Great Australian Bight Marine National Park
Great Australian Bight Marine National Park is a marine protected area in the Australian state of South Australia located 918 km west of the state capital of Adelaide. The national park was proclaimed under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 by the South Australian Government on 26 September 1996 principally to protect the calving waters of the Southern right whale and the Australian sea lion populations, it consists of two sections occupying the ocean adjoining the coastline up to a distance of 3 nautical miles and extending from the Western Australia border in the west to a locality known as the Tchalingaby Sandhills in the east. The gap between the two sections is a protected area known as the Great Australian Bight Marine Park Whale Sanctuary, proclaimed on 22 June 1995 under the Fisheries Act 1982; the national park is part of the group of marine protected areas which are located together in waters within Australian and South Australian jurisdictions within the Great Australian Bight and, collectively known as the Great Australian Bight Marine Park.
Since late 2012, the national park and the whale sanctuary have been within the boundaries of the Far West Coast Marine Park. The national park is classified as an IUCN category II protected area. Great Australian Bight Marine Park Great Australian Bight Marine Park Entry for Great Australian Bight Marine National Park on protected planet
Mount Remarkable National Park
Mount Remarkable National Park is a protected area in the Australian state of South Australia located about 238 kilometres north of the state capital of Adelaide and 25 kilometres east of Port Augusta. It is the name of the highest peak in the Park, with a height of 960 metres; the Park consists of three separate areas. The first is the parcel of land located west of the town of Melrose and consists of three areas: the Warren Bonython Link, Mambray Creek and Mount Remarkable; this block occupies 165.83 km2. The second parcel of land is known as the Telowie block and has an area of 0.35 km2. It is located on the west side of the Telowie Gorge Conservation Park about 7.5 km east of the town of Port Germein and about 24 km south of the block located at Melrose. The third parcel of land is known as the Napperby block, it consists of 16.72 km2 and is located east of the town of Napperby, about 4 km south of the Telowie Gorge Conservation Park and about 12 km north-east of the city of Port Pirie. The Park is classified as an IUCN Category VI protected area.
Land associated with the Park at Mambray Creek and Alligator Gorge first obtained protected area status in 1952 as'national pleasure resorts' declared under the National Pleasure Resorts Act 1914. They were managed by the South Australian Government Tourist Bureau from 1952 to 1967. In 1964, the National Parks Commission submitted a proposal to the Government of South Australia for "comprehensive national parks" covering an area larger than that of the existing national pleasure resorts; this resulted in the creation of three separate reserves - the Alligator Gorge Wildlife Reserve, the Mambray Creek Wildlife Reserve and the Mount Remarkable Wildlife Reserve, that were constituted in July 1965, September 1967 and March 1966. In 1972, the three wildlife reserves were re-proclaimed under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 as the Mount Remarkable National Park. Since 1972, the Park is reported as doubling in size from an area of 8,236 ha by the addition of land including the Black Range Lookout and the Bluff in 1976 and by the addition of an "area west of Alligator Gorge containing The Battery", two parts of the Willowie Forest Reserve, the Napperby Block in 1993.
In 2000, further land was added to the Park, subsequently named "The Warren Bonython Link" in honour of Warren Bonython’s "long personal interest in the area" and "his association with the National Parks Foundation". The Park now has a total area of 18,271 ha. Protected areas of South Australia Alligator Gorge "Mount Remarkable National Park Management Plan". Department for Environment and Heritage. 2006. Retrieved 3 September 2015. "Mount Remarkable National Park Management Plan Amendment 2013". Department for Environment Water and Natural Resources. 2013. Retrieved 3 September 2015. "Protected Areas Information System - reserve list". Department of Environment Water and Natural Resources. 2015. Retrieved 3 August 2015. Mount Remarkable National Park official webpage Friends of Mount Remarkable National Park official website Mount Remarkable National Park webpage on protected planet
Belair National Park
Belair National Park is a protected area located at Belair in South Australia, 13 kilometres south of Adelaide city centre and which covers an area of 835 hectares. It was proclaimed in 1891 and was the first national park in South Australia, second in Australia and the tenth in the world; the national park lies within the Adelaide Hills and Mitcham council area, forms part of a chain of protected areas located along the Adelaide Hills Face Zone. The national park is administered by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources; the Belair National Park has excellent recreation and social facilities within an outdoor environment. There are many areas of interest within the park, including Old Government House, the Nursery, Playford Lake and the Adventure Playground, it has numerous tennis courts and ovals, has walking and horse-riding trails. The national park has an outstanding presentation of the State's native fauna, attracting visitors, showcasing the State's park system and contributing to the community awareness of the natural environment.
