Maria Anna of Spain
Maria Anna of Spain, was by birth Infanta of Spain and by marriage Holy Roman Empress and Queen of Hungary and Bohemia as the wife of Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor. Of her seven siblings, only four survived infancy, Philip IV of Spain, Maria Annas parents had a close kinship, her father was her mothers first cousin once-removed. From early childhood, Maria Anna has played an important role in the projects of her father. London and Madrid began active negotiations, the possible marriage between the Prince of Wales and the Spanish Infanta, was known in history under the name Spanish Match, and caused an internal political crisis in both England and Scotland. In 1623 the Prince of Wales, accompanied by George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham, Maria Anna did not wish to marry a Protestant and Charles would not convert to Catholicism. At the end, the wedding never took place not only for political reasons, Charles eventually married Henrietta Maria of France. At the end of 1626 Maria Anna was betrothed to the brother of her first fiance, Ferdinand.
The formal engagement was preceded by a series of negotiations which were conducted in 1625 and that same year, Prince Ferdinand was crowned King of Hungary, and in 1627 King of Bohemia. In the negotiations were included all the aspects of the Infanta at the court of her future spouse. Despite the desire of the groom that Maria Annas confessor would be the Jesuit Ambrosio Penalosa, Maria Anna had left Madrid for Vienna in December 1629. The travel took more than a year, enroute by sea, in Genoa complications arose due to an epidemic of the plague that erupted in the Italian Peninsula. For this reason, the cortege was unable to stop in Bologna, the cortege moved to Naples, where Maria Anna finally received the award. Leaving the Kingdom of Naples, the Infanta crossed the Papal States, on this section of her journey Maria Anna was accompanied by Roman aristocracy, led by another nephew of Pope Urban VIII, Taddeo Barberini, Prince of Palestrina. On 26 January 1631 she arrived in Trieste, where she met Archduke Leopold Wilhelm of Austria, her future brother-in-law and that day, Maria Anna was married to King Ferdinand of Hungria-Bohemia per procura with Archduke Leopold Wilhelm serving as the proxy.
Before the official wedding, King Ferdinand, not trusting the previous portraits that he had seen of the Infanta, the Royal oberhofmeister asked for an audience with Maria Anna, on this visit, he was accompanied by some nobles, among whom was her groom. Struck by the beauty of the Infanta, King Ferdinand immediately revealed his identity, the love and respect that the future emperor felt for his wife lasted through all their marriage. He was never unfaithful to her or had illegitimate children, in Vienna on 20 February 1631 Maria Anna was formally married with King Ferdinand of Hungary-Bohemia, with festivities lasting a month. The marriage was described as friendly, Maria Anna was described as happy-tempered and intelligent, and she able to ease the feelings of the melancholic Ferdinand
William V, Duke of Bavaria
It can refer to William II of Provence. William V, Duke of Bavaria, called the Pious, was Duke of Bavaria from 1579 to 1597, William was born in Landshut, the son of Albert V and Anna of Austria. He received a Jesuit education and showed keen attachment to the Jesuit Counter Reformation tenets and his title the Pious was given to him because he devoted his daily routine to masses, prayer and devotional reading. He took part in public devotions and pilgrimages and his residence as crown prince was the ancient fortified Wittelsbach seat Trausnitz Castle in Landshut. Like his Wittelsbach father and grandfather, William was a supporter of the counter-reformation. This dignity remained in the possession of the family for nearly 200 years, two of his sons followed ecclesiastical careers, Philipp Wilhelm became the Bishop of Regensburg and eventually a Cardinal, and Ferdinand succeeded his uncle, to become Archbishop of Cologne. In 1591, Wilhelm expelled Salzburg from the Berchtesgaden Provostry, William is responsible for numerous executions due to Witch-hunt in his duchy.
The Jesuit St. Michaels Church and college of the Jesuits were built in Munich between 1583 and 1597 as spiritual centers for the counter-reformation, williams spending on Church-related projects, including funding missionaries outside Bavaria—as far away as Asia and the Americas—put tremendous strain on the Bavarian treasury. The Italian confidence man Marco Bragadino who was promising to make copious amounts of gold to erase the Dukess debts was called upon by William V in 1590, and executed after he had failed. William abdicated on 15 October 1597 in favour of his son, Maximilian I and retired into a monastery where he spent the remainder of his life in contemplation and he died in 1626 in Schleissheim Palace. He is buried in St. Michaels Church, already as crown prince in Landshut William patronised the arts. Michaels Church, of the college and of the palace Wilhelminische Veste in Munich. The sculptors Hans Krumpper and Hubert Gerhard along with painters Peter Candid, the history of Schleissheim Palace started with a renaissance country house and hermitage founded by William.
