Pope Clement VIII
Not to be confused with Antipope Clement VIII. Pope Clement VIII, born Ippolito Aldobrandini, was Pope from 2 February 1592 to his death in 1605, born into prominent Florentine family, he initially came to prominence as a canon lawyer before being made a Cardinal-Priest in 1585. In 1592 he was elected Pope and took the name of Clement and he successfully adjudicated in a bitter dispute between the Dominicans and the Jesuits on the issue of efficacious grace and free will. In 1600 he presided over a jubilee which saw a number of pilgrimages to Rome. He showed little pity for his opponents, presiding over the trial and execution of Giordano Bruno. He may have been the first pope to drink coffee, Clement VIII died at the age of 69 in 1605 and his remains now rest in the Santa Maria Maggiore. He was from a Florentine family, and followed his father as a lawyer, becoming an Auditor of the Roman Rota. He was only ordained as a priest at the age of 45 and he was an effective, if sometimes ruthless, administrator.
He was made Cardinal-Priest of S. Pancrazio in 1585 by Pope Gregory XIII, Pope Sixtus V named him major penitentiary in January 1586 and in 1588 sent him as legate in Poland. He placed himself under the direction of the reformer Philip Neri, Aldobrandini won the gratitude of the Habsburgs by his successful diplomatic efforts in Poland to obtain the release of the imprisoned Archduke Maximilian, the defeated claimant to the Polish throne. After the death of Pope Innocent IX, another stormy conclave ensued, cardinal Aldobrandinis election on 30 January 1592, was received as a portent of more balanced and liberal Papal policy in European affairs. He took the non-politicised name Clement VIII, in 1611 and again in 1625 a decree prohibited any discussion of the matter, although it was often informally avoided by the publication of commentaries on Thomas Aquinas. During the jubilee of 1600, three million pilgrims visited the holy places, the Synod of Brest was held 1595 in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, by which a great part of the Ruthenian clergy and people were reunited to Rome.
Clement VIII canonised Hyacinth, Julian of Cuenca, and Raymond of Peñafort, henry embraced Catholicism on 25 July 1593. Facilitated by the Pope, a treaty of alliance was signed in Prague by Emperor Rudolf II, aron Vodă of Moldavia and Michael the Brave of Wallachia joined the alliance that year. Clement VIII himself lent the Emperor valuable assistance in men and money, Clement VIII was as vigorous as Pope Sixtus V in crushing banditry in the papal provinces of Umbria and the Marche and in punishing the lawlessness of the Roman nobility. Upon his ascension to the throne in 1592, he immediately had several noble troublemakers put to death. The latter case prompted many requests of clemency – rejected by the Pope, clements strict ways concerned philosophical and religious matters
A dowry is a transfer of parental property at the marriage of a daughter. Dowry contrasts with the concepts of bride price and dower. Similarly, dower is the property settled on the bride herself, by the groom at the time of marriage, Dowry is an ancient custom, and its existence may well predate records of it. Dowries continue to be expected, and demanded as a condition to accept a proposal, in some parts of the world, mainly in parts of Asia, Northern Africa. In some parts of the world, disputes related to dowry sometimes result in acts of violence against women, including killings, the custom of dowry is most common in cultures that are strongly patrilineal and that expect women to reside with or near their husbands family. Dowries have a history in Europe, South Asia, Africa. A dowry is the transfer of property to a daughter at her marriage rather than at the owners death. A dowry establishes a type of fund, the nature of which may vary widely. This fund may provide an element of security in widowhood or against a negligent husband.
Dowries may go toward establishing a marital household, and therefore might include such as linens. This practice differs from the majority of Sub-Saharan African societies that practice homogenous inheritance in which property is transmitted only to children of the same sex as the property holder. These latter African societies are characterized by the transmission of the bride price, drawing on the work of Ester Boserup, Goody notes that the sexual division of labour varies in intensive plough agriculture and extensive shifting horticulture. In sparsely populated regions where shifting cultivation takes place, most of the work is done by women and these are the societies that give brideprice. Boserup further associates shifting horticulture with the practice of polygamy, in plough agriculture farming is largely mens work, this is where dowry is given. In contrast, plough agriculture is associated with property and marriage tends to be monogamous. Close family are the preferred marriage partners so as to property within the group.