Some species of fauna encountered in the national park include the southern brown bandicoot, tawny frogmouth, brown tree frog ( and shingleback lizard. For most of its existence, it has been known as the'National Park'. Between the years 1972 and 1991 it was known as the'Belair Recreation Park'. In 1991, the Belair Recreation Park was abolished and the land that it occupied was constituted as a national park and given the name “Belair National Park”; the first European to settle on the land now known as Belair National Park was one Nicholas Foott, who squatted there rent-free in his "Manning cottage", to which he had added several stone out-buildings, on the understanding he would have to move if the land were sold. In July 1840 he was given notice to quit, as Governor Gawler had decided to set up a farm there to grow hay for police horses and other Government livestock, the Government formally took over 800 acres, plus a considerable portion of unsurveyed land, making a total of 2,148 acres.
Foott was awarded ₤300 for his improvements. John McLaren was appointed superintendent of the farm. Governor Grey arrived in May 1841, with a remit to cut Government expenditure and raise revenue, announced in the Gazette of 15 July of the intended sale by auction of the land. This, did not take place, in the depression of 1841–1842 a dozen or so unemployed men and their families were allowed to settle there temporarily. In June 1844, four sections at the western end totalling about 400 acres were sold. In 1848 a cottage, long since demolished, was erected alongside the creek as a residence for the farm manager, for occasional use by the Governor. In 1858 a residence, complete with swimming pool, was built as a "summer house" for the Governor, Sir Richard MacDonnell, used by his successors Sir Anthony Musgrave, Sir William Jervois, at least until the more imposing edifice at Marble Hill was completed. From 1874 to 1884 the Government Farm was managed by father of Edith Agnes Cook, his eldest daughter Katherine wrote an article on that period of the farm's history for the South Australian Archives.
His predecessor was Ebenezer Jarvis, who left to take a post as manager of Government House, Adelaide. Two great bushfires occurred during their time. Proposals in 1881 to sell off parts of small portions of the land were opposed by Walter Gooch, James Page and the Australian Natives Association, which led in 1883 to an Act of Parliament prohibiting its sale. In 1888 further agitation by Gooch, Arthur Falconer Robin and Samuel Dixon of the Royal Society of South Australia led to a parliamentary decision that the Government Farm be established as a public park, after some delays the National Park Act received the Governor's assent in January 1892. Another person given partial credit was William Henry Selway of the Field Naturalists' Section of the Royal Society. In 1985, the Belair National Park was declared as a state heritage area under the South Australian Heritage Act 1978-1980. In 1987, the nearby National Park railway station was closed; the first European people traversed the Belair area in 1837.
In 1840, Governor Gawler raised a government farm on which sick horses and bullocks from government departments could be agisted. In 1881, a proposal was put forward for small agricultural holdings and the national park was dedicated, making it the first National Park in South Australia. Many exotic and non-indigenous plants are now found in the park as weeds. Numerous native plants, such as Cootamundra wattle, have become environmental weeds after being introduced into areas outside their natural range; the Belair National Park has suffered major disturbance to its natural ecosystems and natural vegetation communities through the accidental invasion of non-indigenous plants as well as the deliberate introduction of exotic and non-indigenous plants to certain zones within the park. Wood Duck DawdleA short circuit around Playford Lake. Lorikeet Loop WalkA 3 km circuit walk from the main car park to the Adventure Playground. Valley Loop WalkA 3 km circuit walk to Long Gully. Microcarpa WalkA 4 km circuit departing from near Playford Lake.
