Anna of Tyrol
Anna of Tyrol, was by birth Archduchess of Austria and member of the Tyrolese branch of the House of Habsburg and by marriage Holy Roman Empress, German Queen, Queen of Bohemia and Queen of Hungary. The first crowned Holy Roman Empress since the century, she was responsible from the moving of the Imperial court from Prague to Vienna. A proponent of the Counter-Reformation, she held an influence over her husband, with whom she founded the Imperial Crypt. Anna was born in Innsbruck on 4 October 1585 as the third and last daughter of Ferdinand II, Archduke of Further Austria and Count of Tyrol and she had two older sisters, Archduchesses Anna Eleonore and Maria, a nun. All them suffered from poor health since birth and her baptism was conducted with special solemnity, being organizated by her uncles Maximilian III, Archduke of Austria and Prince Ferdinand of Bavaria. The godfather of the princess was Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor, for whom his son Archduke Ernest of Austria stood as proxy, Anna spend her childhood at the Innsbruck court, which thanks to her parents became in the center of Renaissance culture.
She lived in Ambras Castle and Ruelyust Palaces, in order to protect the health of her daughter, since 1590 Archduchess-Countess Anna Caterina had a personal cookbook. In January 1595, the princess lost her father and her widowed mother made every effort to give her daughters a good education. Anna discovered a musical talent, which was acquired for her clavichord. The love for music remained in the princess throughout her life, being raised in a strict Catholic environment, even as Holy Roman Empress, when she believed that she had committed a sin, engaged in self-flagellation to torment the flesh. The Dowager Archduchess-Countess made frequent pilgrimages, but didnt take her daughters with her due to their poor health, Annas older sister, followed their mothers example and took the veil in the same convent under the name of Anna Catherine. Upon reaching adulthood, Anna began to receive offers of marriage, the first proposal was made in 1603 by King Sigismund III of Poland, but Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor didnt gave his consent.
Then the Emperor expressed his intention to marry the princess and sent to Innsbruck his court painter to make a portrait of his intended bride. Once the Emperor showed his interest in Anna, her mother stopped taking other marriage proposals for her, the Emperors younger brother Archduke Matthias began to woo her, and some time later, Rudolf II allowed the marriage of his brother to his former fiancée. Matthias, although he was already in his fifties, hoped to sire an heir with his 26-year-old wife, four years later, when Anna became slightly stout, rumors began at the Imperial court that she had finally become pregnant. But soon courtiers began to joke that her corpulence wasnt related to a pregnancy, on 21 May 1612 Matthias was elected King of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor. Anna was crowned Holy Roman Empress and Queen of Germany in Frankfurt on 15 June 1612 and she was the first crowned Empress since Eleanor of Portugal. Anna was crowned Queen of Hungary on 25 March 1613 in Pressburg, called the Good-natured and loving Empress, she had a great influence over her husband, jointly with Matthias mistress Susana Wachter
Ambras Castle is a Renaissance castle and palace located in the hills above Innsbruck, Austria. Ambras Castle is 587 metres above sea level, the cultural and historical importance of the castle is closely connected with Archduke Ferdinand II and served as his residence from 1563 to 1595. Ferdinand was one of history’s most prominent collectors of art, the princely sovereign of Tyrol, son of Emperor Ferdinand I, ordered that the mediaeval fortress at Ambras be turned into a Renaissance castle as a gift for his wife Philippine Welser. The Lower Castle contains armouries feature masterpieces of the European armourer’s art from the time of Emperor Maximilian I to Emperor Leopold I, as the only Renaissance Kunstkammer of its kind to have been preserved at its original location, the Kunst- und Wunderkammer represents an unrivalled cultural monument. The Upper Castle contains a portrait gallery featuring paintings of numerous members of the House of Habsburg. Long before Innsbruck became a city, references to an Amras or Omras appeared in documents dating from the 10th century.
This original fortification was destroyed in 1133 and no traces of it remain, in 1248, the castle ruins and property passed by inheritance from the Counts of Andechs to Count Albert IV of Tyrol. The modern Ambras Castle was built by Archduke Ferdinand II, the son of Emperor Ferdinand I. In 1589, he added an additional building west of the Lower Castle for the purpose of housing his collection of weaponry, Philippine became a popular and beloved figure through her charity and willingness to help others, particularly the common people of Tyrol. Even the nobility brought their petitions to the former commoner, as signs of affection, people addressed their written petitions to Merciful Miss or serene Princess Mrs. Philippine of Austria. After Ferdinands death in 1595, the son of Ferdinand and Philippine, Margrave Charles of Burgau. With little interest in the castle, and never having used it as a residence, in the following years, Ambras Castle no longer had the status of an official residence and was seldom lived in.