There is a debate on Goodys theory. She notes that Goodys is a model in which these historical variables may not be the decisive factors today
The Arno is a river in the Tuscany region of Italy. It is the most important river of central Italy after the Tiber, the river originates on Mount Falterona in the Casentino area of the Apennines, and initially takes a southward curve. The river turns to the west near Arezzo passing through Florence and Pisa, with a length of 241 kilometres, it is the largest river in the region. It has many tributaries, Sieve at 60 kilometres long, Bisenzio at 49 kilometres, and the Era, Pesa, the Val di Chiana, a plain drained in the 18th century, which until had been a marshy area tributary of the Tiber. The upper Valdarno, a valley bordered on the east by the Pratomagno massif. The Sieves basin, which flows into the Arno immediately before Florence, the middle Valdarno, with the plain including Florence, Sesto Fiorentino and Pistoia. The lower Valdarno, with the valley of important tributaries such as the Pesa and Era and in which, after Pontedera, the Arno flows into the Ligurian Sea. The river has a variable discharge, ranging from about 6 cubic metres per second to more than 2,000 cubic metres per second.
The mouth of the river was once near Pisa but is now several kilometres westwards and it crosses Florence, where it passes below the Ponte Vecchio and the Santa Trìnita bridge. The flow rate of the Arno is irregular and it is sometimes described as having a torrentlike behaviour, because it can easily go from almost dry to near flood in a few days. At the point where the Arno leaves the Apennines, flow measurements can vary between 0.56 and 3,540 cubic metres per second, new dams built upstream of Florence have greatly alleviated the problem in recent years. The flood on November 4,1966, collapsed the embankment in Florence, killing at least 40 people and damaging or destroying millions of works of art, new conservation techniques were inspired by the disaster, but even decades hundreds of works still await restoration. The philologist Hans Krahe related this toponym on a paleo-European basis *Ar-n-, derived from the Proto-Indo-European root *er-, move
Christina of Lorraine
Christina of Lorraine or Christine de Lorraine was a member of the House of Lorraine and was the Grand Duchess of Tuscany by marriage. She served as Regent of Tuscany jointly with her daughter-in-law during the minority of her grandson from 1621, born Christine de Lorraine in Nancy, she was the daughter of Charles III of Lorraine and his wife Claude of Valois, and granddaughter of Catherine de Medici. She was named after her grandmother, Christina of Denmark. In 1587 Francesco I de Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany died without a male heir. Seeking a marriage that would preserve his independence, Ferdinando chose his distant cousin, Christine of Lorraine. Catherine had influenced her towards this marriage, to re-align the Medici with France, the sumptuous and well-documented wedding festivities, celebrated in Florence in 1589, were designed to impress the royal houses of Europe. Altogether the wedding spectacles cost approximately fourteen million pounds in today’s currency and these lavish and innovative forms of entertainment proved to be more than showmanship.
They greatly influenced theatrical practices in European courts throughout the 17th century, galileo wrote his Letter to Grand Duchess Christina, expounding on the relationship between science and revelation, in 1615. Her son Cosimo II died in 1621, leaving his ten-year-old son Ferdinando as grand duke and her daughter-in-law, Maria Maddalena of Austria, acted as regents until the boy came of age. Their collective regency is known as the Tutrici, Christinas temperament was analogous to Maria Maddalenas. Together, they aligned Tuscany with the Papacy and re-doubled the Tuscan clergy, in 1626, they banned any Tuscan subject from being educated outside the Grand Duchy, a law resurrected by Christinas great grandson, Cosimo III. Harold Acton ascribes the decline of Tuscany to their regency, the Dowager Grand Duchesses sent Ferdinando on a tour of Europe in 1627. Maria Maddalena died in 1631, one year before her son took over the reins of government, Christina of Lorraine died in Florence at the age of 72.
Cosimo II de Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany married Maria Maddalena of Austria and had issue, caterina de Medici married Ferdinando Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua, Governor of Siena, Francesco de Medici died unmarried. Maria Maddalena de Medici died unmarried, claudia de Medici married Federico della Rovere and had issue Leopold V, Archduke of Austria and had issue
Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany
Francesco I was the second Grand Duke of Tuscany, ruling from 1574 until his death in 1587. He was the grand duke of the house of Medici. Born in Florence, he was the son of Cosimo I de Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany and Eleanor of Toledo, by all reports, it was not a happy marriage. Joanna was homesick for her native Austria, and Francesco was neither charming nor faithful, Joanna died at the age of thirty one in 1578. Soon after the Grand Duchess Joanna had died, Francesco went on to marry his Venetian mistress, Bianca Cappello, after disposing of her husband. Because of the quick remarriage and similar occurrences among the Medici, rumours spread that Francesco, Francesco reportedly built and decorated Villa di Pratolino for Bianca. She was, not always popular among Florentines, Francesco adopted Biancas daughter by her first marriage, Pellegrina. Like his father, Francesco was often despotic, but while Cosimo had known how to maintain Florentine independence, Francesco acted more like a vassal of the Habsburgs of Austria and he continued the heavy taxation of his subjects to pay large sums to the empire.
