Ayrshire is a historic county and registration county in south-west Scotland, located on the shores of the Firth of Clyde. Its principal towns include Ayr and Irvine. Like many other counties of Scotland, it has no administrative function, instead being sub-divided into the council areas of North Ayrshire, South Ayrshire and East Ayrshire, it has a population of 366,800. The electoral and valuation area named Ayrshire covers the three council areas of South Ayrshire, East Ayrshire and North Ayrshire, therefore including the Isle of Arran, Great Cumbrae and Little Cumbrae; these three islands are part of the County of Bute and are sometimes included when the term Ayrshire is applied to the region. The same area is known as Arran in other contexts. Ayrshire is one of the most agriculturally fertile regions of Scotland. Potatoes are grown in fields near the coast, using seaweed-based fertiliser, in addition the region produces pork products, other root vegetables, cattle. Ayrshire shares with Dumfries and Galloway some rugged hill country known as the Galloway Hills.
These hills lie to the west of the A713 and they run south from the Loch Doon area to the Solway Firth. To the east of this route through the hills lie the Carsphairn and Scaur Hills which lie to the south east of Dalmellington and south of New Cumnock. Glen Afton runs deep into these hills. Glasgow Prestwick International Airport, serving Glasgow and the West of Scotland more is located 32 miles away from Glasgow in Ayrshire; the name Glasgow was added in front of Prestwick as per American military airport naming conventions, as the airport was in the past oft-used as a stopover by US military personnel on their way to and from military bases in Germany. Moreover, it is known in rock history as the only place in Britain visited by Elvis Presley, on his way home from army service in Germany in 1960; the area that today forms Ayrshire was part of the area south of the Antonine Wall, occupied by the Romans during the reign of Emperor Antoninus Pius. It was inhabited by the Damnonii, it formed part of the British Kingdom of Strathclyde, incorporated into the Kingdom of Scotland during the 11th century.
In 1263, the Scots drove off the Norwegian leidang-army in a skirmish known as the Battle of Largs. A notable historic building in Ayrshire is Turnberry Castle, which dates from the 13th century or earlier, which may have been the birthplace of Robert the Bruce; the historic shire or sheriffdom of Ayr was divided into three districts or bailieries which made up the county of Ayrshire. The three districts were: Carrick in the south, it was situated between the Doon and the wild district of Galloway in the adjoining Stewartries, an area, little else than a vast tract of hills and mosses. Kyle in the centre, which included the royal burgh of Ayr, occupied the central district between the River Irvine in the north, the River Doon in the south and south-west, an area, quite hilly inland, it was subdivided into "Kyle Stewart", "King's Kyle," the former embracing the country between the Irvine and the River Ayr. Cunninghame in the north which included the royal burgh of Irvine was that part of the county which lay north of the Irvine water, was in an area, level and fertile.
The area used to be industrialised, with steel making, coal mining and in Kilmarnock numerous examples of production-line manufacturing, most famously Johnnie Walker whisky. In more recent history, Digital Equipment had a large manufacturing plant near Ayr from about 1976 until the company was taken over by Compaq in 1998; some supplier companies grew up to service this site and the more distant IBM plant at Greenock in Renfrewshire. Scotland's aviation industry has long been based in and around Prestwick and its international airport, although aircraft manufacture ceased at the former British Aerospace plant in 1998, a significant number of aviation companies are still based on the Prestwick site. However, unemployment in the region is above the national average. Throughout the 17th century, huge numbers of people from Ayrshire moved to Ulster, the northern province in Ireland, as part of the Plantation of Ulster, many of them with surnames such as Burns, Morrow, Flanagan and Cunningham. Today, the Ulster Scots dialect is an offshoot of the version of Lowland Scots spoken in Ayrshire.