In 1589 William initialized the Hofbräu Brewery, married Renata of Lorraine in Munich on 22 February 1568. Albert VI, in 1612 married Mechthilde v. Leuchtenberg Magdalene of Bavaria and her tomb is in Hofkirche Neuburg a. d. Donau), in 1613 married Wolfgang Wilhelm, Pfalzgraf von Neuburg Encyclopædia Britannica,1910 edition genealogy
Isabella of Portugal
She served as regent of Spain during the absence of her spouse in 1529–1532 and 1535–1539. Isabella was the child and eldest daughter of King Manuel I of Portugal. She was named after her maternal grandmother Isabella I of Castile and her aunt Isabella, Princess of Asturias, Isabella was second-in-line to the throne until the birth of her brother Louis in 1506. However, as the oldest daughter of Manuel I of Portugal and Isabella were both grandchildren of the notable rulers Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain. The union between Charles and his cousin Isabella had been proposed by the parliaments of both Castile and Aragon, Charles agreed to marry the Infanta Isabella purely for political reasons. Early in 1526, the travelled to Seville, where the wedding took place on 10 March in the palace of Alcázar of Seville. Isabella brought with her a dowry that greatly assisted Spanish finances. Although it began as a union, the marriage proved to be a love-match. Records show that during their honeymoon when are together, although there are people around, they do not notice anyone else, they talk and laugh.
Isabella proved to be a competent politician and she served as regent of Spain during her husbands absences between 1529–1532 and 1535–1539. She was noted for her intelligence and beauty, Isabella died in May 1539, when her sixth pregnancy ended in a stillbirth. The emperor was away at the time, and her death affected him deeply. He never remarried, and he dressed in black for the rest of his life, in 1547, the nobleman Francis Borgia conveyed her corpse to her burial-place in Granada. It is said that when he saw the effect of death on the beautiful empress, in 1580, more than 40 years after her death, her son Philip succeeded the Portuguese throne. It was he who claimed the rights to the throne of Portugal that temporarily united the Iberian peninsula under one crown in what would be called the Iberian Union. Isabella married Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor on 10 March 1526 and their children were as follows, Philip II of Spain, the only son to reach adulthood. Maria, who married her first cousin Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor, who married her first cousin João Manuel, Prince of Portugal.
Descendants of Manuel I of Portugal
Philip III of Spain
Philip III of Spain was King of Spain and Portugal. A member of the House of Habsburg, Philip III was born in Madrid to King Philip II of Spain and his wife and niece Anna. Philip III married his cousin Margaret of Austria, sister of Ferdinand II, V. Wedgwood, R. Stradling and J. H. Elliott. In particular, Philips reliance on his chief minister, the Duke of Lerma, drew much criticism at the time. For many, the decline of Spain can be dated to the difficulties that set in during the early years of his reign. After Philip IIIs older brother Don Carlos died insane, Philip II had concluded that one of the causes of Carlos condition had been the influence of the factions at the Spanish court. Philip II appointed Juan de Zúñiga, Prince Diegos governor, to continue this role for Philip and they were joined by Cristóbal de Moura, a close supporter of Philip II. In combination, Philip believed, they would provide a consistent, stable upbringing for Prince Philip, Philip does not appear to have been naive – his correspondence to his daughters shows a distinctive, cautious streak in his advice on dealing with court intrigue.
Philip first met the Marquis of Denia – the future Duke of Lerma – then and Philip became close friends, but Lerma was considered unsuitable by the King and Philips tutors. Lerma was dispatched to Valencia as a Viceroy in 1595, with the aim of removing Philip from his influence, the prince received a new, conservative Dominican confessor. The following year, Philip II died after an illness, leaving the empire to his son. Philip married his cousin, Margaret of Austria, in 1599, the sister of the future Emperor Ferdinand II, would be one of three women at Philips court who would apply considerable influence over the king. Margaret continued to fight a battle with Lerma for influence up until her death in 1611. Philip had an affectionate, close relationship with Margaret, and paid her additional attention after she bore him a son in 1605 and they were successful, for example, in convincing Philip to provide financial support to Ferdinand from 1600 onwards. Philip steadily acquired other religious advisors, similarly Mariana de San Jose, a favoured nun of Queen Margarets, was criticised for her influence over the Kings actions.
