France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Ivan Petrovich Pavlov was a Russian physiologist known for his work in classical conditioning. From his childhood days Pavlov demonstrated intellectual curiosity along with an unusual energy which he referred to as "the instinct for research". Inspired by the progressive ideas which D. I. Pisarev, the most eminent of the Russian literary critics of the 1860s, I. M. Sechenov, the father of Russian physiology, were spreading, Pavlov abandoned his religious career and devoted his life to science. In 1870, he enrolled in the physics and mathematics department at the University of Saint Petersburg in order to study natural science. Pavlov won the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1904, becoming the first Russian Nobel laureate. A survey in the Review of General Psychology, published in 2002, ranked Pavlov as the 24th most cited psychologist of the 20th century. Pavlov's principles of classical conditioning have been found to operate across a variety of behavior therapies and in experimental and clinical settings, such as educational classrooms and reducing phobias with systematic desensitization.
Ivan Pavlov, the eldest of eleven children, was born in Ryazan, Russian Empire. His father, Peter Dmitrievich Pavlov, was a village Russian orthodox priest, his mother, Varvara Ivanovna Uspenskaya, was a devoted homemaker. As a child, Pavlov willingly participated in house duties such as doing the dishes and taking care of his siblings, he loved to garden, ride his bicycle, row and play gorodki. Although able to read by the age of seven, Pavlov was injured when he fell from a high wall onto a stone pavement; as a result of the injuries he sustained he did not begin formal schooling until he was 11 years old. Pavlov attended the Ryazan church school before entering the local theological seminary. In 1870, however, he left the seminary without graduating in order to attend the university at St. Petersburg. There he took natural science courses. In his fourth year, his first research project on the physiology of the nerves of the pancreas won him a prestigious university award. In 1875, Pavlov completed his course with an outstanding record and received the degree of Candidate of Natural Sciences.
Impelled by his overwhelming interest in physiology, Pavlov decided to continue his studies and proceeded to the Imperial Academy of Medical Surgery. While at the Academy, Pavlov became an assistant to Elias von Cyon, he left the department. After some time, Pavlov obtained a position as a laboratory assistant to Konstantin Nikolaevich Ustimovich at the physiological department of the Veterinary Institute. For two years, Pavlov investigated the circulatory system for his medical dissertation. In 1878, Professor S. P. Botkin, a famous Russian clinician, invited the gifted young physiologist to work in the physiological laboratory as the clinic's chief. In 1879, Pavlov graduated from the Medical Military Academy with a gold medal award for his research work. After a competitive examination, Pavlov won a fellowship at the Academy for postgraduate work; the fellowship and his position as director of the Physiological Laboratory at Botkin's clinic enabled Pavlov to continue his research work. In 1883, he presented his doctor's thesis on the subject of The centrifugal nerves of the heart and posited the idea of nervism and the basic principles on the trophic function of the nervous system.
Additionally, his collaboration with the Botkin Clinic produced evidence of a basic pattern in the regulation of reflexes in the activity of circulatory organs. He was inspired to pursue a scientific career by D. I. Pisarev, a literary critique and natural science advocate of the time and I. M. Sechenov, a Russian physiologist, whom Pavlov described as'The father of physiology'. After completing his doctorate, Pavlov went to Germany where he studied in Leipzig with Carl Ludwig and Eimear Kelly in the Heidenhain laboratories in Breslau, he remained there from 1884 to 1886. Heidenhain was studying digestion in dogs. However, Pavlov perfected the technique by overcoming the problem of maintaining the external nerve supply; the exteriorized section became known as the Pavlov pouch. In 1886, Pavlov returned to Russia to look for a new position, his application for the chair of physiology at the University of Saint Petersburg was rejected. Pavlov was offered the chair of pharmacology at Tomsk University in Siberia and at the University of Warsaw in Poland.