Inadequate preservation measures led to the loss of books and hand sketches. In 1805, the remaining Ambras collections were threatened by the defeat of Austria by the French Empire, after recognized the private-law character of the Ambras collection, Napoleon had it brought to safety in Vienna. In 1855, Archduke Karl Ludwig, governor of Tyrol, had the palace remodeled to use as a summer residence, significant changes were made during this time to the palace and the surrounding park. The Outer Bailey was constructed with an entrance ramp for carriages. The park was redesigned as an English garden, following Archduke Karl Ludwigs renouncement of his succession rights in 1889, the palace fell once again into ruinous condition. In 1880, it was converted into a museum and subsequently renovated, in 1919, following the dissolution of the Austria-Hungary Empire, Ambras Castle became the property of the Republic of Austria
Bishopric of Constance
The Bishopric of Constance, or Prince-Bishopric of Constance, was a Prince-Bishopric and Imperial Estate of the Holy Roman Empire from the mid–12th century until its secularisation in 1802–1803. The much larger Roman Catholic Diocese of Konstanz existed from about 585 until its dissolution in 1821 and it belonged to the ecclesiastical province of Mainz since 780/782. They did not include the Imperial City of Constance nor Petershausen Abbey, in the south, the bishops territory bordered on the Landgraviate of Thurgau which was conquered by the Swiss Confederacy in 1460. While the Prince-Bishop was the ruler in his prince-bishopric, his powers in his diocese were limited to the pastoral duties exercised by any bishop. Originally subordinated to the Archdiocese of Besançon, Constance became suffragan to the Archdiocese of Mainz in 782, a deed by Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa in 1155 confirmed the princely status of the bishop and of his bishopric as an Imperial Estate. The territory of the prince-bishopric contracted during the centuries under pressure from both the Swiss Confederacy and the House of Habsburg.
Furthermore, the city of Konstanz was granted the status of an imperial city. In 1527, during the Protestant Reformation, the seat of the Prince-Bishop was finally moved to Meersburg across Lake Constance. In the course of the German Mediatisation in 1803, the Prince-Bishopric was dissolved, while Wessenberg was supported by the government of Baden, the Pope never recognized his election as he disagreed with Wessenbergs liberal views. By a bull of 16 August 1821, the pope dissolved the diocese in order to prevent Wessenberg from becoming bishop, gebhard I von Wetterau, von Tegerfelden 27. Conrad I36 Warmann von Dillingen 32, Franz Johann von Vogt von Altensumerau und Prasberg 96. Johann Franz I. von Praßberg und Altensummerau 97, Johann Franz Schenk von Stauffenberg 99. Karl Theodor von Dahlberg Ignaz Heinrich von Wessenberg, elected in 1817 but never recognised by Pius VII, caspar Burchard Tuberflug, O. P. Daniel Zehender, O. F. M
Charles, Margrave of Burgau
Charles, Margrave of Burgau, known as Charles of Austria, was the son of Archduke Ferdinand II of Austria and his first morganatic marriage to Philippine Welser. He was the brother of Andrew of Austria, Charles of Burgau pursued a military career. He unsuccessfully led a Spanish regiment in the war against the Netherlands and was deployed in the Long War against the Ottoman Empire. Here, he recorded some successes — at the expense of his soldiers, since Charles was born from a morganatic marriage, he was not entitled to inherit the archduchy. He was, amply compensated financially and given some territories and his most important possession was the Margraviate of Burgau. He held the Landgraviate of Nellenburg and the County of Hohenberg, contemporary sources describe his magnificent court at his residence, Günzburg Castle. Charles was not popular among his subjects, whom he forbade to drink wheat beer, in 1615 or 1616, he founded a Capuchin monastery in Günzburg. In 1617, he expelled the Jews from Günzburg, they were ordered to leave the city within a year, Charles died on 30 October 1618.