Waterfall HikeThe national park's best walk. A 6.5 km circuit that visits the park's waterfalls and travels to the higher areas away from the recreation areas
South Australia is a state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers some of the most arid parts of the country. With a total land area of 983,482 square kilometres, it is the fourth-largest of Australia's states and territories by area, fifth largest by population, it has a total of 1.7 million people, its population is the second most centralised in Australia, after Western Australia, with more than 77 percent of South Australians living in the capital, Adelaide, or its environs. Other population centres in the state are small. South Australia shares borders with all of the other mainland states, with the Northern Territory; the state comprises less than 8 percent of the Australian population and ranks fifth in population among the six states and two territories. The majority of its people reside in greater Metropolitan Adelaide. Most of the remainder are settled in fertile areas along River Murray; the state's colonial origins are unique in Australia as a settled, planned British province, rather than as a convict settlement.
Colonial government commenced on 28 December 1836, when the members of the council were sworn in near the Old Gum Tree. As with the rest of the continent, the region had been long occupied by Aboriginal peoples, who were organised into numerous tribes and languages; the South Australian Company established a temporary settlement at Kingscote, Kangaroo Island, on 26 July 1836, five months before Adelaide was founded. The guiding principle behind settlement was that of systematic colonisation, a theory espoused by Edward Gibbon Wakefield, employed by the New Zealand Company; the goal was to establish the province as a centre of civilisation for free immigrants, promising civil liberties and religious tolerance. Although its history is marked by economic hardship, South Australia has remained politically innovative and culturally vibrant. Today, it is known for numerous cultural festivals; the state's economy is dominated by the agricultural and mining industries. Evidence of human activity in South Australia dates back as far as 20,000 years, with flint mining activity and rock art in the Koonalda Cave on the Nullarbor Plain.
In addition wooden spears and tools were made in an area now covered in peat bog in the South East. Kangaroo Island was inhabited; the first recorded European sighting of the South Australian coast was in 1627 when the Dutch ship the Gulden Zeepaert, captained by François Thijssen and mapped a section of the coastline as far east as the Nuyts Archipelago. Thijssen named the whole of the country eastward of the Leeuwin "Nuyts Land", after a distinguished passenger on board; the coastline of South Australia was first mapped by Matthew Flinders and Nicolas Baudin in 1802, excepting the inlet named the Port Adelaide River, first discovered in 1831 by Captain Collet Barker and accurately charted in 1836–37 by Colonel William Light, leader of the South Australian Colonization Commissioners"First Expedition' and first Surveyor-General of South Australia. The land which now forms the state of South Australia was claimed for Britain in 1788 as part of the colony of New South Wales. Although the new colony included two-thirds of the continent, early settlements were all on the eastern coast and only a few intrepid explorers ventured this far west.
It took more than forty years before any serious proposal to establish settlements in the south-western portion of New South Wales were put forward. On 15 August 1834, the British Parliament passed the South Australia Act 1834, which empowered His Majesty to erect and establish a province or provinces in southern Australia; the act stated that the land between 132° and 141° east longitude and from 26° south latitude to the southern ocean would be allotted to the colony, it would be convict-free. In contrast to the rest of Australia, terra nullius did not apply to the new province; the Letters Patent, which used the enabling provisions of the South Australia Act 1834 to fix the boundaries of the Province of South Australia, provided that "nothing in those our Letters Patent shall affect or be construed to affect the rights of any Aboriginal Natives of the said Province to the actual occupation and enjoyment in their own Persons or in the Persons of their Descendants of any Lands therein now occupied or enjoyed by such Natives."