He did not take up either post. In 1890, he was appointed the role of professor of Pharmacology at the Military Medical Academy and occupied the position for five years. In 1891, Pavlov was invited to the Imperial Institute of Experimental Medicine in St. Petersburg to organize and direct the Department of Physiology. Over a 45-year period, under his direction, the Institute became one of the most important centers of physiological research in the world. Pavlov continued to direct the Department of Physiology at the Institute, while taking up the chair of physiology at the Medical Military Academy in 1895. Pavlov would head the physiology department at the Academy continuously for three decades. Starting in 1901, Pavlov was nominated over four successive years for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, he did not win the prize until 1904 because his previous nominations were not specific to any discovery, but based on a variety of laboratory findings. When Pavlov received the Nobel Prize it was specified that he did so "in recognition of his work
National Diet Library
The National Diet Library is the national library of Japan and among the largest libraries in the world. It was established in 1948 for the purpose of assisting members of the National Diet of Japan in researching matters of public policy; the library is similar in scope to the United States Library of Congress. The National Diet Library consists of two main facilities in Tōkyō and Kyōtō, several other branch libraries throughout Japan; the National Diet Library is the successor of three separate libraries: the library of the House of Peers, the library of the House of Representatives, both of which were established at the creation of Japan's Imperial Diet in 1890. The Diet's power in prewar Japan was limited, its need for information was "correspondingly small"; the original Diet libraries "never developed either the collections or the services which might have made them vital adjuncts of genuinely responsible legislative activity". Until Japan's defeat, the executive had controlled all political documents, depriving the people and the Diet of access to vital information.
The U. S. occupation forces under General Douglas MacArthur deemed reform of the Diet library system to be an important part of the democratization of Japan after its defeat in World War II. In 1946, each house of the Diet formed its own National Diet Library Standing Committee. Hani Gorō, a Marxist historian, imprisoned during the war for thought crimes and had been elected to the House of Councillors after the war, spearheaded the reform efforts. Hani envisioned the new body as "both a'citadel of popular sovereignty'", the means of realizing a "peaceful revolution"; the Occupation officers responsible for overseeing library reforms reported that, although the Occupation was a catalyst for change, local initiative pre-existed the Occupation, the successful reforms were due to dedicated Japanese like Hani. The National Diet Library opened in June 1948 in the present-day State Guest-House with an initial collection of 100,000 volumes; the first Librarian of the Diet Library was the politician Tokujirō Kanamori.
The philosopher Masakazu Nakai served as the first Vice Librarian. In 1949, the NDL became the only national library in Japan. At this time the collection gained an additional million volumes housed in the former National Library in Ueno. In 1961, the NDL opened at its present location in Nagatachō, adjacent to the National Diet. In 1986, the NDL's Annex was completed to accommodate a combined total of 12 million books and periodicals; the Kansai-kan, which opened in October 2002 in the Kansai Science City, has a collection of 6 million items. In May 2002, the NDL opened a new branch, the International Library of Children's Literature, in the former building of the Imperial Library in Ueno; this branch contains some 400,000 items of children's literature from around the world. Though the NDL's original mandate was to be a research library for the National Diet, the general public is the largest consumer of the library's services. In the fiscal year ending March 2004, for example, the library reported more than 250,000 reference inquiries.
As Japan's national library, the NDL collects copies of all publications published in Japan. Moreover, because the NDL serves as a research library for Diet members, their staffs, the general public, it maintains an extensive collection of materials published in foreign languages on a wide range of topics; the NDL has eight major specialized collections: Modern Political and Constitutional History. The Modern Political and Constitutional History Collection comprises some 300,000 items related to Japan's political and legal modernization in the 19th century, including the original document archives of important Japanese statesmen from the latter half of the 19th century and the early 20th century like Itō Hirobumi, Iwakura Tomomi, Sanjō Sanetomi, Mutsu Munemitsu, Terauchi Masatake, other influential figures from the Meiji and Taishō periods; the NDL has an extensive microform collection of some 30 million pages of documents relating to the Occupation of Japan after World War II. This collection include the documents prepared by General Headquarters and the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, the Far Eastern Commission, the United States Strategic Bombing Survey Team.