He had an amateurs interest in manufacturing and sciences and he founded porcelain and stoneware manufacture, but these did not thrive until after his death. He continued his fathers patronage of the arts, supporting artists and Bianca died on 19 and 20 October both at the Medici Villa in Poggio a Caiano. Although the original death certificates mention malaria, it has been speculated that the couple was poisoned, possibly by Francescos brother. Investigations of Francescos facial hair that were found among his remains have detected low levels of arsenic, testing showed proof that support the theory of arsenic-poisoning. The same findings were detected in organs from Francesco and it is believed that Francesco and Bianca were given small doses of arsenic for several days until it killed them. But the doses were too small and given over a too short period of time to be detected in Francescos facial hair. In this way their symptoms, such as fever, stomach-cramps and vomiting, easily could be misinterpreted as some kind of infection, Francesco was succeeded by his younger brother, Ferdinando I de Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany.
In 1857, all members of the Medici family were exhumed and reburied in the place where they still lie today and these are the features of a right sided stroke possibly within the internal capsule. The presence of the orthopaedic footwear suggests that this stroke happened significantly before his death, during life, in his official portraits, the Grand Duke was always depicted as being in perfect physical condition. The cause of his stroke is not known but malaria is known to cause this condition There is a portrait of Francesco as a child by Bronzino
Eleanor of Toledo
She is credited with being the first modern first lady, or consort. She served as regent of Florence during the absence of her spouse, Eleanor was born in Alba de Tormes, Salamanca, as the second daughter of the Viceroy of Naples, Don Pedro Álvarez de Toledo, Marquis of Villafranca and Maria Osorio, 2nd Marquise of Villafranca. Her father was the son of Fadrique Álvarez de Toledo, 2nd Duke of Alba and therefore. Eleanor was remembered for her beauty, brunette with hazel eyes, eleonor was seen as an incredibly charming bride entering the Medici household. The Emperor, not wanting to antagonize Cosimo, offered him one of the daughters of the viceroy of Naples. The viceroy agreed, provided Cosimo settled a large amount of money on her as dowry and this marriage was politically beneficial as the Medici were new to their ducal status. Eleanor married Cosimo I de’ Medici in the spring of 1539 at seventeen years of age, Eleanor was married by proxy on 29 March 1539, and set sail from Naples,11 June, accompanied by her brother Garcia with seven galleys following.
They arrived at Livorno on the morning of June 22 and that same morning, Eleonora left for Pisa and halfway through, met Cosimo. After a short stay in Pisa, the couple left for Florence. July 29 marked the entrance of Eleonora from the Porta al Prato to the church of San Lorenzo for the official wedding, in a grand. Eleanor and Cosimo had a long and peaceful married life, Cosimo was faithful to Eleanor throughout their married life. Both were religious and led their lives accordingly, the ducal couple served as an example of a traditional couple, which served to strengthen Cosimos various reforms and separate him from association with the former Duke. Eleanor and Cosimo had eleven children, including five sons who reached maturity, two of her sons and Ferdinando, reigned as grand Dukes of Tuscany. The last of the old Medici line, Alessandro bequeathed to the Medici name a legacy and reputation of sex, alessandros distantly related successor, Cosimo I, needed to reassure the public of the stability and respectability of not only his family, but the new reign.
During her marriage, despite her initial unpopularity as a Spaniard, she gained great influence in Florence, a pious woman, she encouraged the Jesuit order to settle in Florence, she founded many new churches in the city. Eleanor was interested in agriculture and business and she supported unhesitatingly her husband and his policies, so much so that he consulted with her. So great was his trust in her that in his frequent absences he made her regent, a station which established her position as more than just a pretty bearer of Medici children. As a consequence, it known that Eleanor was the key to her husband
Henry III of France
Henry III was a monarch of the House of Valois who was elected the monarch of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1573 to 1575 and ruled as King of France from 1574 until his death. He was the last French monarch of the Valois dynasty, as the fourth son of King Henry II of France and Catherine de Medici, Henry was not expected to assume the throne of France. He was thus a candidate for the vacant Commonwealth throne. Henrys rule over Commonwealth was brief, but notable, the Henrician Articles he signed into law accepting the Commonwealth throne established Poland as an elective monarchy subject to free election by the Polish nobility. Of his three brothers, two would live long enough to ascend the French throne, but both died young and without a legitimate male heir. He abandoned Commonwealth upon receiving word that he had inherited the throne of France at the age of 22, Henry III was himself a politique, arguing that a strong and religiously tolerant monarchy would save France from collapse.
