Switzerland, with the entire agglomeration area having 420,000 inhabitants. The metropolitan area of Lausanne-Geneva was over 1.2 million inhabitants in 2000, Lausanne is a focus of international sport, hosting the International Olympic Committee, the Court of Arbitration for Sport and some 55 international sport associations. It lies in a noted wine-growing region, the city has a 28-station metro system, making it the smallest city in the world to have a rapid transit system. Lausanne will host the 2020 Winter Youth Olympics, by the 2nd century AD it was known as vikanor Lousonnensium and in 280 as lacu Lausonio.
By 400 it was civitas Lausanna and in 990 it was mentioned as Losanna, after the fall of the Roman Empire, insecurity forced the transfer of Lausanne to its current centre, a hilly site that is easier to defend. The city which emerged from the camp was ruled by the Dukes of Savoy, it came under Bern from 1536 to 1798 and a number of its cultural treasures, including the hanging tapestries in the Cathedral, were permanently removed. Lausanne has made a number of requests to recover them, after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, Lausanne became a place of refuge for French Huguenots. In 1729 a seminary was opened by Antoine Court and Benjamin Duplan, by 1750 ninety pastors had been sent back to France to work clandestinely, this number would rise to four hundred. Official persecution ended in 1787, a faculty of Protestant theology was established at Montauban in 1808, during the Napoleonic Wars, the citys status changed. In 1803, it became the capital of a newly formed Swiss canton, in 1964 the city hosted the Swiss National Exhibition, displaying its newly found confidence to host major international events.
From the 1950s to 1970s a large number of Italians and Portuguese immigrated, settling mostly in the district of Renens. The city has served as a refuge for European artists, while under the care of a psychiatrist at Lausanne, T. S. Eliot composed most of his 1922 poem The Wasteland. Hemingway visited from Paris with his wife during the 1920s, in fact, many creative people - such as Edward Gibbon, an historian, and Romantic era poets Shelley and Byron - have sojourned and worked in Lausanne or nearby. The city has been quiet, but in the late 1960s. Later demonstrations took place to protest against the high cinema prices, the most important geographical feature of the area surrounding Lausanne is Lake Geneva. Lausanne boasts a dramatic panorama over the lake and the Alps, in addition to its generally southward-sloping layout, the centre of the city is the site of an ancient river, the Flon, which has been covered since the 19th century
The Normans were the people who, in the 10th and 11th centuries, gave their name to Normandy, a region in France. They were descended from Norse raiders and pirates from Denmark and Norway who, under their leader Rollo, through generations of assimilation and mixing with the native Frankish and Gallo-Roman populations, their descendants gradually adopted the Carolingian-based cultures of West Francia. The distinct cultural and ethnic identity of the Normans emerged initially in the first half of the 10th century, the Norman dynasty had a major political and military impact on medieval Europe and even the Near East. The Normans were famed for their spirit and eventually for their Christian piety. They adopted the Gallo-Romance language of the Frankish land they settled, their becoming known as Norman, Normaund or Norman French. The Normans are noted both for their culture, such as their unique Romanesque architecture and musical traditions, and for their significant military accomplishments and their chief men were specially lavish through their desire of good report.
They were, moreover, a race skillful in flattery, given to the study of eloquence, so that the boys were orators. They were enduring of toil and cold whenever fortune laid it on them, given to hunting and hawking, delighting in the pleasure of horses, and of all the weapons and garb of war. The treaty offered Rollo and his men the French lands between the river Epte and the Atlantic coast in exchange for their protection against further Viking incursions. The area corresponded to the part of present-day Upper Normandy down to the river Seine. The territory was equivalent to the old province of Rouen. Before Rollos arrival, its populations did not differ from Picardy or the Île-de-France, the Norman language was forged by the adoption of the indigenous langue doïl branch of Romance by a Norse-speaking ruling class, and it developed into the regional language that survives today. The Normans thereafter adopted the growing feudal doctrines of the rest of France, the new Norman rulers were culturally and ethnically distinct from the old French aristocracy, most of whom traced their lineage to Franks of the Carolingian dynasty.
Most Norman knights remained poor and land-hungry, and by 1066 Normandy had been exporting fighting horsemen for more than a generation, many Normans of Italy and England eventually served as avid Crusaders under the Italo-Norman prince Bohemund I and the Anglo-Norman king Richard the Lion-Heart. Opportunistic bands of Normans successfully established a foothold in Southern Italy, probably as the result of returning pilgrims stories, the Normans entered Southern Italy as warriors in 1017 at the latest. In 999, according to Amatus of Montecassino, Norman pilgrims returning from Jerusalem called in at the port of Salerno when a Saracen attack occurred. The Normans fought so valiantly that Prince Guaimar III begged them to stay, the Hauteville family achieved princely rank by proclaiming prince Guaimar IV of Salerno Duke of Apulia and Calabria. He promptly awarded their elected leader, William Iron Arm, with the title of count in his capital of Melfi
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records
Lyon or Lyons is a city in east-central France, in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region, about 470 km from Paris and 320 km from Marseille. Inhabitants of the city are called Lyonnais, Lyon had a population of 506,615 in 2014 and is Frances third-largest city after Paris and Marseille. Lyon is the capital of the Metropolis of Lyon and the region of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, the metropolitan area of Lyon had a population of 2,237,676 in 2013, the second-largest in France after Paris. The city is known for its cuisine and gastronomy and historical and architectural landmarks and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, Lyon was historically an important area for the production and weaving of silk. It played a significant role in the history of cinema, the city is known for its famous light festival, Fête des Lumières, which occurs every 8 December and lasts for four days, earning Lyon the title of Capital of Lights. Economically, Lyon is a centre for banking, as well as for the chemical, pharmaceutical. The city contains a significant software industry with a focus on video games.
