Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Common names: Lataste's viper, snub-nosed viper, snub-nosed adder. Vipera latastei is a species of venomous snake in the subfamily Viperinae of the family Viperidae; the species is endemic to extreme southwestern northwestern Africa. Two subspecies are recognized, including the nominate subspecies described here; the specific name latastei, is in honor of Boscà's French colleague, herpetologist Fernand Lataste, who would a year return him the honor, by naming after him a discovery of his own, Boscá's newt. V. latastei grows to a maximum total length of about 72 cm, but less. It is grey in colour, has a triangular head, a "horn" on the tip of its nose, a zig-zag pattern on its back; the tip of the tail is yellow. V. latasei can be seen day or night but is hidden under rocks. The yellow tip of the tail is used to lure prey. V. latastei is found in northwestern Africa. The type locality given is "Ciudad Real", emended to "Spanien" by Mertens and L. Müller. V. latastei is found in moist, rocky areas, in dry scrubland and woodland, stone walls, sometimes in coastal dunes.
Females of V. latasei give birth to between 13 young. On average, females give birth only once every three years; the species V. latastei was classified as Near Threatened according to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, from 2008 is recognised as Vulnerable. It is listed as such because it is in significant decline due to widespread habitat loss and persecution throughout much of its range, thus making the species close to qualifying for Vulnerable. Further population reduction is expected, but is not to exceed 30% over the next 10 years, but localized extinctions in parts of its range are possible. Year assessed: 2005, it is listed as a protected species under the Berne Convention. Vipera latastei at the Reptarium.cz Reptile Database. Accessed 2 September 2007. Vipera latastei at Reptiles of Europe. Accessed 9 October 2006
The Viperidae is a family of venomous snakes found in most parts of the world, with the exception of Antarctica, Hawaii, New Zealand, various other isolated islands, north of the Arctic Circle. All have long, hinged fangs that permit deep penetration and injection of snake venom. Four subfamilies are recognised, they are known as viperids. The name "viper" is derived from the Latin word vipera, -ae meaning viper from vivus and parere, referring to the trait viviparity common in vipers but not in snakes at large. All viperids have a pair of long solenoglyphous fangs that are used to inject venom from glands located towards the rear of the upper jaws, just behind the eyes; each of the two fangs is at the front of the mouth on a short maxillary bone that can rotate back and forth. When not in use, the fangs fold back against the roof of the mouth and are enclosed in a membranous sheath; this rotating mechanism allows for long fangs to be contained in a small mouth. The left and right fangs can be rotated independently.
During a strike, the mouth can open nearly 180° and the maxilla rotates forward, erecting the fangs as late as possible so that the fangs do not become damaged, as they are brittle. The jaws close upon impact and the muscular sheaths encapsulating the venom glands contract, injecting the venom as the fangs penetrate the target; this action is fast. Viperids use this mechanism for immobilization and digestion of prey. Pre-digestion occurs. Secondarily, it is used for self-defense, though in cases with nonprey, such as humans, they may give a dry bite. A dry bite allows the snake to conserve their precious reserve of venom, because once it has been depleted, it takes time to replenish, leaving the snake vulnerable. In addition to being able to deliver dry bites, vipers can inject larger quantities of venom into larger prey targets, smaller amounts into small prey; this causes the ideal amount of pre-digestion for the lowest amount of venom. All vipers have keeled scales, a stocky build with a short tail, due to the location of the venom glands, a triangle-shaped head distinct from the neck.
The great majority have vertically elliptical, or slit-shaped, pupils that can open wide to cover most of the eye or close completely, which helps them to see in a wide range of light levels. Vipers are nocturnal and ambush their prey. Compared to many other snakes, vipers appear rather sluggish. Most are holding eggs inside their bodies, where they hatch inside and emerge living. However, a few lay eggs in nests; the number of young in a clutch remains constant, but as the weight of the mother increases, larger eggs are produced, yielding larger young. Viperid snakes are found in the Americas and Eurasia. In the Americas, they are native from south of the 48th parallel, through the United States, Central America, into South America. In the old world, viperids are located everywhere except Siberia and the continent of Australia; the adder, a viperid, is the only venomous snake found in Great Britain, is found north of the Arctic Circle in Norway and Sweden. Viperid venoms contain an abundance of protein-degrading enzymes, called proteases, that produce symptoms such as pain, strong local swelling and necrosis, blood loss from cardiovascular damage complicated by coagulopathy, disruption of the blood-clotting system.