The Ulster Scots dialect is still spoken throughout County Antrim and in parts of County Down and County Londonderry, as well as still being spoken in West Tyrone and parts of County Donegal. The Local Government Act 1889 established a uniform system of county councils in Scotland and realigned the boundaries of many of Scotland's counties. Subsequently, Ayr county council was created in 1890. In 1930 the Local Government Act 1929 was implemented; this re-designated the Burghs into small burghs. This new categorisation influenced the level of autonomy that the Burghs enjoyed from the county council; the act abolished the parish as a unit of local government in Scotland. In Ayrshire in excess of 30 parishes were consolidated into ten district councils; the Di
House of Commons of the United Kingdom
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Like the upper house, the House of Lords, it meets in the Palace of Westminster; the full name of the house is the Honourable the Commons of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled. Owing to shortage of space, its office accommodation extends into Portcullis House; the Commons is an elected body consisting of 650 members known as Members of Parliament. Members are elected to represent constituencies by the first-past-the-post system and hold their seats until Parliament is dissolved; the House of Commons of England started to evolve in 14th centuries. It became the House of Commons of Great Britain after the political union with Scotland in 1707, assumed the title of "House of Commons of Great Britain and Ireland" after the political union with Ireland at the start of the 19th century; the "United Kingdom" referred to was the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 1800, became the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland after the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922.
Accordingly, the House of Commons assumed its current title. Under the Parliament Act 1911, the Lords' power to reject legislation was reduced to a delaying power; the Government is responsible to the House of Commons and the Prime Minister stays in office only as long as she or he retains the confidence of a majority of the Commons. Although it does not formally elect the prime minister, the position of the parties in the House of Commons is of overriding importance. By convention, the prime minister is answerable to, must maintain the support of, the House of Commons. Thus, whenever the office of prime minister falls vacant, the Sovereign appoints the person who has the support of the House, or, most to command the support of the House—normally the leader of the largest party in the Commons, while the leader of the second-largest party becomes the Leader of the Opposition. Since 1963, by convention, the prime minister is always a member of the House of Commons, rather than the House of Lords.
The Commons may indicate its lack of support for the Government by rejecting a motion of confidence or by passing a motion of no confidence. Confidence and no confidence motions are phrased explicitly, for instance: "That this House has no confidence in Her Majesty's Government." Many other motions were until recent decades considered confidence issues though not explicitly phrased as such: in particular, important bills that were part of the Government's agenda. The annual Budget is still considered a matter of confidence; when a Government has lost the confidence of the House of Commons, the prime minister is obliged either to resign, making way for another MP who can command confidence, or to request the monarch to dissolve Parliament, thereby precipitating a general election. Parliament sits for a maximum term of five years. Subject to that limit, the prime minister could choose the timing of the dissolution of parliament, with the permission of the Monarch. However, since the Fixed-Term Parliaments Act 2011, terms are now a fixed five years, an early general election is brought about by a two-thirds majority in favour of a motion for a dissolution, or by a vote of no confidence, not followed within fourteen days by a vote of confidence.
By this second mechanism, the UK's government can change its political composition without an intervening general election. Only four of the eight last Prime Ministers have attained office as the immediate result of a general election; the latter four were Jim Callaghan, John Major, Gordon Brown and the current Prime Minister Theresa May. In such circumstances there may not have been an internal party leadership election, as the new leader may be chosen by acclaim, having no electoral rival. A prime minister will resign after party defeat at an election if unable to lead a coalition, or obtain a confidence and supply arrangement, she or he may resign after a motion of no confidence or for health reasons. In such cases, the premiership goes to, it has become the practice to write the constitution of major UK political parties to provide a set way in which to appoint a new leader. Until 1965, the Conservative Party had no fixed mechanism for this, it fell to the Queen to appoint Harold Macmillan as the new prime minister, after taking the consensus of cabinet ministers.
