Gold Coast Railroad Museum
The Gold Coast Railroad Museum is a railroad museum located in Miami, adjacent to Zoo Miami. The Gold Coast Railroad Museum was founded in 1956; the museum was built on the former Naval Air Station Richmond. With over three miles of tracks, the old base was an ideal place to build a railroad museum; the Gold Coast Railroad Museum is one of three Official State Railroad Museums in Florida. It became a Florida state railroad museum in 1984 when it received statutory recognition by the Florida Legislature as meeting the four statutory criteria that: its purpose is to preserve railroad history, it is devoted to the history of railroading, it is open to the public, it operates as a non-profit organization; the Gold Coast Railroad Museum promotes historical railroads. It houses over 30 historic trains including classic railroad cars like the Western Pacific "Silver Crescent” and engines like the Florida East Coast "113.” The Museum strives to teach railroad history with the use of artifacts and railroading materials.
The Museum includes a number of displays. The Museum's train rides allow guests to get a taste of the past. On certain days, guests can ride in standard gauge railway cars and can ride in the cab of the train's locomotive; the separate 2 ft narrow gauge Edwin Link Children's Railroad offers rides. One of the most important exhibits is the Presidential Car "Ferdinand Magellan"; the museum has a collection of model railroad equipment. The Museum has both diesel locomotives on display. Several of the diesel locomotives are active; some of the locomotives on location are: Florida East Coast Railway Steam Locomotive #153 Florida East Coast Railway Steam Locomotive #113 National Aeronautics & Space Administration EMD SW1500 S-2 #2Gold Coast Railroad Museum RS-1 #106 Chicago Burlington & Quincy Railroad E-9A #9913 Florida East Coast Railway E-8A #1594 Atlantic Coast Line GP-7 #1804 Seaboard FP-10 #4033 Richmond and Potomac "Slug" East Swamp & Gatorville Railroad 2 ft narrow gauge 4-4-0 Locomotive #3 The freight cars and other railroad cars on display include: US Dept of Interior-Bureau of Mines Helium Field Operations - Helium Transportation Car MHAX #1202 Frisco Line Railroad Gondola Car #60053 Port Everglades Railroad Flatcar #1103 Seaboard Coast Line Railroad Steam Crane #765157 Burro Crane #15 Southern Railway Boxcar #260909 Southern Railway Boxcar #27416 Seaboard Coast Line Railroad Boxcar #126307 Belcher Oil Company Tank Car #105 Belcher Oil Company Tank Car #121 United States Army Side Dump Ballast Car United States Army Flatcar #35703 Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Caboose #0322 Seaboard Coast Line Railroad Boxcar #593188 National Aeronautics and Space Administration Shuttle Rocket Booster "Skirt" car #NALX 171 The Gold Coast Railroad Museum has over 40 pieces of railroad rolling stock and equipment.
The Gold Coast Railroad Museum exhibits include a number of model railroads in many scales, including N, HO, O27, G scale. The collections and equipment on display have been donated or loaned to the Museum for the public's enjoyment. Steam N' Steel Newsletter - published monthly. Model Railroad Magazine - published online. Florida Railroad Museum Orange Blossom Cannonball Official web site
Miami-Dade County, Florida
Miami-Dade County is a county in the southeastern part of the U. S. state of Florida. It is the southeasternmost county on the U. S. mainland. According to a 2017 census report, the county had a population of 2,751,796, making it the most populous county in Florida and the seventh-most populous county in the United States, it is Florida's third largest county in terms of land area, with 1,946 square miles. The county seat is the principal city in South Florida. Miami-Dade County is one of the three counties in South Florida that make up the Miami metropolitan area, home to an estimated 6,158,824 people in 2017; the county is home to 34 incorporated many unincorporated areas. The northern and eastern portions of the county are urbanized with many high-rise buildings along the coastline, including South Florida's central business district, Downtown Miami. Southern Miami-Dade County includes the Redland and Homestead areas, which make up the agricultural economy of the region. Agricultural Redland makes up one third of Miami-Dade County's inhabited land area, is sparsely populated, a stark contrast to the densely populated, urban northern portion of the county.