In 1619, his body was transferred to the church of the Capuchin monastery in Günzburg and his widow as buried there, in 1627. When the monastery was demolished in 1806, both bodies were transferred to St. Martins church in Günzburg, in 1601, Charles married Sibylle, the daughter of Duke William of Jülich-Cleves-Berg. This marriage remained childless, and after Charless death, his possessions fell back to the line of the House of Habsburg. Zamarski, Vienna,1860, p.364, Online Images of Charles at the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna
Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor
Maximilian II, a member of the Austrian House of Habsburg, was Holy Roman Emperor from 1564 until his death. He was crowned King of Bohemia in Prague on 14 May 1562, on 8 September 1563 he was crowned King of Hungary and Croatia in the Hungarian capital Pressburg. On 25 July 1564 he succeeded his father Ferdinand I as ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, maximilians rule was shaped by the confessionalization process after the 1555 Peace of Augsburg. Though a Habsburg and a Catholic, he approached the Lutheran Imperial estates with a view to overcome the denominational schism and he was faced with the ongoing Ottoman–Habsburg wars and rising conflicts with his Habsburg Spain cousins. According to Fichtner, he failed to achieve his three major aims, rationalizing the government structure, unifying Christianity, and evicting the Turks from Hungary and he was named after his great-grandfather, Emperor Maximilian I. At the time of his birth, his father Ferdinand succeeded his brother-in-law King Louis II in the Kingdom of Bohemia, having spent his childhood years at his fatherss court in Innsbruck, Tyrol, he was educated principally in Italy.
Among his teachers were humanist scholars like Kaspar Ursinus Velius and Georg Tannstetter, Maximilian came in contact with the Lutheran teaching and early on corresponded with the Protestant prince Augustus of Saxony, suspiciously eyed by his Habsburg relatives. From the age of 17, he gained experience of warfare during the Italian War campaign of his uncle Charles V against King Francis I of France in 1544. On 13 September 1548 Emperor Charles V married Maximilian to Charless daughter Mary of Spain in the Castile residence of Valladolid, by the marriage his uncle intended to strengthen the ties with the Spanish branch of the Habsburgs, but to consolidate his nephews Catholic faith. Maximilian temporarily acted as the representative in Spain, however not as stadtholder of the Habsburg Netherlands as he had hoped for. He returned to Germany in December 1550 in order to part in the discussion over the Imperial succession. However, Charles brother Ferdinand, who had already designated as the next occupant of the imperial throne.
Maximilian sought the support of the German princes such as Duke Albert V of Bavaria and even contacted Protestant leaders like Maurice of Saxony and Duke Christoph of Württemberg. At length a compromise was reached, Philip was to succeed Ferdinand, the relationship between the two cousins was uneasy. While his cousin was reserved and shy, Maximilian was outgoing and his adherence to humanism and religious tolerance put him at odds with Philip who was more committed to the defence of the Catholic faith. Also, he was considered a promising commander, while Philip disliked war, the two remained committed to the unity of their dynasty. In Vienna, he had his Hofburg residence extended with the Renaissance Stallburg wing, the site of the Spanish Riding School, the court held close ties to the University of Vienna and employed scholars like the botanist Carolus Clusius and the diplomat Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq. Maximilians library curated by Hugo Blotius became the nucleus of the Austrian National Library and he implemented the Roman School of composition with his court orchestra, his plans to win Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina as Kapellmeister foundered on financial reasons
Linz is the third-largest city of Austria and capital of the state of Upper Austria. It is located in the centre of Austria, approximately 30 kilometres south of the Czech border. The population of the city is 200,839, and that of the Greater Linz conurbation is about 271,000, in 2009 Linz, together with the Lithuanian capital Vilnius, was chosen as the European Capital of Culture. Since 1 December 2014 Linz is a member of the UNESCO Creative Cities network as a City of Media Arts, Cities receive this title for enriching the urban lifestyle through the sponsorship and successful integration of media art and involving society in these electronic art forms. Linz is well known for the Linzer torte, which is said to be the oldest cake in the world, Linz is located in the centre of Europe, lying on the Paris–Budapest west–east axis and the Malmö–Trieste north–south axis. The Danube is the tourism and transport connection that runs through the city. Approximately 29. 27% of the city’s 96 km2 wide area are grassland, further 17. 95% are covered with forest.
All the rest areas fall on water, traffic areas and land, since January 2014 the city is divided into 16 statistical districts, Before 2014 Linz was divided into 9 districts and 36 statistical quarters. Magdalena, St. Magdalena, Elmberg St, the name Linz was first recorded in AD799. Being the city where the Habsburg Emperor Friedrich III spent his last years, it was, for a period of time. It lost its status to Vienna and Prague after the death of the Emperor in 1493, one important inhabitant of the city was Johannes Kepler, who spent several years of his life in the city teaching mathematics. He discovered, on 15 May 1618, the distance-cubed-over-time-squared — or third — law of planetary motion, the local public university, Johannes Kepler University, is named after him. Another famous citizen was Anton Bruckner, who spent the years between 1855 and 1868 working as a composer and organist in the Old Cathedral, Linz. The Brucknerhaus is named after him, Adolf Hitler was born in the border town of Braunau am Inn but moved to Linz in his childhood.