By convention, ministers are members of the House of House of Lords. A handful have been appointed who were outside Parliament, but in most cases they entered Parliament in a by-election or by receiving a peerage. Exceptions include Peter Mandelson, appointed Secretary of State for Business and Regulatory Reform in October 2008 before his peerage. Since 1902, all prime ministers have been members of the Commons; the new session of Parliament was delayed to await the outcome of his by-election, which happened
Bernard Fergusson, Baron Ballantrae
Brigadier Bernard Edward Fergusson, Baron Ballantrae, was a British Army officer, a military historian and the last British-born Governor-General of New Zealand. Fergusson was born on 6 May 1911, the third son and fourth child of Sir Charles Fergusson, 7th Baronet and his wife Lady Alice Mary Boyle, a daughter of David Boyle, 7th Earl of Glasgow, his older brother was 8th Baronet of Kilkerran. Both his grandfathers had served as Governors of New Zealand and his father had served as Governor-General. Fergusson married Laura Margaret Grenfell on 22 November 1950 and they had one child, Hon George Duncan Raukawa Fergusson who served as British High Commissioner to New Zealand from 2006 to 2010 and Governor of Bermuda from 2012. Laura Grenfell was accidentally killed in 1979 when gales blew a tree onto the car in which she was travelling. Fergusson was educated at the Royal Military College, Sandhurst. From the latter, he was commissioned as a second lieutenant into the Black Watch on 27 August 1931.
He was promoted to lieutenant on 27 August 1934. He served with the 2nd Battalion of his regiment in the British Mandate of Palestine during the Arab revolt and became aide-de-camp to Major General Archibald Wavell General Officer Commanding of the 2nd Infantry Division in England, on 11 March 1937. In October 1937, he was on secondment to the Green Howards. Fergusson was promoted to captain on 27 August 1939, only a few days before the outbreak of the Second World War. In 1940, Fergusson was serving as a brigade major for the 46th Infantry Brigade before becoming a general staff officer in the Middle East. In October 1943 he was promoted to acting brigadier and given command of the 16th Infantry Brigade, converted into a Chindit formation for operations in the deep jungles of Burma miles behind Japanese lines, he commanded this brigade throughout the Chindit operations of 1944 before becoming Director of Combined Operations from 1945 to 1946. He ended the war as a major. After the war, he held various positions, including command of Black Watch.
In 1946, having failed his attempt to be elected to parliament, he returned to Palestine during the Palestine Emergency in the rank of a brigadier, was appointed to several positions in British Mandate of Palestine police and para-military forces. At first he served as the commander of the "Police Mobile Force", a police unit of 2,000 British soldiers, used as a strike force against the Jewish insurrection. By the end of 1946 the unit was disbanded, by the order of the Palestine Police commandant, Col. William Nicol Gray. Fergusson was appointed as the commander of a police school, supposed to be created in Jenin, but soon he was appointed by Gray to be "Special assistant to the commandant of police". Fergusson suggested to Gray, himself a former Royal Marine, that a special unit to fight Jewish insurrectionists be formed; this unit would include former soldiers. Gray accepted the idea and ordered the creation of two teams, whose members were chosen from Palestine policemen and ex-SAS soldiers.
One team would operate in Haifa and the north, while the second team would operate in the Jerusalem area. War hero Roy Farran was appointed as the commander of the second team. On 6 May 1947, Farran's unit arrested 16-year-old Alexander Rubowitz, putting up posters in Jerusalem for the Jewish underground organisation the Lehi. Rubowitz was taken by Farran's team, tortured to force him to surrender his friend's names; the boy did not survive the torture. His body was never found. Suspicions of Farran's involvement were first raised after a grey trilby hat, bearing an indistinct name compatible with his, was found near the street corner where Rubowitz was seen being pushed into a car. In 2004 British secret documents were revealed that included a statement by Fergusson, written at the time of the event, to the effect that Farran confessed to Fergusson of the murder. Fergusson reported the incident to Gray. Gray was reluctant to take action against Farran, believing he could use some information produced from Rubowitz by Farran to crack the Lehi in Jerusalem.
