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Ferdinand VI of Spain

Ferdinand VI of Spain, called the Learned and the Just, King of Spain from 9 July 1746 until his death in 1759, was the third ruler of the Spanish Bourbon dynasty. He was his first wife Maria Luisa of Savoy. Born at the Royal Alcázar of Madrid, Ferdinand endured a lonely childhood, his stepmother, the domineering Elisabeth Farnese, had no affection except for her own children, looked upon Ferdinand as an obstacle to their fortunes. The hypochondria of his father left Elisabeth mistress of the palace. Ferdinand was by temperament melancholic and distrustful of his own abilities; when complimented on his shooting, he replied, "It would be hard if there were not something I could do." Shooting and music were his only pleasures, he was the generous patron of the famous singer Farinelli, whose voice soothed his melancholy. Ferdinand was married in 1729 to Infanta Barbara of Portugal, daughter of John V of Portugal and Maria Anna of Austria; when he came to the throne, Spain found itself in the War of the Austrian Succession, which ended without any benefit to Spain.

He started his reign by eliminating the influence of the widow Queen Elisabeth of Parma and her group of Italian courtiers. As king he followed a steady policy of neutrality in the conflict between France and Britain and refused to be tempted by the offers of either into declaring war on the other. Prominent figures during his reign were Marquis of a Francophile; the fight between both ended in 1754 with the death of Carvajal and the fall of Ensenada, after which Ricardo Wall became the most powerful advisor to the monarch. The most important tasks during the reign of Ferdinand VI were carried out by the Marquis of Ensenada, the Secretary of the Treasury and Indies, he suggested. To him, this was necessary to maintain a position of exterior strength so that France and Great Britain would consider Spain as an ally without supposing Spain's renunciation of its claim to Gibraltar. Among his reform projects were: New model of the Treasury suggested by Ensenada in 1749, he proposed substitution of the traditional taxes with a special tax, the cadastre, that weighed the economic capacity of each contributor based on their property holdings.

He proposed a reduction of subsidies by the state to the Cortes and the army. The opposition by the nobility caused the abandonment of the project; the creation of the Giro Real in 1752, a bank favoring the transfer of public and private funds outside of Spain keeping all of the foreign exchanges in the hands of the Royal Treasury, enriching the State. It is considered the predecessor to the Bank of San Carlos, introduced during the reign of Charles III; the stimulation of commerce in the Americas, which tried to end the monopoly in the Indies and eliminate the injustices of colonial commerce. Thus he leaned toward registered ships rather than fleets of ships; the new system consisted of the substitution of the fleets and galleons so that a Spanish ship authorized, could conduct trade in the Americas. This decreased the fraud. So, this system provoked many protests among merchants in the private sector; the modernization of the Navy. According to Ensenada, a powerful navy was fundamental to power of an overseas empire and aspirations of being respected by France and Great Britain.

He increased the navy's budget and expanded the capacity of the shipyards of Cádiz, Ferrol and Havana which marked a commitment to extending the naval policies underway in his predecessor's reign. Church relations which were tense from start of the reign of Philip V because of the recognition of Charles VI as the King of Spain by the Pope. A regalist policy was maintained that pursued as much political as fiscal objectives and whose decisive achievement was the Concord of 1753. From this the right of Universal Patronage was obtained from Pope Benedict XIV, giving important economic benefits to the Crown and a great control over the clergy. Cultural advancement, he helped create the Royal Academy of the Fine Arts of San Fernando in 1752. The noted composer Domenico Scarlatti, music teacher to Barbara, wrote many of his 555 harpsichord sonatas at Ferdinand's court. During the War of the Austrian Succession and the Seven Years' War, Spain reinforced its military might; the main conflict was its confrontation with Portugal over the colony of Sacramento, from which British contraband was transferred down the Río de la Plata.

In 1750 José de Carvajal helped Portugal strike a deal. Portugal agreed to renounce its claim to free navigation down the Río de la Plata. In return, Spain ceded to Portugal two regions on the Brazilian border, one in the Amazon and the other to the south, in which were seven of the thirty Jesuit Guaraní towns; the Spanish had to expel the missionaries, generating a conflict with the Guaraní people that lasted eleven years. The conflict over the towns provoked a crisis in the Spanish Court. Ensenada, favorable to the Jesuits, Father Rávago, confessor of the King and members of the Society of Jesus, were fired, accused of hindering the agreements with Portugal; the death of his wife Barbara, devoted to him, who abstained from political intrigue, broke his heart. Between the date of her death in August 1758 and his own on 10 August 1759, he fell into a state of prostration in which he would not dress, but wandered unshaven, unwashed and in a nightgown about his park; the memoirs of the count of Fernán Núñez give a shocking picture of his deathbed.