The Laws and Preliminary Records Collection consists of some 170,000 Japanese and 200,000 foreign-language documents concerning proceedings of the National Diet and the legislatures of some 70 foreign countries, the official gazettes, judicial opinions, international treaties pertaining to some 150 foreign countries. The NDL maintains a collection of some 530,000 books and booklets and 2 million microform titles relating to the sciences; these materials include, among other things, foreign doctoral dissertations in the sciences, the proceedings and reports of academic societies, catalogues of technical standards, etc. The NDL has a collection of 440,000 maps of Japan and other countries, including the topographica
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Obstetrics is the field of study concentrated on pregnancy and the postpartum period. As a medical specialty, obstetrics is combined with gynecology under the discipline known as obstetrics and gynecology, a surgical field. Prenatal care is important in screening for various complications of pregnancy; this includes routine office visits with physical exams and routine lab tests: Complete blood count Blood type General antibody screen for HDN Rh D negative antenatal patients should receive RhoGam at 28 weeks to prevent Rh disease. Rapid plasma reagin to screen for syphilis Rubella antibody screen Hepatitis B surface antigen Gonorrhea and Chlamydia culture PPD for tuberculosis Pap smear Urinalysis and culture HIV screenGenetic screening for Down syndrome and trisomy 18, the national standard in the United States, is evolving away from the AFP-Quad screen for Down syndrome, done in the second trimester at 16–18 weeks; the newer integrated screen can be done at 10 plus weeks to 13 plus weeks with an ultrasound of the fetal neck and two chemicals PAPP-A and βHCG.
It gives an accurate risk profile early. A second blood screen at 15 to 20 weeks refines the risk more accurately; the cost is higher than an "AFP-quad" screen due to the ultrasound and second blood test, but it is quoted to have a 93% pick up rate as opposed to 88% for the standard AFP/QS. This is an evolving standard of care in the United States. MSAFP/quad. Screen – elevations, low numbers or odd patterns correlate with neural tube defect risk and increased risks of trisomy 18 or trisomy 21 Ultrasound either abdominal or transvaginal to assess cervix, placenta and baby Amniocentesis is the national standard for women over 35 or who reach 35 by mid pregnancy or who are at increased risk by family history or prior birth history. Hematocrit Group B Streptococcus screen. If positive, the woman receives IV penicillin or ampicillin while in labor—or, if she is allergic to penicillin, an alternative therapy, such as IV clindamycin or IV vancomycin. Glucose loading test – screens for gestational diabetes.
Most doctors do a sugar load in a drink form of 50 grams of glucose in cola, lime or orange and draw blood an hour later. The standard modified criteria have been lowered to 135 since the late 1980s. Obstetric ultrasonography is used for dating the gestational age of a pregnancy from the size of the fetus, determine the number of fetuses and placentae, evaluate for an ectopic pregnancy and first trimester bleeding, the most accurate dating being in first trimester before the growth of the foetus has been influenced by other factors. Ultrasound is used for detecting congenital anomalies and determining the biophysical profiles, which are easier to detect in the second trimester when the foetal structures are larger and more developed. Specialised ultrasound equipment can evaluate the blood flow velocity in the umbilical cord, looking to detect a decrease/absence/reversal or diastolic blood flow in the umbilical artery. X-rays and computerized tomography are not used in the first trimester, due to the ionizing radiation, which has teratogenic effects on the foetus.
No effects of magnetic resonance imaging on the foetus have been demonstrated, but this technique is too expensive for routine observation. Instead, obstetric ultrasonography is the imaging method of choice in the first trimester and throughout the pregnancy, because it emits no radiation, is portable, allows for realtime imaging; the safety of frequent ultrasound scanning has not be confirmed. Despite this, increasing numbers of women are choosing to have additional scans for no medical purpose, such as gender scans, 3D and 4D scans. A normal gestation would reveal a gestational sac, yolk sac, fetal pole; the gestational age can be assessed by evaluating the mean gestational sac diameter before week 6, the crown-rump length after week 6. Multiple gestation is evaluated by the number of placentae and amniotic sacs present. Other tools used for assessment include: Fetal screening is used to help assess the viability of the fetus, as well as congenital abnormalities. Fetal karyotype can be used for the screening of genetic diseases.
This can be obtained via amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling Foetal haematocrit for the assessment of foetal anemia, Rh isoimmunization, or hydrops can be determined by percutaneous umbilical blood sampling, done by placing a needle through the abdomen into the uterus and taking a portion of the umbilical cord. Fetal lung maturity is associated with. Reduced production of surfactant indicates decreased lung maturity and is a high risk factor for infant respiratory distress syndrome. A lecithin:sphingomyelin ratio greater than 1.5 is associated with increased lung maturity. Nonstress test for fetal heart rate Oxytocin challenge test A pregnant woman may have intercurrent diseases, that is, other diseases or conditions that may become worse or be a potential risk to the pregnancy. Diabetes mellitus and pregnancy deals with the interactions of diabetes mellitus and pregnanc
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
The cerebral cortex known as the cerebral mantle, is the outer layer of neural tissue of the cerebrum of the brain, in humans and other mammals. It is separated into two cortices, by the longitudinal fissure that divides the cerebrum into the left and right cerebral hemispheres; the two hemispheres are joined beneath the cortex by the corpus callosum. The cerebral cortex is the largest site of neural integration in the central nervous system, it plays a key role in memory, perception, thought and consciousness. In most mammals, apart from small mammals that have small brains, the cerebral cortex is folded, providing a greater surface area in the confined volume of the cranium. Apart from minimising brain and cranial volume cortical folding is crucial for the wiring of the brain and its functional organisation. In mammals with a small brain there is no folding and the cortex is smooth. A fold or ridge in the cortex is termed a gyrus and a groove is termed a sulcus; these surface convolutions appear during fetal development and continue to mature after birth through the process of gyrification.