Gray believed. While Gray was on leave in England, the acting CID commandant, Arthur Giles, ordered an investigation into Farran's actions. Farran was convinced by Fergusson to return voluntarily, he escaped from custody and went to Jordan before again returning of his own accord. He was brought to trial in a British military court in Jerusalem. At Farran's trial, Fergusson refused to testify on the grounds; the Palestine government announced. After the trial, which ended with Farran's acquittal, Fergusson was relieved of his duties in Palestine and returned to Britain, he was brevetted to lieutenant-colonel on 1 July 1951, promoted to lieutenant-colonel on 5 March 1952 and promoted to colonel on 6 May 1952. He retired on 13 December 1958 with the honorary rank of brigadier. Gerald Templer was impressed by Fergusson's performance in the Malayan Emergency and during the Suez crisis he was put in charge of the psychological warfare component of Britain's plan to retake the Suez canal and overthrow Nasser.
Fergusson made plans for an extensive campaign of propaganda to accompany a ruthless use of air power against Alexandria. The plan employed was different and psychological warfare had little impact on Egyptian public opinion or morale. British propaganda radio station asserti
Sir Charles Fergusson, 7th Baronet
General Sir Charles Fergusson, 7th Baronet was a British Army officer and the third Governor-General of New Zealand. Charles was the son of Sir James Fergusson, 6th Baronet, the 6th Governor of New Zealand, he was educated at Eton College and the Royal Military College, before joining the Grenadier Guards in 1883. He served in Sudan from 1896 to 1898, becoming Commanding Officer of the 15th Sudanese Regiment in 1899 and Commander of the Omdurman District in 1900, he was made Adjutant General of the Egyptian Army 1901 and Commanding Officer of 3rd Bn Grenadier Guards in 1904 before becoming a Brigadier-General on the staff of the Irish Command in 1907. He was appointed Inspector of Infantry in 1909 and General Officer Commanding 5th Division in Ireland in 1913 – in this capacity he played a key role during the Curragh incident, ensuring his officers obeyed orders, he took the 5th Division to France in August 1914 at the start of the First World War and briefly took command of 9th Division from October to December 1914.
He commanded II Corps from January 1915 and from May 1916, XVII Corps which he led until the end of the war. After the war he was a Military Governor of Cologne before he retired in 1922. A year after an unsuccessful attempt to enter Parliament through the South Ayrshire constituency in the 1923 general election, Fergusson was appointed Governor-General of New Zealand and served until 1930, his father, Sir James Fergusson, had served as a Governor of New Zealand, his son Bernard Ballantrae was the tenth and last British-appointed Governor-General. On 20 June 1929 Fergusson was involved in a railway accident, following the 1929 Murchison earthquake. Attached to the rear of a train leaving the National Dairy Show at Palmerston North with 200 passengers on board, the Viceregal carriage contained the Governor-General and his wife and other members of the Viceregal party; the train hit a slip between Paekakariki and Pukerua Bay, with the locomotive falling down a steep bank and injuring the driver.