The county includes portions of two national parks. To the west it extends into the Everglades National Park and is populated only by a Miccosukee tribal village. East of the mainland, in Biscayne Bay, is Biscayne National Park and the Biscayne Bay Aquatic Preserves; the earliest evidence of Native American settlement in the Miami region came from about 12,000 years ago. The first inhabitants settled on the banks of the Miami River, with the main villages on the northern banks; the inhabitants at the time of first European contact were the Tequesta people, who controlled much of southeastern Florida, including what is now Miami-Dade County, Broward County, the southern part of Palm Beach County. The Tequesta Indians fished and gathered the fruit and roots of plants for food, but did not practice agriculture, they buried the small bones of the deceased with the rest of the body, put the larger bones in a box for the village people to see. The Tequesta are credited with making the Miami Circle. Juan Ponce de León was the first European to visit the area in 1513 by sailing into Biscayne Bay.
His journal records he reached Chequescha, a variant of Tequesta, Miami's first recorded name. It is unknown whether he made contact with the natives. Pedro Menéndez de Avilés and his men made the first recorded landing when they visited the Tequesta settlement in 1566 while looking for Avilés' missing son, shipwrecked a year earlier. Spanish soldiers led by Father Francisco Villarreal built a Jesuit mission at the mouth of the Miami River a year but it was short-lived. After the Spaniards left, the Tequesta Indians were left to fend themselves from European-introduced diseases like smallpox. By 1711, the Tequesta sent a couple of local chiefs to Havana, Cuba, to ask if they could migrate there; the Cubans sent two ships to help them. The first permanent European settlers arrived in the early 19th century. People came from the Bahamas to South Florida and the Keys to hunt for treasure from the ships that ran aground on the treacherous Great Florida Reef; some accepted Spanish land offers along the Miami River.
At about the same time, the Seminole Indians arrived, along with a group of runaway slaves. The area was affected by the Second Seminole War, during which Major William S. Harney led several raids against the Indians. Most non-Indian residents were soldiers stationed at Fort Dallas, it was the most devastating Indian war in American history, causing a total loss of population in Miami. After the Second Seminole War ended in 1842, William English re-established a plantation started by his uncle on the Miami River, he charted the "Village of Miami" on the south bank of the Miami River and sold several plots of land. In 1844, Miami became the county seat, six years a census reported there were ninety-six residents in the area; the Third Seminole War was not as destructive as the second, but it slowed the settlement of southeast Florida. At the end of the war, a few of the soldiers stayed. Dade County was created on January 1836, under the Territorial Act of the United States; the county was named after Major Francis L. Dade, a soldier killed in 1835 in the Second Seminole War, at what has since been named the Dade Battlefield.
At the time of its creation, Dade County included the land that now contains Palm Beach and Broward counties, together with the Florida Keys from Bahia Honda Key north and the land of present-day Miami-Dade County. The county seat was at Indian Key in the Florida Keys; the Florida Keys from Key Largo to Bahia Honda were returned to Monroe County in 1866. In 1888 the county seat was moved to Juno, near present-day Juno Beach, returning to Miami in 1899. In 1909, Palm Beach County was formed from the northern portion of what was Dade County, in 1915, Palm Beach County and Dade County contributed nearly equal portions of land to create what is now Broward County. There have been no significant boundary changes to the county since 1915; the third-costliest natural disaster to occur in the United States was Hurricane Andrew, which hit Miami in the early morning of Monday, August 24, 1992. It struck the southern part of the county from due east, south of Miami and near Homestead and Cutler Ridge. Damages numbered over US$25 billion in the county alone, recovery has taken years in these areas where the destruction was greatest.
