Ferdinand de Saussure

Ferdinand de Saussure was a Swiss linguist and semiotician. His ideas laid a foundation for many significant developments in both linguistics and semiology in the 20th century, he is considered one of the founders of 20th-century linguistics and one of two major founders of semiotics/semiology. One of his translators, Roy Harris, summarized Saussure's contribution to linguistics and the study of "the whole range of human sciences, it is marked in linguistics, psychology and anthropology." Although they have undergone extension and critique over time, the dimensions of organization introduced by Saussure continue to inform contemporary approaches to the phenomenon of language. Prague school linguist Jan Mukařovský writes that Saussure's "discovery of the internal structure of the linguistic sign differentiated the sign both from mere acoustic'things'... and from mental processes", that in this development "new roads were thereby opened not only for linguistics, but in the future, for the theory of literature".

Ruqaiya Hasan argued that "the impact of Saussure’s theory of the linguistic sign has been such that modern linguists and their theories have since been positioned by reference to him: they are known as pre-Saussurean, anti-Saussurean, post-Saussurean, or non-Saussure". Saussure was born in Geneva in 1857, his father was Henri Louis Frédéric de Saussure, a mineralogist and taxonomist. Saussure showed signs of considerable talent and intellectual ability as early as the age of fourteen. In the autumn of 1870, he began attending the Institution Martine, in Geneva. There he lived with the family of Elie David. Graduating at the top of class, Saussure expected to continue his studies at the Gymnase de Genève, but his father decided he was not mature enough at fourteen and a half, sent him to the Collège de Genève instead. Saussure was not pleased, as he complained: "I entered the Collège de Genève, to waste a year there as as a year can be wasted."After a year of studying Latin, Ancient Greek and Sanskrit and taking a variety of courses at the University of Geneva, he commenced graduate work at the University of Leipzig in 1876.

Two years at 21, Saussure published a book entitled Mémoire sur le système primitif des voyelles dans les langues indo-européennes. After this he studied for a year at the University of Berlin under the Privatdozent Heinrich Zimmer, with whom he studied Celtic, Hermann Oldenberg with whom he continued his studies of Sanskrit, he returned to Leipzig to defend his doctoral dissertation De l'emploi du génitif absolu en Sanscrit, was awarded his doctorate in February 1880. Soon, he relocated to the University of Paris, where he lectured on Sanskrit and Old High German and other subjects. Ferdinand de Saussure is one of the world's most quoted linguists, remarkable as he himself hardly published anything during his lifetime, his few scientific articles are not unproblematic. Thus, for example, his publication on Lithuanian phonetics is grosso modo taken from studies by the Lithuanian researcher Friedrich Kurschat, with whom Saussure traveled through Lithuania in August 1880 for two weeks, whose books Saussure had read.

Saussure, who had studied some basic grammar of Lithuanian in Leipzig for one semester but was unable to speak the language, was thus dependent on Kurschat. Saussure taught at the École pratique des hautes études for eleven years during which he was named Chevalier de la Légion d'Honneur; when offered a professorship in Geneva in 1892, he returned to Switzerland. Saussure lectured on Sanskrit and Indo-European at the University of Geneva for the remainder of his life, it was not until 1907 that Saussure began teaching the Course of General Linguistics, which he would offer three times, ending in the summer of 1911. He died in 1913 in Vufflens-le-Château, Switzerland, his brothers were the linguist and Esperantist René de Saussure, scholar of ancient Chinese astronomy, Léopold de Saussure. In turn, his son was the psychoanalyst Raymond de Saussure. Saussure attempted, at various times in the 1880s and 1890s, to write a book on general linguistic matters, his lectures about important principles of language description in Geneva between 1907 and 1911 were collected and published by his pupils posthumously in the famous Cours de linguistique générale in 1916.

Some of his manuscripts, including an unfinished essay discovered in 1996, were published in Writings in General Linguistics, but most of the material in it had been published in Engler's critical edition of the Course, in 1967 and 1974. It is questionable to what extent the Cours itself can be traced back to Saussure alone. Studies have shown that at least the current version and its content are more to have the so-called editors Charles Bally and Albert Sèchehaye as their source than Saussure himself. Saussure's theoretical reconstructions of the Proto-Indo-European language vocalic system and his theory of laryngeals, otherwise unattested at the time, bore fruit and found confirmation after the decipherment of Hittite in the work of generations of linguists such as Émile Benveniste and Walter Couvreur, who both drew direct inspiration from their reading of the 1878 Mémoire. Saussure had a major impact on the development of linguistic theory in the first half of the 20th century, his two currents of thought emerged independently of each other, one in Europe, the other in America.

The results of each incorporated the ba

Mary Gilmore and the history of Wagga Wagga

The poet and writer Mary Gilmore grew up in the Wagga Wagga district of New South Wales in the 1860s and 1870s, a period of profound social and ecological change in southern New South Wales. During these decades, closer settlement legislation and the arrival of the Great Southern Railway sparked a dramatic intensification of agricultural development in the Wagga district. Town growth and the arrival of farming families displaced Wiradjuri survivors of violence and disease from station camps and waterways. Through her father Donald Cameron, who held the Wiradjuri people in great regard, from her own experiences, Mary learned much about the ways that Wiradjuri thought and lived, she recorded her childhood memories of the Wagga district. Gilmore's memories are worth exploring at length, as they offer a rare and valuable insight into early Wagga history. Mary Gilmore suggested that the name'Wagga Wagga', given to the area by Wiradjuri people, was associated with the methods used by Wiradjuri to maintain the ecological well-being and natural abundance of the land.

