Chieti is a city and comune in Southern Italy,200 kilometres east by northeast of Rome. It is the capital of the province of Chieti in the Abruzzo region, Chieti lies on a crest along the Pescara River a few kilometres away from the Adriatic Sea, and with the Maiella and Gran Sasso mountains in the background. In Italian, the form is teatino and inhabitants of Chieti are called teatini. The English form of name is preserved in that of the Theatines. Chieti is amongst the most ancient of Italian cities, according to mythological legends, the city was founded in 1181 B. C. by the Homeric Greek hero Achilles and was named in honor of his mother, Thetis. As Theate Marrucinorum, Chieti was the town of the warlike Marrucini. According to Strabo, it was founded by the Arcadians as Thegeate, after the Marrucini were defeated by the Romans, they became loyal allies of the more powerful forces. Their territory was placed under Roman municipal jurisdiction after the Social War, in imperial times, Chietis population reached 60,000 inhabitants but, after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, it was destroyed by Visigoths and Heruli.
Later it was seat of a gastaldate under the Lombard kings, after its destruction by Peppin, it became a fief of the Duchy of Benevento. Chieti recovered some political and economic importance under the Norman rule of Southern Italy, after a cultural and architectural flourishing during the 17th century, under the aegis of the Counter-Reformation, Chieti was decimated by fatalities from plague in 1656. In the 18th century, several new academies and schools were developed here, in 1806 Chieti was turned into a fortress by Napoleons France. In 1860 it became part of the newly created Kingdom of Italy, during World War II, Chieti was declared an open city and was not bombed by either side. It was the site of an infamous POW Camp for British, the city at this time welcomed many refugees from the near towns and villages. Allied forces liberated the city on June 9,1944, one day after the Germans left the city, the Gothic Cathedral, re-built by bishop Attone I in 1069. Of that building only parts of the Romanesque crypt remain, the church was remade in the 14th century and the bell tower was enlarged.
After several earthquakes, the church was again in the late 17th–18th centuries in Baroque style. Oratory of Sacro Monte dei Morti Church of San Francesco al Corso, the façade shows an incomplete Baroque restoration. Pietro e Paolo and the houses are extensive substructures of the 1st century CE, belonging to a building erected by M. Vectius Marcellus
Sir William Petty FRS was an English economist and philosopher. He first became prominent serving Oliver Cromwell and Commonwealth in Ireland and he developed efficient methods to survey the land that was to be confiscated and given to Cromwells soldiers. He managed to remain prominent under King Charles II and King James II and he was Member of the Parliament of England briefly and was a scientist and entrepreneur, and was a charter member of the Royal Society. He was the great-grandfather of Prime Minister William Petty Fitzmaurice, 2nd Earl of Shelburne, Petty was a founder member of The Royal Society. He was born and buried in Romsey, and was a friend of Samuel Pepys, Petty is best known for economic history and statistic writings, pre-Adam Smith. Of particular interest were Pettys forays into statistical analysis, Pettys work in political arithmetic, along with the work of John Graunt, laid the foundation for modern census techniques. Moreover, this work in analysis, when further expanded by writers like Josiah Child documented some of the first expositions of modern insurance.
Vernon Louis Parrington notes him as an expositor of the labour theory of value as discussed in Treatise of Taxes in 1692. In 1858 Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, 3rd Marquess of Lansdowne, one of Pettys descendants erected a memorial and his grave slab on the floor of the south choir aisle reads HERE LAYES SIR WILLIAM PETY. Pettys father and grandfather were clothiers and he was a precocious and intelligent youngster, and became a cabin boy in 1637, but was set ashore in Normandy after breaking his leg on board. After this setback, he applied in Latin to study with the Jesuits in Caen, after a year, he returned to England, and had by now a thorough knowledge of Latin, French and astronomy. After an uneventful period in the Navy, he left to study in Holland in 1643, through an English professor in Amsterdam, he became the personal secretary to Hobbes allowing him contact with Descartes and Mersenne. In 1646, he returned to England and, after developing an instrument with little success in sales. He befriended Hartlib and Boyle, and he became a member of the Oxford Philosophical Club, by 1651, Petty was an anatomy instructor at Brasenose College, Oxford, as deputy to Thomas Clayton the younger.