In the human brain the majority of the cerebral cortex is not visible from the outside, but buried in the sulci, the insular cortex is hidden. The major sulci and gyri mark the divisions of the cerebrum into the lobes of the brain. There are between 16 billion neurons in the cerebral cortex; these are organised into cortical columns and minicolumns of neurons that make up the layers of the cortex. Most of the cerebral cortex consists of the six-layered neocortex. Cortical areas have specific functions; the cerebral cortex is the outer covering of the surfaces of the cerebral hemispheres and is folded into peaks called gyri, grooves called sulci. In the human brain it is between two and three or four millimetres thick, makes up 40 per cent of the brain's mass. There are between 14 and 16 billion neurons in the cortex, these are organized in cortical columns, minicolumns of the layers of the cortex. About two thirds of the cortical surface is buried in the sulci and the insular cortex is hidden; the cortex is thickest over thinnest at the bottom of a sulcus.
The cerebral cortex is folded in a way that allows a large surface area of neural tissue to fit within the confines of the neurocranium. When unfolded in the human, each hemispheric cortex has a total surface area of about 1.3 square feet. The folding is inward away from the surface of the brain, is present on the medial surface of each hemisphere within the longitudinal fissure. Most mammals have a cerebral cortex, convoluted with the peaks known as gyri and the troughs or grooves known as sulci; some small mammals including some small rodents have smooth cerebral surfaces without gyrification. The larger sulci and gyri mark the divisions of the cortex of the cerebrum into the lobes of the brain. There are four main lobes: the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe, occipital lobe; the insular cortex is included as the insular lobe. The limbic lobe is a rim of cortex on the medial side of each hemisphere and is often included. There are three lobules of the brain described: the paracentral lobule, the superior parietal lobule, the inferior parietal lobule.
For species of mammals, larger brains tend to have thicker cortices. The smallest mammals, such as shrews, have a neocortical thickness of about 0.5 mm. There is an logarithmic relationship between brain weight and cortical thickness. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain makes it possible to get a measure for the thickness of the human cerebral cortex and relate it to other measures; the thickness of different cortical areas varies but in general, sensory cortex is thinner than motor cortex. One study has found some positive association between the cortical intelligence. Another study has found that the somatosensory cortex is thicker in migraine sufferers, though it is not known if this is the result of migraine attacks or the cause of them. A study using a larger patient population reports no change in the cortical thickness in migraine sufferers. A genetic disorder of the cerebral cortex, whereby decreased folding in certain areas results in a microgyrus, where there are four layers instead of six, is in some instances seen to be related to dyslexia.
The six cortical layers of the neocortex each contain a characteristic distribution of different neurons and their connections with other cortical and subcortical regions. There are direct connections between different cortical areas and indirect connections via the thalamus. One of the clearest examples of cortical layering is the line of Gennari in the primary visual cortex; this is a band of whiter tissue that can be observed with the naked eye in the fundus of the calcarine sulcus of the occipital lobe. The line of Gennari is composed of axons bringing visual information from the thalamus into layer IV of the visual cortex. Staining cross-sections of the cortex to reveal the position of neuronal cell bodies and the intracortical axon tracts allowed neuroanatomists in the early 20th century to produce a detailed description of the laminar structure of the cortex in different species. After the work of Korbinian Brodmann the neurons of the cerebral cortex are grouped into six main layers, from the outer pial surface to the inner white matter.
Layer I is the molecular layer, contains few scattered neurons, including GABAergic rosehip neurons. Layer I consists of extensions of apical dendritic tufts of pyramidal neurons and horiz