This was the costliest natural disaster in US history until Hurricane Katrina st
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th president of the United States from 1953 to 1961. During World War II, he was a five-star general in the United States Army and served as supreme commander of the Allied Expeditionary Forces in Europe, he was responsible for planning and supervising the invasion of North Africa in Operation Torch in 1942–43 and the successful invasion of France and Germany in 1944–45 from the Western Front. Born David Dwight Eisenhower in Denison, Texas, he was raised in Kansas in a large family of Pennsylvania Dutch ancestry, his family had a strong religious background. His mother was born a Lutheran, married as a River Brethren, became a Jehovah's Witness. So, Eisenhower did not belong to any organized church until 1952, he cited constant relocation during his military career as one reason. He graduated from West Point in 1915 and married Mamie Doud, with whom he had two sons. During World War I, he was denied a request to serve in Europe and instead commanded a unit that trained tank crews.
Following the war, he served under various generals and was promoted to the rank of brigadier general in 1941. After the U. S. entered World War II, Eisenhower oversaw the invasions of North Africa and Sicily before supervising the invasions of France and Germany. After the war, Eisenhower served as Army Chief of Staff and took on the role as president of Columbia University. In 1951–52, he served as the first Supreme Commander of NATO. In 1952, Eisenhower entered the presidential race as a Republican to block the isolationist foreign policies of Senator Robert A. Taft, who opposed NATO and wanted no foreign entanglements, he won that election and the 1956 election in landslides, both times defeating Adlai Stevenson II. He became the first Republican to win since Herbert Hoover in 1928. Eisenhower's main goals in office were to contain the expansion of the Soviet Union and reduce federal deficits. In 1953, he threatened the use of nuclear weapons until China agreed to peace terms in the Korean War.
China did agree and an armistice resulted that remains in effect. His New Look policy of nuclear deterrence prioritized inexpensive nuclear weapons while reducing funding for expensive Army divisions, he continued Harry S. Truman's policy of recognizing the Republic of China as the legitimate government of China, he won congressional approval of the Formosa Resolution, his administration provided major aid to help the French fight off Vietnamese Communists in the First Indochina War. After the French left he gave strong financial support to the new state of South Vietnam, he supported local military coups against democratically-elected governments in Guatemala. During the Suez Crisis of 1956, Eisenhower condemned the Israeli and French invasion of Egypt, he forced them to withdraw, he condemned the Soviet invasion during the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 but took no action. During the Syrian Crisis of 1957 he approved a CIA-MI6 plan to stage fake border incidents as an excuse for an invasion by Syria's pro-Western neighbours.
After the Soviet Union launched Sputnik in 1957, Eisenhower authorized the establishment of NASA, which led to the Space Race. He deployed 15,000 soldiers during the 1958 Lebanon crisis. Near the end of his term, his efforts to set up a summit meeting with the Soviets collapsed when a U. S. spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. He approved the Bay of Pigs invasion, left to his successor, John F. Kennedy, to carry out. On the domestic front, Eisenhower was a moderate conservative who continued New Deal agencies and expanded Social Security, he covertly opposed Joseph McCarthy and contributed to the end of McCarthyism by invoking executive privilege. Eisenhower signed the Civil Rights Act of 1957 and sent Army troops to enforce federal court orders that integrated schools in Little Rock, Arkansas, his largest program was the Interstate Highway System. He promoted the establishment of strong science education via the National Defense Education Act. Eisenhower's two terms saw widespread economic prosperity except for a minor recession in 1958.
In his farewell address to the nation, Eisenhower expressed his concerns about the dangers of massive military spending deficit spending and government contracts to private military manufacturers. Historical evaluations of his presidency place him among the upper tier of U. S. presidents. The Eisenhauer family migrated from Karlsbrunn in Nassau-Saarbrücken, to North America, first settling in York, Pennsylvania, in 1741, in the 1880s moving to Kansas. Accounts vary as to when the German name Eisenhauer was anglicized to Eisenhower. Eisenhower's Pennsylvania Dutch ancestors, who were farmers, included Hans Nikolaus Eisenhauer of Karlsbrunn, who migrated to Lancaster, Pennsylvania, in 1741. Hans's great-great-grandson, David Jacob Eisenhower, was Eisenhower's father and was a college-educated engineer, despite his own father Jacob's urging to stay on the family farm. Eisenhower's mother, Ida Elizabeth Eisenhower, born in Virginia, of German Protestant ancestry, moved to Kansas from Virginia, she married David on September 23, 1885, in Lecompton, Kansas, on the campus of their alma mater, Lane University.