He was Gresham Professor of Music in London, in 1652, he left on a leave of absence and travelled with Oliver Cromwells army in Ireland, as physician-general. His opposition to conventional universities, being committed to new science as inspired by Francis Bacon and imparted by his afore-mentioned acquaintances and he was pulled to Ireland perhaps by sense of ambition and desire for wealth and power. This enormous task he completed in 1656 and became known as the Down Survey, as his reward, he acquired approximately 30,000 acres in Kenmare, in southwest Ireland, and £9000. This personal gain to Petty led to persistent court cases on charges of bribery and breach of trust, back in England, as a Cromwellian supporter, he ran successfully for Parliament in 1659 for West Looe
An economist is a practitioner in the social science discipline of economics. The individual may study and apply theories and concepts from economics and write about economic policy. A generally accepted interpretation in academia is that an economist is one who has attained a Ph. D. in economics, teaches economic science, the professionalization of economics, reflected in academia, has been described as the main change in economics since around 1900. Economists debate the path they believe their profession should take, surveys among economists indicate a preference for a shift toward the latter. Most major universities have a faculty, school or department. However, many prominent economists come from a background in mathematics, political science, sociology, getting a PhD in economics takes six years, on average, with a median of 5.3 years. The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics, established by Sveriges Riksbank in 1968, is a prize awarded to each year for outstanding intellectual contributions in the field of economics.
The prize winners are announced in October every year and they receive their awards on December 10, the anniversary of Alfred Nobels death. In contrast to regulated professions such as engineering, law or medicine, in academia, to be called an economist requires a Ph. D. degree in Economics. A professional working inside of one of many fields of economics or having a degree in this subject is often considered to be an economist. In addition to government and academia, economists are employed in banking, accountancy, marketing, business administration, lobbying. Politicians often consult economists before enacting economic policy, many statesmen have academic degrees in economics. Economics graduates are employable in varying degrees depending on the regional economic scenario, small numbers go on to undertake postgraduate studies, either in economics, teacher training or further qualifications in specialist areas. Nearly 135 colleges and universities grant around 900 new Ph. D. s every year, incomes are highest for those in the private sector, followed by the federal government, with academia paying the lowest incomes.
As of January 2013, PayScale. com showed Ph. D. economists salary ranges as follows, all Ph. D. economists, $61,000 to $160,000, Ph. D. The largest single grouping of economists in the UK are the more than 1000 members of the Government Economic Service. This figure compares very favourably with the picture, with 64 percent of economics graduates in employment. Some current well-known economists include, Ben Bernanke, Chairman of the Federal Reserve from 2006 to 2014, milton Friedman, Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences laureate in Economics
He began his career as a classical philologist before turning to philosophy. He became the youngest ever to hold the Chair of Classical Philology at the University of Basel in 1869, Nietzsche resigned in 1879 due to health problems that plagued him most of his life, and he completed much of his core writing in the following decade. In 1889, at age 44, he suffered a collapse and he lived his remaining years in the care of his mother, and with his sister Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche, and died in 1900. Nietzsches body of work touched widely on art, history, tragedy and science, and drew inspiration from figures such as Schopenhauer, Wagner. His writing spans philosophical polemics, cultural criticism, and fiction while displaying a fondness for aphorism, born on 15 October 1844, Nietzsche grew up in the small town of Röcken, near Leipzig, in the Prussian Province of Saxony. He was named after King Frederick William IV of Prussia, who turned forty-nine on the day of Nietzsches birth, Nietzsches parents, Carl Ludwig Nietzsche, a Lutheran pastor and former teacher, and Franziska Oehler, married in 1843, the year before their sons birth.
They had two children, a daughter, Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche, born in 1846, and a second son, Ludwig Joseph. Nietzsches father died from an ailment in 1849, Ludwig Joseph died six months later. The family moved to Naumburg, where they lived with Nietzsches maternal grandmother, after the death of Nietzsches grandmother in 1856, the family moved into their own house, now Nietzsche-Haus, a museum and Nietzsche study centre. Nietzsche attended a school and then, later, a private school, where he became friends with Gustav Krug, Rudolf Wagner. In 1854, he began to attend Domgymnasium in Naumburg, because his father had worked for the state the now-fatherless Nietzsche was offered a scholarship to study at the internationally recognized Schulpforta. He transferred and studied there from 1858 to 1864, becoming friends with Paul Deussen and he found time to work on poems and musical compositions. Nietzsche led Germania, a music and literature club, during his summers in Naumburg. His end-of-semester exams in March 1864 showed a 1 in Religion and German, a 2a in Greek and Latin, a 2b in French and Physics, while at Pforta, Nietzsche had a penchant for pursuing subjects that were considered unbecoming.