Henry IIIs legitimate heir was his distant cousin Henry, King of Navarre, the Catholic League, led by Henry I, Duke of Guise, sought to exclude Protestants from the succession and championed the Catholic Charles, Cardinal of Bourbon, as Henry IIIs heir. Henry was born at the royal Château de Fontainebleau, the son of King Henry II and Catherine de Medici and grandson of Francis I of France. His older brothers were Francis II of France, Charles IX of France and he was made Duke of Angoulême and Duke of Orléans in 1560, Duke of Anjou in 1566. He was his mothers favourite, she called him chers yeux and lavished fondness and his elder brother, grew to detest him, partially because he resented his better health. In his youth, Henry was considered the best of the sons of Catherine de Medici, unlike his father and elder brothers, he had little interest in the traditional Valois pastimes of hunting and physical exercise. Although he was fond of fencing and skilled in it, he preferred to indulge his tastes for the arts.
These predilections were attributed to his Italian mother, at one point in his youth he showed a tendency towards Protestantism as a means of rebelling. At the age of nine, calling himself a little Huguenot, he refused to attend Mass, sang Protestant psalms to his sister Margaret and his mother firmly cautioned her children against such behaviour, and he would never again show any Protestant tendencies. Instead, he became nominally Roman Catholic, reports that Henry engaged in same sex relations with his court favourites, known as the mignons, date back to his own time. Certainly he enjoyed relationships with them. The scholar Louis Crompton provides substantial contemporary evidence of Henry IIIs homosexuality, and it is difficult, he writes, to reconcile the king whose use of favourites is so logically strategic with the man who goes to pieces when one of them dies. In 1570, discussions commenced to arrange for Henry to court Queen Elizabeth I of England, almost 37, was expected by many parties in her country to marry and produce an heir
Pietro Tacca was an Italian sculptor, who was the chief pupil and follower of Giambologna. Tacca began in a Mannerist style and worked in the Baroque style during his maturity, born in Carrara, Tuscany, he joined Giambolognas atelier in 1592. Like his master he took advantage of the fashion among connoisseurs for table-top reductions of fine bronze sculptures. Louis XIV possessed Giambolognesque bronzes of Heracles and the Erymanthian Boar P. Torriti 1975
Catherine de' Medici
Catherine de Medici, daughter of Lorenzo II de Medici and of Madeleine de La Tour dAuvergne, was an Italian noblewoman who was Queen of France from 1547 until 1559, as the wife of King Henry II. As the mother of three sons who became kings of France during her lifetime, she had extensive, if at times varying, for a time, she ruled France as its regent. In 1533, at the age of fourteen, Caterina married Henry, second son of King Francis I, under the gallicised version of her name, Catherine de Médicis, she was Queen consort of France as the wife of King Henry II of France from 1547 to 1559. Throughout his reign, Henry excluded Catherine from participating in state affairs and instead showered favours on his mistress, Diane de Poitiers. Henrys death thrust Catherine into the arena as mother of the frail fifteen-year-old King Francis II. When he died in 1560, she became regent on behalf of her ten-year-old son King Charles IX and was granted sweeping powers, after Charles died in 1574, Catherine played a key role in the reign of her third son, Henry III.
He dispensed with her only in the last months of her life. Catherines three sons reigned in an age of almost constant civil and religious war in France, the problems facing the monarchy were complex and daunting but Catherine was able to keep the monarchy and the state institutions functioning even at a minimum level. At first, Catherine compromised and made concessions to the rebelling Protestants, or Huguenots and she failed, however, to grasp the theological issues that drove their movement. Later she resorted, in frustration and anger, to hard-line policies against them, some historians have excused Catherine from blame for the worst decisions of the crown, though evidence for her ruthlessness can be found in her letters. In practice, her authority was limited by the effects of the civil wars. Without Catherine, it is unlikely that her sons would have remained in power, the years in which they reigned have been called the age of Catherine de Medici. According to Mark Strage, one of her biographers, Catherine was the most powerful woman in sixteenth-century Europe.