David owned a general store in Hope, but the business failed due to economic conditions and the family became impoverished. The Eisenhowers lived in Texas from 1889 until 1892, returned to Kansas, with $24 to their name at the time. David worked as a railroad mechanic and at a creamery. By 1898, the parents provided a suitable home for their large family; the future pr
Florida is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States. The state is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Straits of Florida. Florida is the 22nd-most extensive, the 3rd-most populous, the 8th-most densely populated of the U. S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States; the Miami metropolitan area is Florida's most populous urban area. Tallahassee is the state's capital. Florida's $1.0 trillion economy is the fourth largest in the United States. If it were a country, Florida would be the 16th largest economy in the world, the 58th most populous as of 2018. In 2017, Florida's per capita personal income was ranking 26th in the nation; the unemployment rate in September 2018 was 3.5% and ranked as the 18th in the United States. Florida exports nearly $55 billion in goods made in the 8th highest among all states.
The Miami Metropolitan Area is by far the largest urban economy in Florida and the 12th largest in the United States with a GDP of $344.9 billion as of 2017. This is more than twice the number of the next metro area, the Tampa Bay Area, which has a GDP of $145.3 billion. Florida is home to 51 of the world's billionaires with most of them residing in South Florida; the first European contact was made in 1513 by Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León, who called it la Florida upon landing there in the Easter season, known in Spanish as Pascua Florida. Florida was a challenge for the European colonial powers before it gained statehood in the United States in 1845, it was a principal location of the Seminole Wars against the Native Americans, racial segregation after the American Civil War. Today, Florida is distinctive for its large Cuban expatriate community and high population growth, as well as for its increasing environmental issues; the state's economy relies on tourism and transportation, which developed in the late 19th century.
Florida is renowned for amusement parks, orange crops, winter vegetables, the Kennedy Space Center, as a popular destination for retirees. Florida is the flattest state in the United States. Lake Okeechobee is the largest freshwater lake in the U. S. state of Florida. Florida's close proximity to the ocean influences many aspects of daily life. Florida is a reflection of multiple inheritance. Florida has attracted many writers such as Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Ernest Hemingway and Tennessee Williams, continues to attract celebrities and athletes, it is internationally known for golf, auto racing, water sports. Several beaches in Florida have emerald-colored coastal waters. About two-thirds of Florida occupies a peninsula between the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Florida has the longest coastline in the contiguous United States 1,350 miles, not including the contribution of the many barrier islands. Florida has a total of 4,510 islands; this is the second-highest number of islands of any state of the United States.
It is the only state that borders both the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Much of the state is characterized by sedimentary soil. Florida has the lowest high point of any U. S. state. The climate varies from subtropical in the north to tropical in the south; the American alligator, American crocodile, American flamingo, Roseate spoonbill, Florida panther, bottlenose dolphin, manatee can be found in Everglades National Park in the southern part of the state. Along with Hawaii, Florida is one of only two states that has a tropical climate, is the only continental state with either a tropical climate or a coral reef; the Florida Reef is the only living coral barrier reef in the continental United States, the third-largest coral barrier reef system in the world. By the 16th century, the earliest time for which there is a historical record, major Native American groups included the Apalachee of the Florida Panhandle, the Timucua of northern and central Florida, the Ais of the central Atlantic coast, the Tocobaga of the Tampa Bay area, the Calusa of southwest Florida and the Tequesta of the southeastern coast.
Florida was the first region of the continental United States to be visited and settled by Europeans. The earliest known European explorers came with the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León. Ponce de León spotted and landed on the peninsula on April 2, 1513, he named the region Florida. The story that he was searching for the Fountain of Youth is mythical and only appeared long after his death. In May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto skirted the coast of Florida, searching for a deep harbor to land, he described seeing a thick wall of red mangroves spread mile after mile, some reaching as high as 70 feet, with intertwined and elevated roots making landing difficult. The Spanish introduced Christianity, horses, the Castilian language, more to Florida. Spain established several settlements with varying degrees of success. In 1559, Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano established a settlement at present-day Pensacola, making it the first attempted settlement in Florida, but it was abandoned by 1561.