Hitler spent most of his youth in the Linz area, from 1898 until 1907, the family lived first in the village of Leonding on the outskirts of town, and on the Humboldtstrasse in Linz. After elementary education in Leonding, Hitler was enrolled in the Realschule in Linz, notorious Holocaust architect Adolf Eichmann spent his youth in Linz. To the end of his life, Hitler considered Linz to be his home town, in order to make the city economically vibrant, Hitler initiated a major industrialisation of Linz shortly before, and during, the Second World War. In addition to a depot, Linz has a benzol plant which was bombed during the Oil Campaign on 16 October 1944
Innsbruck is the capital city of Tyrol in western Austria. It is located in the Inn valley, at its junction with the Wipp valley, Innsbruck lies about halfway between Munich in Germany and Verona in Italy. Located in the valley between high mountains, the so-called North Chain in the Karwendel Alps to the north. Innsbruck is an internationally renowned winter sports centre, and hosted the 1964 and 1976 Winter Olympics as well as the 1984 and 1988 Winter Paralympics, Innsbruck hosted the first Winter Youth Olympics in 2012. The name translates as Inn bridge, earliest traces suggest initial inhabitation in the early Stone Age. Surviving pre-Roman place names show that the area has been populated continuously, in the 4th century the Romans established the army station Veldidena at Oenipons, to protect the economically important commercial road from Verona-Brenner-Augsburg in their province of Raetia. The first mention of Innsbruck dates back to the name Oeni Pontum or Oeni Pons which is Latin for bridge over the Inn, the Counts of Andechs acquired the town in 1180.
In 1248 the town passed into the hands of the Counts of Tyrol, the citys arms show a birds-eye view of the Inn bridge, a design used since 1267. The route over the Brenner Pass was a major transport, the revenues generated by serving as a transit station enabled the city to flourish. Innsbruck became the capital of all Tyrol in 1429 and in the 15th century the city became a centre of European politics, the city benefited from the emperors presence as can be seen for example in the Hofkirche. Here a funeral monument for Maximilian was planned and erected partly by his successors, the ensemble with a cenotaph and the bronze statues of real and mythical ancestors of the Habsburgian emperor are one of the main artistic monuments of Innsbruck. A regular postal service between Innsbruck and Mechelen was established in 1490 by the Thurn-und-Taxis-Post, in 1564 Ferdinand II, Archduke of Austria received the rulership over Tirol and other Further Austrian possessions administrated from Innsbruck up to the 18th century.
He had Schloss Ambras built and arranged there his unique Renaissance collections nowadays mainly part of Viennas Kunsthistorisches Museum, up to 1665 a stirps of the Habsburgian dynasty ruled in Innsbruck with an independent court. In the 1620s the first opera house north of the Alps was erected in Innsbruck, in 1669 the university was founded. Also as a compensation for the court as Emperor Leopold I again reigned from Vienna, during the Napoleonic Wars Tyrol was ceded to Bavaria, ally of France. Andreas Hofer led a Tyrolean peasant army to victory in the Battles of Bergisel against the combined Bavarian and French forces, the combined army overran the Tyrolean militia army and until 1814 Innsbruck was part of Bavaria. After the Vienna Congress Austrian rule was restored, until 1918, the town was part of the Austrian monarchy, head of the district of the same name, one of the 21 Bezirkshauptmannschaften in the Tyrol province. The Tyrolean hero Andreas Hofer was executed in Mantua, his remains were returned to Innsbruck in 1823, during World War I, the only recorded action taking place in Innsbruck was near the end of the war
Augsburg is a city in Swabia, Germany. It was a Free Imperial City for over 500 years and it is a university town and home of the Regierungsbezirk Schwaben and the Bezirk Schwaben. Augsburg is a district and home to the institutions of the Landkreis Augsburg. It is the third-largest city in Bavaria with a population of 286,000 citizens, after Neuss and Trier, Augsburg is Germanys third oldest city, being founded by the Romans as Augusta Vindelicorum, named after the Roman emperor Augustus. Augsburg is the only German city with its own legal holiday and this gives Augsburg more legal holidays than any other region or city in Germany. Augsburg was the home of two families that rose to great prominence internationally, replacing the Medicis as Europes leading bankers, the Fugger. Augsburg lies at the convergence of the Alpine rivers Lech and Wertach, in the south extends the Lechfeld, an Outwash plain of the post ice age between the rivers Lech and Wertach, where rare primeval landscapes were preserved.