Death is caused by collapse in blood pressure. This is in contrast to elapid venoms that contain neurotoxins that disable muscle contraction and cause paralysis. Death from elapid bites results from asphyxiation because the diaphragm can no longer contract. However, this rule does not always apply. Proteolytic venom is dual-purpose: firstly, it is used for defense and to immobilize prey, as with neurotoxic venoms; this is an important adaptation. Due to the nature of proteolytic venom, a viperid bite is a painful experience and should always be taken though it may not prove fatal. With prompt and proper treatment, a bite can still result in a permanent scar, in the worst cases, the affected limb may have to be amputated. A victim's fate is impossible to predict, as this depends on many factors, including the species and size of the snake involved, how much venom was injected, the size and condition of the patient before being bitten. Viper bite victims may be allergic to the venom and/or the antivenom.
These snakes can decide. The most important determinant of venom expenditure is the size of the snake; the species is important, since some are to inject more venom than others, may have more venom available, strike more or deliver a number of bites in a short time. In predatory bites, factors that influence the amount of venom injected include the size of the prey, the species of prey, whether the prey item is held or released; the need to label prey for chemosensory relocation after a bite and release may play a role. In defensive bites, the amount of venom injected may be determined by the
The Lacertidae are the family of the wall lizards, true lizards, or sometimes lacertas, which are native to Europe and Asia. The group includes the genus Lacerta, which contains some of the most seen lizard species in Europe, it is a diverse family with at least 300 species in 39 genera. The European and Mediterranean species live in forest and scrub habitats. Eremias and Ophisops species replace these in the desert habitats of Asia. African species live in rocky, arid areas. Holaspis is one of the few arboreal lacertids, its single species, Holaspis guentheri, is a glider, using its broad tail and flattened body as an aerofoil. Lacertids are medium-sized lizards. Most species are less than 9 cm long, excluding the tail, although the largest living species, Gallotia stehlini, reaches 46 cm, some extinct forms were larger still, they are insectivorous. An exception is Meroles anchietae, one of the few wall lizards that eat seeds – an appropriate food for a lizard of the harsh Namib Desert. Lacertids are remarkably similar in form, with slender bodies and long tails, but have varied patterns and colours within the same species.
Their scales are large on the head, which also has osteoderms and granular on the back, rectangular on the underside. Most species are sexually dimorphic, with the females having different patterns. At least eight species from the Caucasus are parthenogenetic, three species give birth to live young, including the viviparous lizard, Zootoca vivipara; the classification into subfamilies and tribes below follows one presented by al.. 2007, based on their phylogenetic analysis. Family Lacertidae Subfamily Gallotiinae Genus Gallotia Genus Psammodromus Subfamily Lacertinae Tribe Eremiadini Genus Acanthodactylus Genus Adolfus Genus Australolacerta Genus Congolacerta Genus Eremias Genus Gastropholis Genus Heliobolus Genus Holaspis Genus Ichnotropis Genus Latastia Genus Meroles Genus Mesalina Genus Nucras Genus Ophisops Genus Pedioplanis Genus Philochortus Genus Poromera Genus Pseuderemias Genus Tropidosaura Tribe Lacertini Genus Algyroides Genus Anatololacerta Genus Apathya Genus Archaeolacerta Genus Atlantolacerta Genus Dalmatolacerta Genus Darevskia Genus Dinarolacerta Genus Hellenolacerta Genus Iberolacerta Genus Iranolacerta Genus Lacerta Genus Omanosaura Genus Parvilacerta Genus Phoenicolacerta Genus Podarcis Genus Scelarcis Genus Takydromus Genus Teira Genus Timon Genus Vhembelacerta Genus Zootoca The latest extensive phylogenetic lacertid tree was made by Baeckens et al. in 2015.