In 1565, the settlement of St. Augustine was established under the leadership of admiral and
A pantry is a room where beverages and sometimes dishes, household cleaning chemicals, linens, or provisions are stored. Food and beverage pantries serve in an ancillary capacity to the kitchen; the word "pantry" derives from the same source as the Old French term paneterie. In a late medieval hall, there were separate rooms for the various service functions and food storage. A pantry was where bread was kept and food preparation associated with it was done; the head of the office responsible for this room was referred to as a pantler. There were similar rooms for storage of bacon and other meats, alcoholic beverages, cooking. In the United States, pantries evolved from early Colonial American "butteries", built in a cold north corner of a Colonial home, into a variety of pantries in self-sufficient farmsteads. Butler's pantries, or china pantries, were built between the dining room and kitchen of a middle class English or American home in the latter part of the 19th into the early 20th centuries.
Great estates, such as the Biltmore Estate in Asheville, North Carolina or Stan Hywet Hall in Akron, had large warrens of pantries and other domestic "offices", echoing their British "Great House" counterparts. By the Victorian era, large houses and estates in Britain maintained the use of separate rooms, each one dedicated to a distinct stage of food preparation and cleanup; the kitchen was for cooking. Food preparation before cooking was done in a larder, dishwashing was done in a scullery or pantry, "depending on the type of dish and level of dirt". Since the scullery was the room with running water, it had a sink, it was where the messiest food preparation took place, such as cleaning fish and cutting raw meat; the pantry was where tableware was stored, such as china and silverware. If the pantry had a sink for washing tableware, it was a wooden sink lined with lead, to prevent chipping the china and glassware while they were washed. In some middle-class houses, the larder and storeroom might be large wooden cupboards, each with its exclusive purpose.
The pantry is making a comeback in American and British homes, as part of a resurgence of nesting and homekeeping since the late 1990s. It is one of the most requested features in American homes today, despite modern homes having larger kitchen sizes than before; the demand is due both to the charm and nostalgia associated with the pantry, as well as to the pantry's practical, utilitarian purpose. Today, the term may be used for any small storeroom used for non-perishable foods such as canned goods. Traditionally, kitchens in Asia have been more open format than those of the West; the function of the pantry was served by wooden cabinetry. For example, in Japan, a kitchen cabinet is called a "Mizuya Tansu". A substantial tradition around woodworking and cabinetry in general developed in Japan throughout the Tokugawa period. A huge number of designs for tansu were made, each tailored towards another; the idea is similar to that of the Hoosier cabinet, with a wide variety of functions being served by specific design innovations.
A butler's pantry or serving pantry is a utility room in a large house used to store serving items, rather than food. Traditionally, a butler's pantry was used for cleaning and storage of silver; the merchant's account books and wine log may have been kept in there. The room would be used by other domestic staff. In modern homes, butler's pantries are located in transitional spaces between kitchens and dining rooms, used as staging areas for serving meals, they contain countertops, storage for candles, serving pieces, table linens, tableware and other dining room articles. More elaborate versions may include refrigerators, or sinks; some food, such as butter, eggs and such need to be kept cool. Before modern refrigeration was available, iceboxes were popular. However, the problem with an icebox was that the cabinet housing it was large, but the actual refrigerated space was quite small, so a clever and innovative solution was invented, the "cold pantry", sometimes called a "California cooler"; the cold pantry consisted of a cabinet or cupboard with wooden-slat shelves.