As the couple had no children, Ferdinand

Athletics at the 1952 Summer Olympics – Women's 80 metres hurdles

The Women's 80 metres hurdles at the 1952 Summer Olympics took place on July 24 and July 25 at the Helsinki Olympic Stadium. Australian athlete Shirley Strickland de la Hunty earned the gold medal, setting new World and Olympic records. Suffering from skin boils, defending champion Fanny Blankers-Koen was dropping out of other events to save herself for this event. In the first heat, Shirley Strickland set the Olympic record at 11.0. Strickland improved upon that with a 10.8 in the semi final round, joined by Maria Sander and Jean Desforges running 10.9. It instead was wind aided. In the final, Blankers-Koen blasted out to a clear early lead over the first hurdle. Still leading she hit the second hurdle hard and was knocked off stride, she quit after jumping the third hurdle, this was the last race of her career. Meanwhile Strickland was left with a metre lead on the closest chaser Sander. At the sixth hurdle, Sander lost her stride and struggled, leaving Maria Golubnichaya in silver position but more than 2 metres behind Strickland.

And those positions held, Strickland well ahead of Golubnichaya, a slowing Sander leaning across the finish line to hold off her teammate Anneliese Seonbuchner for bronze. The first round was held on July 23; the two fastest runners qualified for the semifinals. Heat 1 Heat 2 Heat 3 Heat 4 Heat 5 Heat 6 The semifinals were held on the July 23, the same day as the preliminary round; the first three runners from each heat qualified for the final. Heat 1 Heat 2 The final was held on July 24

Nancy Barto

Nancy K. Barto is an American politician and a Republican member of the Arizona House of Representatives since January 14, 2019, she served in the Arizona Senate representing District 15 from 2013 to 2019. Barto served consecutively in the Arizona State Legislature from January 2007 until January 10, 2011 in the Arizona House of Representatives District 7 seat in the Arizona Senate in the District 7 seat from January 10, 2011 until January 14, 2013. Barto attended Arizona State University at the West campus. Barto sponsored a bill to prohibit counties in Arizona from banning plastic bags. SB1241, the "ban on banning bags", became law when the governor signed it on April 13, 2015. In 2019, Barto sponsored three bills relating to childhood vaccination. HB2470 would add a non-medical religious belief exemption for childhood vaccines, removed a signature requirement for parents. HB2471 would require doctors to inform parents about potential risks of vaccines and how to file for injury claims related to vaccines.

HB2472 would require doctors to offer a blood test prior to vaccination. Barto stated the bills were not intended to promulgate anti-vaccine policy, but rather were about expanding parental freedom and choice. Barto added "We need to look at the data, look at the science and recognize that there's research on both sides", despite warnings by public health officials that the bills would reduce immunization rates in Arizona. To challenge House District 7 incumbent Republican Representatives Ray Barnes and David Smith, Barto ran in the four-way September 12, 2006 Republican Primary. † Won nomination for general election Barto, Republican Representative Barnes, Democratic nominee Jeanne Lunn, Libertarian candidate Jim Iannuzo were unopposed for their September 2, 2008 primaries, setting up a rematch. When Republican Senator Jim Waring ran for Phoenix City Council and left the Senate District 7 seat open and Representative Barnes both ran in the four-way August 24, 2010 Republican Primary, where Barto placed first with 10,475 votes.

† Won nomination for general election Redistricted to District 15, Barto was unopposed for the August 28, 2012 Republican Primary, winning with 19,162 votes, won the November 6, 2012 General election with 58,283 votes against Libertarian nominee Dennis Grenier. Barto defeated David Ryan in the primary ran unopposed in the general election. † Won nomination for general election Barto ran unopposed in the primary defeated the Democratic candidate, Tonya MacBeth, in the general election. Barto and John Allen ran unopposed in the primary both defeated the Democratic candidates, Julie Gunnigle and Jennifer Samuels, in the general election. Official page at the Arizona State Legislature Campaign site Profile at Vote Smart