The first three carriages of the train left the rails, but the Viceregal carriage remained on the tracks, Fergusson and his party suffered only minor cuts and bruises. Fergusson married Lady Alice Mary Boyle on 18 July 1901, she was a daughter of 7th Earl of Glasgow. They had five children: Helen Dorothea Fergusson married 1925 Major Leonard Proby Haviland Sir James Fergusson of Kilkerran, 8th Bt The Reverend Simon Charles David Fergusson Brigadier Bernard Edward Fergusson, Baron Ballantrae, KT, GCMG, GCVO, DSO, OBE Charles Fergusson Fergusson was a Freemason. During his term as Governor-General, he was Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of New Zealand. After his term in New Zealand, he became chairman of the West Indies Closer Union Commission and was Lord Lieutenant of Ayrshire from 1937 until his death on 20 February 1951. Official biography
Earl of Glencairn
Earl of Glencairn was a title in the Peerage of Scotland. It was created in 1488 for Alexander Cunningham, 1st Lord Kilmaurs; the name was taken from the parish of Glencairn in Dumfriesshire so named for the Cairn Waters which run through it. On the death of the fifteenth earl in 1796, there existing no original Letters Patent of the creation nor a given remainder in the various confirmations in title of previous earls the title became dormant The earldom was claimed by Sir Adam Fergusson of Kilkerran, Bt. as heir of line of Alexander 10th, Earl of Glencairn and was opposed by Sir Walter Montgomery Cunningham of Corshill, Bt. as presumed heir male along with Lady Henriet Don, sister of the last earl, wife of Sir Alexander Don of Newton Don, Roxburghshire. The House of Lords Committee of Privileges on 14 July 1797, chaired by the Lord Chancellor, in deciding the claim of the first-named, took a view unfavourable to all the claimants, adjudged, that while Sir Adam Fergusson had shown himself to be the heir-general of Alexander, 10th Earl of Glencairn who died in 1670, he had not made out his right to the title.
However, the decision was criticised by the jurist John Riddell in the 19th century and by Sir Iain Moncreiffe of that Ilk, Officer of Arms, in the 20th.. Alexander Cunningham, 1st Earl of Glencairn Robert Cunningham, 2nd Earl of Glencairn, According to the Scottish Code of Heraldry, the titile, Earl of Glencairn passed from father, Alexander to his son Robert, upon his death, 11 June 1488, establishing Robert Cuninghame, the 2nd Earl of Glencairn. On 17 October 1488, at the behest of King James IV, Parliament passed the Act of Recissory, annulling all dignities granted by King James III after 2 February 1488; this Act deprived rights granted to the Earldom of Glencairn. In 1505 Parliament passed the Act Revocatory, on 13 August 1505 at the Wedding of King James IV to Princess Margaret of England the Earldom of Glencairn was restored upon Cuninghame Family of Kilmaurs. Cuthbert Cunningham, 3rd Earl of Glencairn William Cunningham, 4th Earl of Glencairn Alexander Cunningham, 5th Earl of Glencairn William Cunningham, 6th Earl of Glencairn James Cunningham, 7th Earl of Glencairn William Cunningham, 8th Earl of Glencairn William Cunningham, 9th Earl of Glencairn Alexander Cunningham, 10th Earl of Glencairn.
John Cunningham, 11th Earl of Glencairn succeeded his brother and matriculated the arms in 1672. William Cunningham, 12th Earl of Glencairn William Cunningham, 13th Earl of Glencairn James Cunningham, 14th Earl of Glencairn unmarried and died without issue. John Cunningham, 15th Earl of Glencairn died without issue. Cunynghame baronets Montgomery-Cuninghame baronets Douglas, Sir Robert, The Peerage of Scotland. Robertson, Topographical Description of Ayrshire. Brown, publisher, The Peerage of Scotland, Edinburgh, 1834, p. 88. Anderson, The Scottish Nation, vol.v, p. 310-314: Glencairn, Earl of
The Royal Navy is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were fought in the Hundred Years War against the Kingdom of France; the modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century. From the middle decades of the 17th century, through the 18th century, the Royal Navy vied with the Dutch Navy and with the French Navy for maritime supremacy. From the mid 18th century, it was the world's most powerful navy until surpassed by the United States Navy during the Second World War; the Royal Navy played a key part in establishing the British Empire as the unmatched world power during the 19th and first part of the 20th centuries. Due to this historical prominence, it is common among non-Britons, to refer to it as "the Royal Navy" without qualification. Following World War I, the Royal Navy was reduced in size, although at the onset of World War II it was still the world's largest.