The Reptile Database, Family Lacertidae Cyber lizard Herpetoculture of Lacertidae
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent, being behind Asia in both categories. At about 30.3 million km2 including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth's total surface area and 20% of its land area. With 1.2 billion people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the world's human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean to the west; the continent includes various archipelagos. It contains 54 recognised sovereign states, nine territories and two de facto independent states with limited or no recognition; the majority of the continent and its countries are in the Northern Hemisphere, with a substantial portion and number of countries in the Southern Hemisphere. Africa's average population is the youngest amongst all the continents. Algeria is Africa's largest country by area, Nigeria is its largest by population. Africa central Eastern Africa, is accepted as the place of origin of humans and the Hominidae clade, as evidenced by the discovery of the earliest hominids and their ancestors as well as ones that have been dated to around 7 million years ago, including Sahelanthropus tchadensis, Australopithecus africanus, A. afarensis, Homo erectus, H. habilis and H. ergaster—the earliest Homo sapiens, found in Ethiopia, date to circa 200,000 years ago.
Africa encompasses numerous climate areas. Africa hosts a large diversity of ethnicities and languages. In the late 19th century, European countries colonised all of Africa. African nations cooperate through the establishment of the African Union, headquartered in Addis Ababa. Afri was a Latin name used to refer to the inhabitants of then-known northern Africa to the west of the Nile river, in its widest sense referred to all lands south of the Mediterranean; this name seems to have referred to a native Libyan tribe, an ancestor of modern Berbers. The name had been connected with the Phoenician word ʿafar meaning "dust", but a 1981 hypothesis has asserted that it stems from the Berber word ifri meaning "cave", in reference to cave dwellers; the same word may be found in the name of the Banu Ifran from Algeria and Tripolitania, a Berber tribe from Yafran in northwestern Libya. Under Roman rule, Carthage became the capital of the province it named Africa Proconsularis, following its defeat of the Carthaginians in the Third Punic War in 146 BC, which included the coastal part of modern Libya.
The Latin suffix -ica can sometimes be used to denote a land. The Muslim region of Ifriqiya, following its conquest of the Byzantine Empire's Exarchatus Africae preserved a form of the name. According to the Romans, Africa lay to the west of Egypt, while "Asia" was used to refer to Anatolia and lands to the east. A definite line was drawn between the two continents by the geographer Ptolemy, indicating Alexandria along the Prime Meridian and making the isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea the boundary between Asia and Africa; as Europeans came to understand the real extent of the continent, the idea of "Africa" expanded with their knowledge. Other etymological hypotheses have been postulated for the ancient name "Africa": The 1st-century Jewish historian Flavius Josephus asserted that it was named for Epher, grandson of Abraham according to Gen. 25:4, whose descendants, he claimed, had invaded Libya. Isidore of Seville in his 7th-century Etymologiae XIV.5.2. Suggests "Africa comes from the Latin aprica, meaning "sunny".
Massey, in 1881, stated that Africa is derived from the Egyptian af-rui-ka, meaning "to turn toward the opening of the Ka." The Ka is the energetic double of every person and the "opening of the Ka" refers to a womb or birthplace. Africa would be, for the Egyptians, "the birthplace." Michèle Fruyt in 1976 proposed linking the Latin word with africus "south wind", which would be of Umbrian origin and mean "rainy wind". Robert R. Stieglitz of Rutgers University in 1984 proposed: "The name Africa, derived from the Latin *Aphir-ic-a, is cognate to Hebrew Ophir." Ibn Khallikan and some other historians claim that the name of Africa came from a Himyarite king called Afrikin ibn Kais ibn Saifi called "Afrikus son of Abrahah" who subdued Ifriqiya. Africa is considered by most paleoanthropologists to be the oldest inhabited territory on Earth, with the human species originating from the continent. During the mid-20th century, anthropologists discovered many fossils and evidence of human occupation as early as 7 million years ago.