The Spanish crown at the time ruled through a system of royal councils and these councils were supplemented by small committees, or juntas, as necessary, such as the junta of the night through which Philip II exercised personal authority towards the end of his reign. As a matter of policy, Philip had tried to avoid appointing grandees to major positions of power within his government and relied heavily on the lesser nobles, the so-called service nobility. To his contemporaries, the degree of personal oversight he exercised was excessive, Philip first started to become engaged in practical government at the age of 15, when he joined Philip IIs private committee
Anna of Austria, Queen of Spain
Anna of Austria was Queen of Spain by virtue of her marriage to her uncle, King Philip II of Spain. She was the eldest daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian II and her maternal grandparents were Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor who was emperor when she was born, and Isabella of Portugal. Her paternal grandparents were Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand I and Anna of Bohemia, Anna was born in Spain, but lived in Vienna from the age of four. She had many siblings, two of whom became emperors, among her sisters was Queen Elisabeth of France, wife of King Charles IX of France. Anna was considered her fathers favorite child, the story goes that he enjoyed playing and gambling with her and once a meeting of the Estates of Hungary was postponed because Anna was sick. She received a Catholic education even though her father was sympathetic to Lutheranism, as the eldest daughter of the Holy Roman Emperor, Anna was a desirable candidate for marriage at the European courts. Her parents thought of a Spanish marriage to strengthen links between the Austrian and Spanish Habsburg families, initially she had her cousin Don Carlos of Spain in mind, the only son of her maternal uncle Philip II of Spain.
These plans were shattered in 1568 when Don Carlos died, plans for a Spanish marriage were revived when Philips third wife, died in childbirth, in 1568. As a result, Philip was left a widower with two young daughters, Philip was now looking for his fourth wife, since he had no male heir since Don Carlos died. In February 1569, Annas engagement to her uncle Philip II was announced, Anna traveled from Austria to Spain in the autumn of 1570 accompanied by her brothers Albert and Wenzel. They traveled through the Netherlands, where Anna was accosted by friends and relatives of Floris of Montigny, Montigny had been imprisoned in Spain since 1567. Now that King Philip had entered into a new marriage, Montignys family and they received a promise from the future queen that she would do her utmost to free Montigny, however she was unsuccessful, with Montigny being strangled on the orders of the king. Anna passed along the English Channel, where Elizabeth I sent her admirals, Charles Howard and William Wynter, to offer support, on 3 October Anna arrived on Spanish soil, but before she could reach the king, Floris was secretly put to death on 16 October 1570.
The historian John Brewer believes that Philip had him executed soon after Philips first meeting with Anna. Besides being her fathers favorite child, Anna was Philips most beloved wife, but the marriage was at first opposed by many, including Pope Pius V. According to diplomats, the king was in love with his young bride, Philip was a conscientious monarch and maintained his relationship with Anna twice a week to write notes. It was Philips fourth marriage, but the still had no male heir. Anna completed her duties flawlessly in that regard, not only was she a good stepmother to Philips daughters Isabella Clara Eugenia and Catherine Michelle, but she gave birth to five children, including sons
Maria Theresa of Spain
Maria Theresa of Spain, was by birth Infanta of Spain and Portugal and Archduchess of Austria as member of the Spanish branch of the House of Habsburg and by marriage Queen of France and Navarre. Her marriage in 1660 with King Louis XIV was made with the purpose to end the war between France and Spain. Without any political influence in the French court or government, she died at the age of 44 from complications from an abscess on her arm. Born an Infanta of Spain at the Royal Monastery of El Escorial, she was the daughter of King Philip IV, and his wife Elisabeth of France, as a member of the House of Habsburg, Maria Theresa was entitled to use the title Archduchess of Austria. Unlike France, the kingdom of Spain had no Salic Law, when Maria Theresas brother Balthasar Charles died in 1646, she became heiress presumptive to the vast Spanish Empire and remained such until the birth of Philip Prospero, in 1657. She was heiress presumptive once more between 1 November and 6 November 1661– the death of Prince Philip and the birth of Prince Charles, who would inherit the thrones of Spain as Charles II.
In 1658, as war with France began to wind down, anne of Austria desired an end to hostilities between her native country of Spain and her adopted one, France. However, Spanish procrastination led to a scheme in which Frances prime minister, Cardinal Mazarin, pretended to seek a marriage for his master with Margaret Yolande of Savoy. When Philip IV of Spain heard of a meeting at Lyon between the Houses of France and Savoy in November 1658, he reputedly exclaimed of the Franco-Savoyard union that it cannot be, and will not be. Philip sent an envoy to the French court to open negotiations for peace. The negotiations for the contract were intense. This was eventually done but, by the skill of Mazarin and his French diplomats, the renunciation and its validity were made conditional upon the payment of a large dowry. As it turned out, Spain and bankrupt after decades of war, was unable to pay such a dowry, a marriage by proxy to the French king was held in Fuenterrabia. On 9 June the marriage took place in Saint-Jean-de-Luz at the rebuilt church of Saint Jean the Baptist.