By the end of the war, the United States Navy had emerged as the world's largest. During the Cold War, the Royal Navy transformed into a anti-submarine force, hunting for Soviet submarines and active in the GIUK gap. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, its focus has returned to expeditionary operations around the world and remains one of the world's foremost blue-water navies. However, 21st century reductions in naval spending have led to a personnel shortage and a reduction in the number of warships; the Royal Navy maintains a fleet of technologically sophisticated ships and submarines including two aircraft carriers, two amphibious transport docks, four ballistic missile submarines, six nuclear fleet submarines, six guided missile destroyers, 13 frigates, 13 mine-countermeasure vessels and 22 patrol vessels. As of November 2018, there are 74 commissioned ships in the Royal Navy, plus 12 ships of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary; the RFA replenishes Royal Navy warships at sea, augments the Royal Navy's amphibious warfare capabilities through its three Bay-class landing ship vessels.
It works as a force multiplier for the Royal Navy doing patrols that frigates used to do. The total displacement of the Royal Navy is 408,750 tonnes; the Royal Navy is part of Her Majesty's Naval Service, which includes the Royal Marines. The professional head of the Naval Service is the First Sea Lord, an admiral and member of the Defence Council of the United Kingdom; the Defence Council delegates management of the Naval Service to the Admiralty Board, chaired by the Secretary of State for Defence. The Royal Navy operates three bases in the United Kingdom; as the seaborne branch of HM Armed Forces, the RN has various roles. As it stands today, the RN has stated its 6 major roles as detailed below in umbrella terms. Preventing Conflict – On a global and regional level Providing Security At Sea – To ensure the stability of international trade at sea International Partnerships – To help cement the relationship with the United Kingdom's allies Maintaining a Readiness To Fight – To protect the United Kingdom's interests across the globe Protecting the Economy – To safe guard vital trade routes to guarantee the United Kingdom's and its allies' economic prosperity at sea Providing Humanitarian Aid – To deliver a fast and effective response to global catastrophes The strength of the fleet of the Kingdom of England was an important element in the kingdom's power in the 10th century.
At one point Aethelred II had an large fleet built by a national levy of one ship for every 310 hides of land, but it is uncertain whether this was a standard or exceptional model for raising fleets. During the period of Danish rule in the 11th century, the authorities maintained a standing fleet by taxation, this continued for a time under the restored English regime of Edward the Confessor, who commanded fleets in person. English naval power declined as a result of the Norman conquest. Following the Battle of Hastings, the Norman navy that brought over William the Conqueror disappeared from records due to William receiving all of those ships from feudal obligations or because of some sort of leasing agreement which lasted only for the duration of the enterprise. More troubling, is the fact that there is no evidence that William adopted or kept the Anglo-Saxon ship mustering system, known as the scipfryd. Hardly noted after 1066, it appears that the Normans let the scipfryd languish so that by 1086, when the Doomsday Book was completed, it had ceased to exist.
According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, in 1068, Harold Godwinson's sons Godwine and Edmund conducted a ‘raiding-ship army’ which came from Ireland, raiding across the region and to the townships of Bristol and Somerset. In the following year of 1069, they returned with a bigger fleet which they sailed up the River Taw before being beaten back by a local earl near Devon. However, this made explicitly clear that the newly conquered England under Norman rule, in effect, ceded the Irish Sea to the Irish, the Vikings of Dublin, other Norwegians. Besides ceding away the Irish Sea, the Normans ceded the North Sea, a major area where Nordic peoples traveled. In 1069, this lack of naval presence in the North Sea allowed for the invasion an
Conservative Party (UK)
The Conservative Party the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom. The governing party since 2010, it is the largest in the House of Commons, with 313 Members of Parliament, has 249 members of the House of Lords, 18 members of the European Parliament, 31 Members of the Scottish Parliament, 12 members of the Welsh Assembly, eight members of the London Assembly and 8,916 local councillors; the Conservative Party was founded in 1834 from the Tory Party—the Conservatives' colloquial name is "Tories"—and was one of two dominant political parties in the nineteenth century, along with the Liberal Party. Under Benjamin Disraeli it played a preeminent role in politics at the height of the British Empire. In 1912, the Liberal Unionist Party merged with the party to form the Conservative and Unionist Party. In the 1920s, the Labour Party surpassed the Liberals as the Conservatives' main rivals. Conservative Prime Ministers — notably Winston Churchill and Margaret Thatcher — led governments for 57 years of the twentieth century.