An opening near the top vented to the outside, either high out the wall. A second opening near the bottom vented to the outside, but low near the ground and on the north side of the house where the air was cooler; as the air in the pantry warmed, it rose. This in turn drew cooler air in from the lower vent. In the summertime, the temperatures in the cold pantry would hover several degrees lower than the ambient temperature in the house, while in the wintertime, the temperature in the cold pantry would be lower than that in the house. A cold pantry was the perfect place to keep foodstocks that did not need to be kept refrigerated. Breads, cheesecakes, eggs and pie were common foodstocks kept in a cold pantry. Vegetables could be brought up from the root cellar in smaller amounts and stored in the cold pantry until ready to use
United States Secret Service
The United States Secret Service is a federal law enforcement agency under the Department of Homeland Security charged with conducting criminal investigations and protecting the nation's leaders. Until 2003, the Secret Service was part of the Department of the Treasury, as the agency was founded to combat the then-widespread counterfeiting of US currency; the Secret Service is mandated by Congress with two distinct and critical national security missions: protecting the nation's leaders and safeguarding the financial and critical infrastructure of the United States. Ensures the safety of the President of the United States, the Vice President of the United States, the President's and Vice President's immediate families, former presidents, their spouses, their minor children under the age of 16, major presidential and vice presidential candidates and their spouses, foreign heads of state; the Secret Service provides physical security for the White House Complex, the neighboring Treasury Department building, the Vice President's residence, all foreign diplomatic missions in Washington, D.
C. The protective mission includes protective operations to coordinate manpower and logistics with state and local law enforcement, protective advances to conduct site and venue assessments for protectees, protective intelligence to investigate all manners of threats made against protectees; the Secret Service is the lead agency in charge of the planning and implementation of security operations for events designated as National Special Security Events. As part of the Service's mission of preventing an incident before it occurs, the agency relies on meticulous advance work and threat assessments developed by its Intelligence Division to identify potential risks to protectees. Safeguards the payment and financial systems of the United States from a wide range of financial and electronic-based crimes. Financial investigations include counterfeit US currency, bank & financial institution fraud, mail fraud, wire fraud, illicit financing operations, major conspiracies. Electronic investigations include cybercrime, network intrusions, identity theft, access device fraud, credit card fraud, intellectual property crimes.
The Secret Service is a key member of the FBI's Joint Terrorism Task Force which investigates and combats terrorism on a national and international scale, as well as of the High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas Task Force which seeks to reduce and eliminate drug trafficking in critical regions of the United States. The Secret Service investigates missing and exploited children and is a core partner of the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children; the Secret Service's initial responsibility was to investigate the counterfeiting of US currency, rampant following the American Civil War. The agency evolved into the United States' first domestic intelligence and counterintelligence agency. Many of the agency's missions were taken over by subsequent agencies such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Central Intelligence Agency, Drug Enforcement Administration, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Explosives, IRS Criminal Investigation Division; the Secret Service combines the two responsibilities into a unique dual objective.
The two core missions of protection and investigations synergize with the other, providing crucial benefits to special agents during the course of their careers. Skills developed during the course of investigations which are used in an agent’s protective duties include but are not limited to: Partnerships that are created between field offices and local law enforcement during the course of investigations being used to gather both protective intelligence and in coordinating protection events. Tactical operation and law enforcement writing skills being applied to both investigative and protective duties. Proficiency in analyzing handwriting and forgery techniques being applied in protective investigations of handwritten letters and suspicious package threats. Expertise in investigating electronic and financial crimes being applied in protective investigations of threats made against the nation's leaders on the Internet. Protection of the nation's highest elected leaders and other government officials is one of the primary missions of the Secret Service.