After the wedding, Louis wanted to consummate the marriage as quickly as possible, the new queens mother-in-law arranged a private consummation instead of the public one that was the custom. On 26 August 1660, the made the traditional Joyous Entry into Paris. Maria Theresa was very fortunate to have found a friend at court in her mother-in-law and she continued to spend much of her free time playing cards and gambling, as she had no interest in politics or literature. Consequently, she was viewed as not fully playing the part of queen designated to her by her marriage, but more importantly, she became pregnant in early 1661, and a long-awaited son was born on 1 November 1661
Renata of Lorraine
Renata of Lorraine, was by birth a member of the House of Lorraine and by marriage Duchess of Bavaria. Born in Nancy, she was the child and eldest daughter of Francis I, Duke of Lorraine. Her paternal grandparents were Antoine, Duke of Lorraine and Renée of Bourbon-Montpensier and her grandparents were Christian II of Denmark. Renata was described as a beauty and a desirable match, in 1558, after the death of his first wife Prince William of Orange expressed a desire to marry Renata. Her mother, liked the idea, and it was cemented after the Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis. This match was prevented by King Philip of Spain. Christina declined the plan of Cardinal of Lorraine to arrange a marriage between Renata and the prince of Joinville, and a match proposed by the Spanish king to marry Renata to Juan dAustria, in 1561, Renatas mother planned to marry her to king Frederick II of Denmark. However, the outbreak of the Nordic Seven Years War between Denmark and Sweden in 1563, interrupted these plans, from 1565 to 1567, Christina negotiated with King Eric XIV of Sweden to create an alliance between Sweden and Denmark through his marriage to Renata.
The plan was for Christina to conquer Denmark with the support of Sweden, Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand opposed the plan due to the destructive effect it could have on the balance of power among the German nations, if Saxony opposed Christinas claims. Neither did she manage to acquire the support of Philip of Spain, the planned marriage alliance between Lorraine and Sweden was finally ended when Eric XIV married his non-noble lover Karin Månsdotter in 1567. Finally, on 22 February 1568, Renata married William, hereditary prince of Bavaria, in a large, elaborate ceremony, the event was described in detail by Massimo Troiano in his Dialoghi. Approximately 5,000 riders took part in it, and the music was composed by Orlande de Lassus, despite their large wedding and status, along with her husband, led a life of charity and humility. They left the Munich Residenz and lived in the Jesuit Kollegienbau west of Munich, Renata took care of the sick, the poor and religious pilgrims. In this task, she was supported by her husband.
After he inherited the duchy in 1579 as William V of Bavaria, Renata spent much of her time in the Herzogspitalkirche in Munich, Renata died in Munich, aged 58. Her grave is located in the St. Michaels Church in Munich and she was revered as a saint by the people, but never canonized. Her husband, who abdicated in 1597, survived her twenty-four years, all current monarchs of the three Scandinavian countries are Renatas direct blood descendants. Maximilian I, future Duke and Elector of Bavaria, maria Anna, married on 23 April 1600 to Ferdinand, Archduke of Inner Austria and future Holy Roman Emperor
King of the Romans
King of the Romans was the title used by the German king following his election by the princes from the time of Emperor Henry II onward. The title was predominantly a claim to become Holy Roman Emperor and was dependent upon coronation by the Pope, the title originally referred to any elected king who had not yet been granted the Imperial Regalia and title of Emperor at the hands of the Pope. Later it came to be used solely for the apparent to the Imperial throne between his election and his succession upon the death of the Emperor. The territory of East Francia was not referred to as the Kingdom of Germany or Regnum Teutonicum by contemporary sources until the 11th century, during this time, the kings claim to coronation was increasingly contested by the papacy culminating in the fierce Investiture Controversy. Pope Gregory VII insisted on using the derogatory term Teutonicorum Rex in order to imply that Henrys authority was merely local, Henry continued to regularly use the title Romanorum Rex until he finally was crowned Emperor by Antipope Clement III in 1084.