The teacher who corrected the essay gave it a mark but commented that Nietzsche should concern himself in the future with healthier, more lucid. After graduation in September 1864, Nietzsche commenced studies in theology, for a short time he and Deussen became members of the Burschenschaft Frankonia. After one semester, he stopped his studies and lost his faith. In June 1865, at the age of 20, Nietzsche wrote to his sister Elisabeth, who was deeply religious, a letter regarding his loss of faith
Bernardo Tanucci was an Italian statesman, who brought enlightened government to the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies for Charles III and his son Ferdinand IV. Born of a family in Stia, near Arezzo, Tanucci was educated, thanks to a patron. Tanucci was appointed a professor of law there in 1725 and attracted attention by his defence of the authenticity of the Codex Pisanus of the Pandects of Justinian. In Naples Charles appointed him at first councillor of state, superintendent of posts, minister of justice in 1752, foreign minister in 1754 and finally prime minister and a marquis. These reforns were sanctioned in a Concordat signed with the Papacy in 1741, for the reform of the laws Tanucci instituted a commission of learned jurists with instructions to create a new legal code, the Codice Caroline, which was, not put into force. In foreign affairs, Tanucci kept Naples out of wars and entanglements, royal assent was required for the publication in Naples of papal bulls and concessions were no longer considered eternal.
The status of Naples as a fief, dating from the time of the Hohenstaufen, was denied. Appeals to Rome were forbidden without the royal permission, marriage was declared a civil contract. The protests of the bishops against many of the new teachings in the schools after the expulsion of the Jesuits were dismissed as invalid and his policy in finance and in regard to the food taxes provoked popular revolutions on several occasions. When, in 1774, Maria Carolina of Austria, the Hapsburg queen of Ferdinand IV, joined the Council of State, in vain he endeavored to neutralize the queens influence, but in 1777 he was dismissed and retired. He died in Naples in 1783, catholic Encyclopedia, Tanucci, a very severe review
Rome is a special comune and the capital of Italy. Rome serves as the capital of the Lazio region, with 2,873,598 residents in 1,285 km2, it is the countrys largest and most populated comune and fourth-most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the center of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4.3 million residents, the city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio, along the shores of the Tiber. Romes history spans more than 2,500 years, while Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at only around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied sites in Europe. The citys early population originated from a mix of Latins, Etruscans and it was first called The Eternal City by the Roman poet Tibullus in the 1st century BC, and the expression was taken up by Ovid and Livy. Rome is called the Caput Mundi, due to that, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, and the birthplace of both the Baroque style and Neoclassicism.
Famous artists, painters and architects made Rome the centre of their activity, in 1871 Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, and in 1946 that of the Italian Republic. Rome has the status of a global city, Rome ranked in 2014 as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, and the most popular tourist attraction in Italy. Its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site and museums such as the Vatican Museums and the Colosseum are among the worlds most visited tourist destinations with both locations receiving millions of tourists a year. Rome hosted the 1960 Summer Olympics and is the seat of United Nations Food, however, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was actually derived from Rome itself. As early as the 4th century, there have been alternate theories proposed on the origin of the name Roma. There is archaeological evidence of occupation of the Rome area from approximately 14,000 years ago. Evidence of stone tools and stone weapons attest to about 10,000 years of human presence, several excavations support the view that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built above the area of the future Roman Forum.
Between the end of the age and the beginning of the Iron age. However, none of them had yet an urban quality, there is a wide consensus that the city was gradually born through the aggregation of several villages around the largest one, placed above the Palatine. All these happenings, which according to the excavations took place more or less around the mid of the 8th century BC. Despite recent excavations at the Palatine hill, the view that Rome has been indeed founded with an act of will as the legend suggests in the middle of the 8th century BC remains a fringe hypothesis. Traditional stories handed down by the ancient Romans themselves explain the earliest history of their city in terms of legend and myth
Jean-Baptiste Colbert was a French politician who served as the Minister of Finances of France from 1665 to 1683 under the rule of King Louis XIV. His relentless hard work and thrift made him an esteemed minister and he achieved a reputation for his work of improving the state of French manufacturing and bringing the economy back from the brink of bankruptcy. Historians note that, despite Colberts efforts, France actually became increasingly impoverished because of the Kings excessive spending on wars, Colbert worked to create a favourable balance of trade and increase Frances colonial holdings. He founded royal tapestry works at Gobelins and supported those at Beauvais, Colbert worked to develop the domestic economy by raising tariffs and by encouraging major public works projects. Colbert worked to ensure that the French East India Company had access to markets, so that they could always obtain coffee, dyewoods, pepper. In addition, Colbert founded the French merchant marine, Colbert issued more than 150 edicts to regulate the guilds.