Crows abounded in the area, she explained, because of the many bird eggs and chicks on which the crows could feast: Wagga Wagga means the meeting-place of the crows. The locality was the breeding-ground of birds of all kinds. Food abounded on land and in the water eggs were plentiful, the crows fared well. So did the eagles, some of which were of great size; the abundance of eggs and chicks was the result of strategies developed by Wiradjuri to tend the land. Like other Aboriginal groups across Australia, Wiradjuri clans reserved places where no hunting, gathering, or burning was allowed; the sites held special social significance. Animals and plants flourished inside the sacred refuges, spreading beyond sanctuary boundaries to replenish populations available for hunting and gathering. Mary Gilmore told how Wiradjuri applied sanctuary laws to protect and nurture animals and plants: All billabongs and marshes were treated as food reserves and supply depots by the natives; the bird whose name was given to a place bred.

The same with plants and animals. Thus storage never failed. According to Gilmore, Wiradjuri reserved Parkan Pregan lagoon on the Murrumbidgee River floodplain at North Wagga for pelicans and cranes. Pregan Island, a grassy space between the lagoon and the river, was reserved for the'guriban', or bush-stone Curlew. Sanctuary regulations fostered vast populations of various species; as a child, Gilmore heard thunder in a cloudless sky. She remembered running terrified to her mother: And she would tell me it was swans in the distance beating their wings as they readied for flight. On I learned to recognise the sound, to listen to it unafraid. Graziers thought. Reeds polluted by the birds repelled cattle from drinking places; as livestock ate feathers trapped in grass, feather-balls gathered inside their stomachs killing them. Concentrated populations of swans, Gilmore noted, enriched the soil and boosted its productivity. Squatters didn’t recognise or value the ecological offerings of the swans, rejected Wiradjuri sanctuary regulations in brutal style.

Mary Gilmore wrote of ‘the swan-hoppers’: Their work was to hop the swans off the nests in the breeding-season, smash the eggs. It was filthy work; the old cattle town of Wagga Wagga once had its swan-hoppers on all the stations round about. In the final decades of the nineteenth century, as farmland spread and settlement intensified, Wiradjuri could no longer enforce sanctuary law or maintain established ways of engaging with country; the natural productivity and bounty of land and river systems declined. Though fewer people now lived beside the Murrumbidgee River and freshwater lobsters became scarce, Mary Gilmore told: I do not remember in just what year it was, but the chief of the tribe at Wagga Wagga in talking to my father, said that, white settlement increasing along the river, it was not only fished in by the settlers, but fished in season and out, so that the breeding-stocks were diminishing as well as the grown fish which the blacks’ laws allowed them to take for sustenance; when Mary Gilmore first knew Parkan Pregan lagoon beside the Murrumbidgee at North Wagga, it was covered with pelicans, duck and swans.

When I first went to the Wagga Wagga school, as we trudged in from Brucedale Road, where I remembered clouds of them there were seventy only forty twenty four, there were no pelicans at all. The swans went. Wiradjuri complained with bitterness to Donald Cameron, Mary Gilmore's father, about the destruction of native animal populations by settlers. Cameron acted, he argued for the maintenance of Wiradjuri sanctuaries on Deepwater and Ganmain stations, to the west of Wagga, ‘to be held as such in perpetuity for the people.’ Cameron and several other Wagga men tried to enforce the wide boundaries of an emu sanctuary on Eunonyhareenyha station, northeast of Wagga. The Wiradjuri placename ‘Eunonyhareenyha’, according to Mary Gilmore, meant ‘the breeding place of the emus’. For a short while, the men convinced people not to shoot emus on Eunonyhareenyha, or to hunt there with dogs at nesting time; when Donald Cameron counted the once numerous emu flock inside the sanc

Best of Bizzle

"Best of Bizzle" is a compilation album by grime MC, Lethal Bizzle. It was released on February 2011 for digital download; the album features artists such as Mr Hudson, Donae'o, Dizzee Rascal, Kate Nash and Mark Ronson - along with Lethal Bizzle's fellow grime artists. The first single off the album, "Pow 2011", was released on February 6, 2011; the album consists of 27 songs. Bizzle had revealed. In an interview in early 2011, Bizzle said: "I'm working on my fourth album, which should be out in the summer. I'm doing a Bizzle compilation, gonna be out in February, again just like tracks from the whole last ten years, like a little celebration thing for the fans, they can get that. It's called The Best Of Bizzle. So yeah, I've got this album I'm working on. I'm trying to do a real, kinda like movie album. Like the Pow video - the second record is gonna be a continuation of the video and so forth. So there's gonna be another three singles that I'm gonna be dropping." The first single, Pow 2011, released on February 6, 2011 for digital download and features JME, Chipmunk, Face, P Money, Ghetts & Kano.

It is a re-make of Bizzle's hit single Pow!. Bizzle revealed that he plans on releasing three more singles from the album - and the second single's video would continue from Pow 2011's. Previous singles that have been released and are on the album are. Adapted from