Henrys successors imitated this practice, and were called Romanorum Rex before, candidates for the kingship were at first the heads of the Germanic stem duchies. As these units broke up, rulers of principalities and even non-Germanic rulers were considered for the position. The only requirements generally observed were that the candidate be a male, a Catholic Christian. The kings were elected by several Imperial Estates, often in the city of Frankfurt after 1147. They were the Prince-Archbishops of Mainz and Cologne as well as the King of Bohemia, the Count Palatine of the Rhine, the Saxon duke, after the Investiture Controversy, Charles intended to strengthen the legal status of the Rex Romanorum beyond Papal approbation. Consequently, among his successors only Sigismund and Frederick III were still crowned Emperors in Rome, the Golden Bull remained effective as constitutional law until the Empires dissolution in 1806. After his election, the new king would be crowned as King of the Romans, though the ceremony was no more than a symbolic validation of the election result, it was solemnly celebrated.
The details of Ottos coronation in 936 are described by the medieval chronicler Widukind of Corvey in his Res gestae saxonicae, the kings received the Imperial Crown from at least 1024, at the coronation of Conrad II. In 1198 the Hohenstaufen candidate Philip of Swabia was crowned Rex Romanorum at Mainz Cathedral, at some time after the ceremony, the king would, if possible, cross the Alps, to receive coronation in Pavia or Milan with the Iron Crown of Lombardy as King of Italy. Finally, he would travel to Rome and be crowned Emperor by the Pope, in such cases, the king might retain the title King of the Romans for his entire reign. At this time Maximilian took the new title King of the Germans or King in Germany, the following were ruling Kings of the Romans, i. e. men who ruled the Kingdom without subordination to another King but who had not yet been crowned Emperor. The Holy Roman Empire was an elective monarchy, no person had a legal right to the succession simply because he was related to the current Emperor.
However, the Emperor could, and often did, have an elected to succeed him after his death
Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor
Maximilian II, a member of the Austrian House of Habsburg, was Holy Roman Emperor from 1564 until his death. He was crowned King of Bohemia in Prague on 14 May 1562, on 8 September 1563 he was crowned King of Hungary and Croatia in the Hungarian capital Pressburg. On 25 July 1564 he succeeded his father Ferdinand I as ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, maximilians rule was shaped by the confessionalization process after the 1555 Peace of Augsburg. Though a Habsburg and a Catholic, he approached the Lutheran Imperial estates with a view to overcome the denominational schism and he was faced with the ongoing Ottoman–Habsburg wars and rising conflicts with his Habsburg Spain cousins. According to Fichtner, he failed to achieve his three major aims, rationalizing the government structure, unifying Christianity, and evicting the Turks from Hungary and he was named after his great-grandfather, Emperor Maximilian I. At the time of his birth, his father Ferdinand succeeded his brother-in-law King Louis II in the Kingdom of Bohemia, having spent his childhood years at his fatherss court in Innsbruck, Tyrol, he was educated principally in Italy.
Among his teachers were humanist scholars like Kaspar Ursinus Velius and Georg Tannstetter, Maximilian came in contact with the Lutheran teaching and early on corresponded with the Protestant prince Augustus of Saxony, suspiciously eyed by his Habsburg relatives. From the age of 17, he gained experience of warfare during the Italian War campaign of his uncle Charles V against King Francis I of France in 1544. On 13 September 1548 Emperor Charles V married Maximilian to Charless daughter Mary of Spain in the Castile residence of Valladolid, by the marriage his uncle intended to strengthen the ties with the Spanish branch of the Habsburgs, but to consolidate his nephews Catholic faith. Maximilian temporarily acted as the representative in Spain, however not as stadtholder of the Habsburg Netherlands as he had hoped for. He returned to Germany in December 1550 in order to part in the discussion over the Imperial succession. However, Charles brother Ferdinand, who had already designated as the next occupant of the imperial throne.
Maximilian sought the support of the German princes such as Duke Albert V of Bavaria and even contacted Protestant leaders like Maurice of Saxony and Duke Christoph of Württemberg. At length a compromise was reached, Philip was to succeed Ferdinand, the relationship between the two cousins was uneasy. While his cousin was reserved and shy, Maximilian was outgoing and his adherence to humanism and religious tolerance put him at odds with Philip who was more committed to the defence of the Catholic faith. Also, he was considered a promising commander, while Philip disliked war, the two remained committed to the unity of their dynasty. In Vienna, he had his Hofburg residence extended with the Renaissance Stallburg wing, the site of the Spanish Riding School, the court held close ties to the University of Vienna and employed scholars like the botanist Carolus Clusius and the diplomat Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq. Maximilians library curated by Hugo Blotius became the nucleus of the Austrian National Library and he implemented the Roman School of composition with his court orchestra, his plans to win Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina as Kapellmeister foundered on financial reasons