One such law had the intention of improving the quality of cloth, the edict declared that if the authorities found a merchants cloth unsatisfactory on three separate occasions, they were to tie him to a post with the cloth attached to him. Colberts father and grandfather operated as merchants in his birthplace of Reims and he claimed to have Scottish ancestry. A general belief exists that he spent his youth at a Jesuit college, working for a Parisian banker. Before the age of 20, Colbert had a post in the war office, Colbert spent some time as an inspector of troops, eventually becoming the personal secretary of Le Tellier. In 1647, through means, Colbert acquired the confiscated goods of an uncle. In 1648, he and his wife Marie Charron, received 40,000 crowns from an unknown source, in 1657, he purchased the Barony of Seignelay. Colbert was recommended to King Louis XIV by Mazarin, while Cardinal Mazarin was in exile, Louis trust in Colbert grew. In 1652 Colbert was asked to manage the affairs of the Cardinal while he was away and this new responsibility would detach Colbert from his other responsibility as commissaire des guerres.
Although Colbert was not a supporter of Mazarin in principle, he would defend the cardinals interests with unflagging devotion. Colberts earliest recorded attempt at tax reform came in the form of a mémoire to Mazarin, showing that of the taxes paid by the people, the paper contained an attack upon the Superintendent Fouquet. The postmaster of Paris, a spy of Fouquets, read the letter, in 1661, Mazarin died and Colbert made sure of the Kings favour by revealing the location of some of Mazarins hidden wealth. In short, Colbert acquired power in every department except that of war, a great financial and fiscal reform at once claimed all his energies
Sir Josiah Child, 1st Baronet was an English merchant and politician. He was an economist proponent of mercantilism and governor of the East India Company, Child was born in about 1630 and baptised in 1631, the second son of Richard Child, a merchant of Fleet Street, and Elizabeth Roycroft of Weston Wick, Shropshire. He amassed a fortune, and became a considerable stock-holder in the East India Company. In 1659, he was elected Member of Parliament for Petersfield in the Third Protectorate Parliament and he was elected MP for Dartmouth in 1673 in a by-election to the Cavalier Parliament. Child purchased Wanstead House in Essex in 1673 from the executors of Sir Robert Brooke and this merchant most sordidly avaricious etc. According to Daniel Defoe Child added innumerable rows of trees and vistas to the house, all leading up to the place where the old house stood, Child was created Baronet Child of Wanstead in the County of Essex, in 1678. In 1685 he was elected MP for Ludlow and he served as High Sheriff of Essex in 1689.
He was appointed a Director in 1677, rising to Deputy-Governor, in this latter capacity he directed the Companys policy as if it were his own private business. Child lost the war with Aurangzeb, 6th Mughul Emperor, that took place between 1688 and 1690, however, did not take any punitive action against the company and restored its trading privileges. For a massive indemnity and promises of better conduct in the future, he agreed to the restoration of their trading privileges. Child contributed to the literature of economics, especially Brief Observations concerning Trade and the Interest of Money, and A New Discourse of Trade. He was a moderate in those days of the mercantile system and this low rate of interest he thought should be created and maintained by public authority. Child married firstly, Hannah Boate, daughter of Edward Boate, on 26 December 1654 at Portsmouth, Hampshire, by whom he had one surviving child, Elizabeth married John Howland Streatham and their daughter Elizabeth married the Duke of Bedford.
Child married secondly, c.14 June 1663, Mary Atwood, daughter of William Atwood, by whom he had Rebecca and his heir Josiah Child, 2nd Baronet. Child married thirdly, c.8 August 1676, Emma Barnard daughter of Sir Henry Barnard, by whom he had Richard Child, Child died on 22 June 1699, and was buried at Wanstead, Essex. His will dated 22 February 1696 was proved on 6 July 1699, History of England, vol. iv
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world