Fossil remains of several species of early apelike humans thought to have evolved into modern man, such as Australopithecus afarensis (radiometrically dated to 3.9–3.0 million years BP, Paranthropus boisei and Homo ergaster have been discovered. After the evolution of Homo sapiens sapiens 150,000 to 100,000 years BP in Africa, the continent was populated by groups of hunter-gatherers; these first modern humans left Africa and populated the rest of the globe during the Out of Africa II migration dated to 50,000 years BP, exiting the continent eith
Algeria the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa. The capital and most populous city is Algiers, located in the far north of the country on the Mediterranean coast. With an area of 2,381,741 square kilometres, Algeria is the tenth-largest country in the world, the world's largest Arab country, the largest in Africa. Algeria is bordered to the northeast by Tunisia, to the east by Libya, to the west by Morocco, to the southwest by the Western Saharan territory and Mali, to the southeast by Niger, to the north by the Mediterranean Sea; the country is a semi-presidential republic consisting of 1,541 communes. It has the highest human development index of all non-island African countries. Ancient Algeria has known many empires and dynasties, including ancient Numidians, Carthaginians, Vandals, Umayyads, Idrisid, Rustamid, Zirid, Almoravids, Spaniards and the French colonial empire. Berbers are the indigenous inhabitants of Algeria. Algeria is a middle power.
It supplies large amounts of natural gas to Europe, energy exports are the backbone of the economy. According to OPEC Algeria has the 16th largest oil reserves in the world and the second largest in Africa, while it has the 9th largest reserves of natural gas. Sonatrach, the national oil company, is the largest company in Africa. Algeria has one of the largest defence budget on the continent. Algeria is a member of the African Union, the Arab League, OPEC, the United Nations and is a founding member of the Arab Maghreb Union. On 2 April 2019, president Abdelaziz Bouteflika resigned after nearly 20 years in power, following pressure from the country’s army after mass protests against Bouteflika's campaign for a fifth term; the country's name derives from the city of Algiers. The city's name in turn derives from the Arabic al-Jazā'ir, a truncated form of the older Jazā'ir Banī Mazghanna, employed by medieval geographers such as al-Idrisi. In the region of Ain Hanech, early remnants of hominid occupation in North Africa were found.
Neanderthal tool makers produced hand axes in the Levalloisian and Mousterian styles similar to those in the Levant. Algeria was the site of the highest state of development of Middle Paleolithic Flake tool techniques. Tools of this era, starting about 30,000 BC, are called Aterian; the earliest blade industries in North Africa are called Iberomaurusian. This industry appears to have spread throughout the coastal regions of the Maghreb between 15,000 and 10,000 BC. Neolithic civilization developed in the Saharan and Mediterranean Maghreb as early as 11,000 BC or as late as between 6000 and 2000 BC; this life, richly depicted in the Tassili n'Ajjer paintings, predominated in Algeria until the classical period. The mixture of peoples of North Africa coalesced into a distinct native population that came to be called Berbers, who are the indigenous peoples of northern Africa. From their principal center of power at Carthage, the Carthaginians expanded and established small settlements along the North African coast.
These settlements served as market towns as well as anchorages. As Carthaginian power grew, its impact on the indigenous population increased dramatically. Berber civilization was at a stage in which agriculture, manufacturing and political organization supported several states. Trade links between Carthage and the Berbers in the interior grew, but territorial expansion resulted in the enslavement or military recruitment of some Berbers and in the extraction of tribute from others. By the early 4th century BC, Berbers formed the single largest element of the Carthaginian army. In the Revolt of the Mercenaries, Berber soldiers rebelled from 241 to 238 BC after being unpaid following the defeat of Carthage in the First Punic War, they succeeded in obtaining control of much of Carthage's North African territory, they minted coins bearing the name Libyan, used in Greek to describe natives of North Africa. The Carthaginian state declined because of successive defeats by the Romans in the Punic Wars.
In 146 BC the city of Carthage was destroyed. As Carthaginian power waned, the influence of Berber leaders in the hinterland grew. By the 2nd century BC, several large but loosely administered Berber kingdoms had emerged. Two of them were established behind the coastal areas controlled by Carthage. West of Numidia lay Mauretania, which extended across the Moulouya River in modern-day Morocco to the Atlantic Ocean; the high point of Berber civilization, unequaled until the coming of the Almohads and Almoravids more than a millennium was reached during the reign of Masinissa in the 2nd century BC. After Masinissa's death in 148 BC, the Berber kingdoms were reunited several times. Masinissa's line survived until 24 AD, when the remaining Berber territory was annexed to the Roman Empire. For several centuries Algeria was ruled by the Romans. Like the rest of No