Catherine was born on 13 April 1519 in Florence, Republic of Florence, the child of Lorenzo de Medici, Duke of Urbino, and his wife, Madeleine de la Tour dAuvergne. The young couple had married the year before at Amboise as part of the alliance between King Francis I of France and Lorenzos uncle Pope Leo X against the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I. According to a chronicler, when Catherine was born, her parents were as pleased as if it had been a boy. King Francis wanted Catherine to be raised at the French court, Catherine was first cared for by her paternal grandmother, Alfonsina Orsini. After Alfonsinas death in 1520, Catherine joined her cousins and was raised by her aunt, the death of Pope Leo in 1521 interrupted Medici power briefly, until Cardinal Giulio de Medici was elected Pope Clement VII in 1523
Cosimo II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany
Cosimo II de Medici was Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1609 until 1621. He was the son of the incumbent Grand Duke. He married Maria Magdalena of Austria, and had eight children, for the majority of his eleven-year reign, he delegated the administration of Tuscany to his ministers. He is best remembered as the patron of Galileo Galilei, his childhood tutor and he died of tuberculosis in 1621. Cosimo de Medici was the son of Ferdinando I de Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany. His father requisitioned a modern education for him, Galileo Galilei was Cosimos tutor between 1605 and 1608, Ferdinando arranged for him to marry Archduchess Maria Maddalena of Austria, daughter of Archduke Charles II, in 1608. Together they had eight children, among whom was Cosimos eventual successor, an Archduchess of Inner Austria, due to his precarious health, Cosimo did not actively participate in governing his realm. Just over a year after Cosimos accession, Galileo dedicated his Sidereus Nuncius, Galileo christened the moons of Jupiter the Medicean stars.
Galileos advocacy of Copernicanism led to his trial by the Roman Inquisition, the Grand Duke assiduously enlarged the navy. He died on 28 February 1621 from tuberculosis and he was succeeded by his elder son, Ferdinando. The child-Grand Dukes regency was bestowed upon Cosimo IIs wife and mother, Maria Cristina de Medici died unmarried, deformed or mentally retarded Ferdinando II de Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany who married Vittoria della Rovere and had issue. Gian Carlo de Medici died unmarried, margherita de Medici married Odoardo Farnese, Duke of Parma and had issue. Anna de Medici married Ferdinand Charles, Archduke of Austria and had issue and the Medici, Orion books, London,1977, ISBN 1-84212-456-0 Liedtke, Walter A. Flemish paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Ferdinando I de Medici Italian colonization of Americas Media related to Cosimo II de Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany at Wikimedia Commons
Opera is an art form in which singers and musicians perform a dramatic work combining text and musical score, usually in a theatrical setting. In traditional opera, singers do two types of singing, recitative, a style and arias, a more melodic style. Opera incorporates many of the elements of theatre, such as acting, scenery. The performance is given in an opera house, accompanied by an orchestra or smaller musical ensemble. Opera is a key part of the Western classical music tradition, in the 18th century, Italian opera continued to dominate most of Europe, attracting foreign composers such as George Frideric Handel. Opera seria was the most prestigious form of Italian opera, until Christoph Willibald Gluck reacted against its artificiality with his operas in the 1760s. The first third of the 19th century saw the point of the bel canto style, with Gioachino Rossini, Gaetano Donizetti. It saw the advent of Grand Opera typified by the works of Auber and Meyerbeer, the mid-to-late 19th century was a golden age of opera and dominated by Richard Wagner in Germany and Giuseppe Verdi in Italy.
The popularity of opera continued through the era in Italy and contemporary French opera through to Giacomo Puccini. During the 19th century, parallel operatic traditions emerged in central and eastern Europe, the 20th century saw many experiments with modern styles, such as atonality and serialism and Minimalism. With the rise of recording technology, singers such as Enrico Caruso, since the invention of radio and television, operas were performed on these mediums. Beginning in 2006, a number of opera houses began to present live high-definition video transmissions of their performances in cinemas all over the world. In 2009, an opera company offered a download of a complete performance. The words of an opera are known as the libretto, some composers, notably Wagner, have written their own libretti, others have worked in close collaboration with their librettists, e. g. Mozart with Lorenzo Da Ponte. Vocal duets and other ensembles often occur, and choruses are used to comment on the action, in some forms of opera, such as singspiel, opéra comique and semi-opera, the recitative is mostly replaced by spoken dialogue.
Melodic or semi-melodic passages occurring in the midst of, or instead of, the terminology of the various kinds of operatic voices is described in detail below. Over the 18th century, arias were accompanied by the orchestra. Subsequent composers have tended to follow Wagners example, though some, the changing role of the orchestra in opera is described in more detail below