The Augsburg city forest and the Lech valley heaths today rank among the most species-rich middle European habitats, on Augsburg borders the nature park Augsburg Western Woods - a large forestland. The city itself is heavily greened, as a result, in 1997 Augsburg was the first German city to win the Europe-wide contest Entente Florale for Europes greenest and most livable city. Augsburg is surrounded by the counties Landkreis Augsburg in the west, the neighboring towns and cities are Friedberg, Königsbrunn, Neusäß, Rehling, Kissing, Merching, Gessertshausen und Diedorf. Augsburg has a continental climate. The city was founded in 15 BC by Drusus and Tiberius as Augusta Vindelicorum, the name means Augusta of the Vindelici. This garrison camp soon became the capital of the Roman province of Raetia, Augsburg was the intersection of many important European east-west and north-south connections, which evolved as major trade routes of the Middle Ages. Around 120 AD Augsburg became the capital of the Roman province Raetia, Augsburg was sacked by the Huns in the 5th century AD, by Charlemagne in the 8th century, and by Welf of Bavaria in the 11th century, but arose each time to greater prosperity.
Augsburg was granted the status of a Free Imperial City on March 9,1276 and from until 1803, it was independent of its former overlord, the Prince-Bishop of Augsburg. Frictions between the city-state and the prince-bishops were to remain frequent however, particularly after Augsburg became Protestant and curtailed the rights, with a strategic location as intersection of trade routes to Italy, the Free Imperial City became a major trading center. Augsburg produced large quantities of goods and textiles. Augsburg became the base of two banking families that rose to prominence, the Fuggers and the Welsers
Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor
Ferdinand I was Holy Roman Emperor from 1558, king of Bohemia and Hungary from 1526, and king of Croatia from 1527 until his death. Before his accession, he ruled the Austrian hereditary lands of the Habsburgs in the name of his brother, Charles V. Also, he served as Charles representative in Germany and developed useful relationships with German princes. Ferdinand was able to defend his realm and make it more cohesive. His flexible approach to Imperial problems, mainly religious, finally brought more result than the more confrontational attitude of his brother, Ferdinands motto was Fiat iustitia, et pereat mundus, Let justice be done, though the world perish. Ferdinand shared his customs and even his birthday with his maternal grandfather Ferdinand II of Aragon and he was born and educated in Spain, and did not learn German when he was young. In the summer of 1518 Ferdinand was sent to Flanders following his brother Charless arrival in Spain as newly appointed King Charles I the previous autumn.
He returned in command of his brothers fleet but en route was blown off-course and he was Archduke of Austria from 1521 to 1564. Though he supported his brother, Ferdinand managed to strengthen his own realm, by adopting the German language and culture late in his life, he grew close to the German territorial princes. After the death of his brother-in-law Louis II, Ferdinand ruled as King of Bohemia and Hungary. Ferdinand served as his brothers deputy in the Holy Roman Empire during his brothers many absences, according to the terms set at the First Congress of Vienna in 1515, Ferdinand married Anne Jagiellonica, daughter of King Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary on 22 July 1515. Therefore, after the death of his brother-in-law Louis II, King of Bohemia and of Hungary, at the battle of Mohács on 29 August 1526, the success was only partial, as the Diet refused to recognise Ferdinand as hereditary lord of the Kingdom. The Croatian nobles unanimously elected Ferdinand I as their king in the 1527 election in Cetin, in Hungary, Nicolaus Olahus, secretary of Louis, attached himself to the party of Ferdinand but retained his position with his sister, Queen Dowager Mary.
Ferdinand was elected King of Hungary by a rump Diet in Pozsony in December 1526, the throne of Hungary became the subject of a dynastic dispute between Ferdinand and John Zápolya, Voivode of Transylvania. They were supported by different factions of the nobility in the Hungarian kingdom, Ferdinand had the support of his brother, the Emperor Charles V. Ferdinand defeated Zápolya at the Battle of Tarcal in September 1527 and again in the Battle of Szina in March 1528. Zápolya fled the country and applied to Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent for support, a further Ottoman invasion was repelled in 1533. In 1538, in the Treaty of Nagyvárad, Ferdinand induced the childless Zápolya to name him as his successor, but in 1540, just before his death, Zápolya had a son, John II Sigismund, who was promptly elected King by the Diet. Ferdinand invaded Hungary, but the regent, Frater George Martinuzzi, Bishop of Várad, Suleiman marched into Hungary and not only drove Ferdinand out of central Hungary, he forced Ferdinand to agree to pay tribute for his lands in western Hungary