Although the patent guaranteed land rights under force of law for the indigenous inhabitants it was ignored by the South Australian Company authorities and squatters. Survey was required before settlement of the province, the Colonization Commissioners for South Australia appointed William Light as the leader of its'First Expedition', tasked with examining 1500 miles of the South Australian coastline and selecting the best site for the capital, with planning and surveying the site of the city into one-acre Town Sections and its surrounds into 134-acre Country Sections. Eager to commence the establishment of their whale and seal fisheries, the South Australian Company sought, obtained, the Commissioners' permission to send Company ships to South Australia, in advance of the surveys and ahead of the Commissioners' colonists; the Company's settlement of seven vessels and 636 people was temporarily made at Kingscote on Kangaroo Island, until
Bakara Conservation Park
Bakara Conservation Park is a protected area of mallee scrub in the Murray Mallee region of South Australia. It is located in the locality of Maggea on the southern side of the Stott Highway, its area was doubled in size in 2009 by the addition of the adjacent section of land to its north. The conservation park provides habitat for malleefowl, local landholders are involved in active fox and rabbit control in the park and nearby farmland, it is classified as an IUCN IUCN Category Ia protected area. Bakara Conservation Park webpage on protected planet
International Union for Conservation of Nature
The International Union for Conservation of Nature is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in data gathering and analysis, field projects and education. IUCN's mission is to "influence and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable". Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to sustainable development in its projects. Unlike many other international environmental organisations, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation, it tries to influence the actions of governments and other stakeholders by providing information and advice, through building partnerships. The organization is best known to the wider public for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, which assesses the conservation status of species worldwide.
IUCN has a membership of over 1400 non-governmental organizations. Some 16,000 scientists and experts participate in the work of IUCN commissions on a voluntary basis, it employs 1000 full-time staff in more than 50 countries. Its headquarters are in Switzerland. IUCN has observer and consultative status at the United Nations, plays a role in the implementation of several international conventions on nature conservation and biodiversity, it was involved in establishing the World Wide Fund for Nature and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. In the past, IUCN has been criticized for placing the interests of nature over those of indigenous peoples. In recent years, its closer relations with the business sector have caused controversy. IUCN was established in 1948, it was called the International Union for the Protection of Nature and the World Conservation Union. Establishment IUCN was established on 5 October 1948, in Fontainebleau, when representatives of governments and conservation organizations signed a formal act constituting the International Union for the Protection of Nature.
The initiative to set up the new organisation came from UNESCO and from its first Director General, the British biologist Julian Huxley. The objectives of the new Union were to encourage international cooperation in the protection of nature, to promote national and international action and to compile and distribute information. At the time of its founding IUPN was the only international organisation focusing on the entire spectrum of nature conservation Early years: 1948–1956 IUPN started out with 65 members, its secretariat was located in Brussels. Its first work program focused on saving species and habitats and applying knowledge, advancing education, promoting international agreements and promoting conservation. Providing a solid scientific base for conservation action was the heart of all activities. IUPN and UNESCO were associated, they jointly organized the 1949 Conference on Protection of Nature. In preparation for this conference a list of gravely endangered species was drawn up for the first time, a precursor of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
In the early years of its existence IUCN depended entirely on UNESCO funding and was forced to temporarily scale down activities when this ended unexpectedly in 1954. IUPN was successful in engaging prominent scientists and identifying important issues such as the harmful effects of pesticides on wildlife but not many of the ideas it developed were turned into action; this was caused by unwillingness to act on the part of governments, uncertainty about the IUPN mandate and lack of resources. In 1956, IUPN changed its name to International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Increased profile and recognition: 1956–1965 In the 1950s and 1960s Europe entered a period of economic growth and formal colonies became independent. Both developments had impact on the work of IUCN. Through the voluntary involvement of experts in its Commissions IUCN was able to get a lot of work done while still operating on a low budget, it established links with the Council of Europe. In 1961, at the request of United Nations Economic and Social Council, the United Nations Economic and Social Council, IUCN published the first global list of national parks and protected areas which it has updated since.
IUCN's best known publication, the Red Data Book on the conservation status of species, was first published in 1964. IUCN began to play a part in the development of international treaties and conventions, starting with the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Environmental law and policy making became a new area of expertise. Africa was the focus of many of the early IUCN conservation field projects. IUCN supported the ‘Yellowstone model’ of protected area management, which restricted human presence and activity in order to protect nature. IUCN and other conservation organisations were criticized for protecting nature against people rather than with people; this model was also applied in Africa and played a role in the decision to remove the Maasai people from Serengeti National Park and the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. To establish a stable financial basis for its work, IUCN participated in setting up the World Wildlife Fund