Positioned on the centre-right of British politics, the Conservative Party is ideologically conservative. Different factions have dominated the party at different times, including One Nation Conservatives and liberal conservatives, while its views and policies have changed throughout its history; the party has adopted liberal economic policies—favouring free market economics, limiting state regulation, pursuing privatisation—although in the past has supported protectionism. The party is British unionist, opposing both Irish reunification and Welsh and Scottish independence, supported the maintenance of the British Empire; the party includes those with differing views on the European Union, with Eurosceptic and pro-European wings. In foreign policy, it is for a strong national defence; the Conservatives are a member of the International Democrat Union and the Alliance of Conservatives and Reformists in Europe and sit with the European Conservatives and Reformists parliamentary group. The Scottish, Northern Irish and Gibraltan branches of the party are semi-autonomous.
Its support base consists of middle-class voters in rural areas of England, its domination of British politics throughout the twentieth century has led to it being referred to as one of the most successful political parties in the Western world. The Conservative Party was founded in the 1830s. However, some writers trace its origins to the reign of Charles II in the 1670s Exclusion Crisis. Other historians point to a faction, rooted in the 18th century Whig Party, that coalesced around William Pitt the Younger in the 1780s, they were known as "Independent Whigs", "Friends of Mr Pitt", or "Pittites" and never used terms such as "Tory" or "Conservative". Pitt died in 1806. From about 1812 on the name "Tory" was used for a new party that, according to historian Robert Blake, "are the ancestors of Conservatism". Blake adds that Pitt's successors after 1812 "were not in any sense standard-bearer's of true Toryism"; the term "Conservative" was suggested as a title for the party by a magazine article by J. Wilson Croker in the Quarterly Review in 1830.
The name caught on and was adopted under the aegis of Sir Robert Peel around 1834. Peel is acknowledged as the founder of the Conservative Party, which he created with the announcement of the Tamworth Manifesto; the term "Conservative Party" rather than Tory was the dominant usage by 1845. The widening of the electoral franchise in the nineteenth century forced the Conservative Party to popularise its approach under Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby and Benjamin Disraeli, who carried through their own expansion of the franchise with the Reform Act of 1867. In 1886, the party formed an alliance with Spencer Compton Cavendish, Lord Hartington and Joseph Chamberlain's new Liberal Unionist Party and, under the statesmen Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, Lord Salisbury and Arthur Balfour, held power for all but three of the following twenty years before suffering a heavy defeat in 1906 when it split over the issue of free trade. Young Winston Churchill denounced Chamberlain's attack on free trade, helped organize the opposition inside the Unionist/Conservative Party.
Balfour, as party leader, followed Chamberlain's policy introduced protectionist legislation. The high tariff element called itself "Tariff Reformers" and in a major speech in Manchester on May 13, 1904, Churchill warned their takeover of the Unionist/Conservative party would permanently brand it as: A party of great vested interests, banded together in a formidable confederation. Two weeks Churchill crossed the floor and formally joined the Liberal Party. )He rejoined the Conservatives in 1925.) In December, Balfour lost control of his party, as the defections multiplied. He was replaced by Liberal Prime Minister Henry Campbell-Bannerman who called an election in January 1906, which produced a massive Liberal victory with a gain of 214 seats. Liberal Prime Minister H. H. Asquith enacted a great deal of reform legislation, but the Unionists worked hard at grassroots organizing. Two general elections were held in one in January and one in December; the two main parties were now dead equal in seats.
The Unionists had more popular votes but the Liberals kept control with a coalition with the Irish Parliamentary Party. In 1912, the Liberal Unionis