Lyon hosts the headquarters of Interpol and International Agency for Research on Cancer. Lyon was ranked 19th globally and second in France for innovation in 2014 and it ranked second in France and 39th globally in Mercers 2015 liveability rankings. These refugees had been expelled from Vienne by the Allobroges and were now encamped at the confluence of the Saône and Rhône rivers, dio Cassius says this task was to keep the two men from joining Mark Antony and bringing their armies into the developing conflict. The Roman foundation was at Fourvière hill and was officially called Colonia Copia Felix Munatia, a name invoking prosperity, the city became increasingly referred to as Lugdunum. The earliest translation of this Gaulish place-name as Desired Mountain is offered by the 9th-century Endlicher Glossary, in contrast, some modern scholars have proposed a Gaulish hill-fort named Lugdunon, after the Celtic god Lugus, and dúnon. It became the capital of Gaul, partly due to its convenient location at the convergence of two rivers, and quickly became the main city of Gaul.
Two emperors were born in city, whose speech is preserved in the Lyon Tablet in which he justifies the nomination of Gallic senators. Today, the archbishop of Lyon is still referred to as Primat des Gaules, the Christians in Lyon were martyred for their beliefs under the reigns of various Roman emperors, most notably Marcus Aurelius and Septimus Severus. Local saints from this period include Blandina and Epipodius, in the second century AD, the great Christian bishop of Lyon was the Easterner, Irenaeus. Burgundian refugees fleeing the destruction of Worms by the Huns in 437 were re-settled by the commander of the west, Aëtius. This became the capital of the new Burgundian kingdom in 461, in 843, by the Treaty of Verdun, with the country beyond the Saône, went to Lothair I
The disciplines founder in Germany is considered to be the philologist Hieronymus Wolf, a Renaissance humanist. He gave the name Byzantine to the eastern Roman Empire that continued after the western part collapsed in AD476, about 100 years after the final conquest of Byzantium by the Ottomans, Wolf began to collect and translate the writings of Byzantine philosophers. Other 16th-century humanists introduced Byzantine studies to Holland and Italy, Byzantine studies is the discipline that addresses the history and culture of Byzantium. Thus the unity of the object of investigation stands in contrast to the diversity of approaches that may be applied to it, – There were already Byzantine studies in the high medieval Byzantine Empire. In the Middle Ages the interest in Byzantium was carried on by Italian humanism, the late 19th and early 20th centuries brought the formation of Byzantine studies as an independent discipline. Greek / Hellenistic culture, Roman state traditions, Oriental influence and Christian faith, together with a unity of language and culture.
The starting point of Byzantine history is taken to be the reign of Constantine the Great. The east-Roman or late antique era of Byzantium begins at the latest with the division of the Roman Empire into a Western Roman Empire and this early Byzantine period lasts until approximately 641. This may be perceived as the end of antiquity, and the beginning of the middle Byzantine era and this was the era of Iconoclasm and of the origin of the Holy Roman Empire. A certain stability was achieved under the Comnenian Dynasty, at least until the Battle of Myriokephalon, internal conflicts facilitated the sack of Constantinople by the Crusaders and the establishment of Latin states in the south Balkans. An empire weakened in part through civil war suffered a blow when Thessalonica was captured in 1430. The Empire of Trebizond, founded in the wake of the Fourth Crusade and it is possible to distinguish between three levels of speech, Atticism and Demotic. Thus a certain diglossia between spoken Greek and written, classical Greek may be discerned, major genres of Byzantine literature include historiography, hagiographic collections, epistolography and poetry.
From the Byzantine administration, broadly construed, we have such as description of peoples and cities, accounts of court ceremonies. Technical literature is represented, for example, by texts on military strategy, collections of civil and canon law are preserved, as well as documents and acta. Some texts in the demotic are preserved, modes of transmission entails the study of texts that are preserved primarily on papyrus, parchment or paper, in addition to inscriptions and medals. The papyrus rolls of antiquity are quickly replaced by the parchment codices of the Middle Ages, while paper arrives in the 9th century via the Arabs, diplomatics entails the study of Byzantine documents. Documents may be classified according to their producers as secular or sacred, Imperial documents may be divided into those that promulgate law, present decisions regarding specific cases, documents of foreign policy and administrative documents