After the 1901 assassination of President William McKinley, Congress directed the Secret Service to protect the President of the United States. The Secret Service is authorized by law to protect: The President, Vice President, President-elect and Vice President-elect The immediate families of the above individuals Former Presidents and their spouses for their lifetimes, under the Former Presidents Act. From 1997 until 2013, legislation was in place limiting Secret Service protection to former Presidents and their spouses to a period of 10 years from the date the former President leaves office. President Barack Obama signed legislation on January 10, 2013, reversing this limit and reinstating lifetime protection; the widow or widower of a former President who dies in office or dies within a year of leaving office for a period of one year after the President's death Children of former Presidents until age 16 or 10 years after the presidency Former Vice Presidents, their spouses, their children under 16 years of age, for up to 6 months from the date the former Vice President leaves office (the Secre
Passenger car (rail)
A passenger car is a piece of railway rolling stock, designed to carry passengers. The term passenger car can be associated with a sleeping car, dining, railway post office and prisoner transport cars. In some countries, such as the UK, some coaching stock to not carry passengers are referred to as "NPCS". Up until about the end of the 19th century, most passenger cars were constructed of wood; the first passenger trains did not travel far, but they were able to haul many more passengers for a longer distance than any wagons pulled by horses. As railways were first constructed in England, so too were the first passenger cars. One of the early coach designs was the "Stanhope", it featured a roof and small holes in the floor for drainage when it rained, had separate compartments for different classes of travel. The only problem with this design is that the passengers were expected to stand for their entire trip; the first passenger cars in the United States resembled stagecoaches. They were short less than 10 ft long and had two axles.
British railways had a head start on American railroads, with the first "bed-carriage" being built there as early as 1838 for use on the London and Birmingham Railway and the Grand Junction Railway. Britain's early sleepers, when made up for sleeping, extended the foot of the bed into a boot section at the end of the carriage; the cars were still too short to allow three beds to be positioned end to end. Britain's Royal Mail commissioned and built the first Travelling Post Office cars in the late 1840s as well; these cars resembled coaches in their short wheelbase and exterior design, but were equipped with nets on the sides of the cars to catch mail bags while the train was in motion. American RPOs, first appearing in the 1860s featured equipment to catch mail bags at speed, but the American design more resembled a large hook that would catch the mailbag in its crook; when not in use, the hook would swivel down against the side of the car to prevent it from catching obstacles. As locomotive technology progressed in the mid-19th century, trains grew in weight.
Passenger cars in America, grew along with them, first getting longer with the addition of a second truck, wider as their suspensions improved. Cars built for European use featured side door compartments, while American car design favored what was called a train coach, a single long cabin with rows of seats, with doors located at the ends of the car. Early American sleeping cars were not compartmented; the compartments in the sleepers were accessed from a side hall running the length of the cars, similar to the design of European cars well into the 20th century. Many American passenger trains the long distance ones, included a car at the end of the train called an observation car; until about the 1930s, these had an open-air platform at the rear, the "observation platform". These evolved into the closed end car with a rounded end, still called an "observation car"; the interiors of observation cars varied. Many had special tables; the end platforms of all passenger cars changed around the turn of the 20th century.
Older cars had open platforms between cars. Passengers would enter and leave a car through a door at the end of the car which led to a narrow platform. Steps on either side of the platform were used for getting on or off the train, one might hop from one car platform to another. Cars had enclosed platforms called vestibules which together with gangway connections allowed passengers not only to enter and exit the train protected from the elements, but to move more between cars with the same protection. Dining cars first appeared into the 1880s; until this time, the common practice was to stop for meals at restaurants along the way. At first, the dining car was a place to serve meals that were picked up en route, but they soon evolved to include galleys in which the meals were prepared; the introduction of vestibuled cars, which for the first time allowed easy movement from car to car, aided the adoption of dining cars, lounge cars, other specialized cars. By the 1920s, passenger cars on the larger standard gauge railroads were between 60 ft and 70 ft long.
The cars of this time were still quite ornate, many of them being built by experienced coach makers and skilled carpenters. In the United States, the so-called "chair car" with individual seating became commonplace on long-distance routes. With the 1930s came the widespread use of stainless steel for car bodies; the typical passenger car was now much lighter than its wood cousins of old. The new "lightweight" and streamlined cars carried passengers in speed and comfort to an extent that had not been experienced to date. Aluminum and Cor-Ten steel were used in lightweight car construction, but stainless steel was the preferred material for car bodies. Stainless steel cars could be and were, left unpainted except for the car's reporting marks that were required by law. By the end of the 1930s, railroads and car builders were debuting car body and interior styles that could only be dreamed of before. In 1937, the Pullman Company delivered the first cars equipped with roomettes – that is, the car's interior was sectioned off into compartments, much like the