The Albuquerque Isotopes are a Minor League Baseball team of the Pacific Coast League and the Triple-A affiliate of the Colorado Rockies. They are located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, play their home games at Isotopes Park which opened in 2003 and has an elevation exceeding 5,100 feet above sea level. Albuquerque was represented in the PCL as a Los Angeles Dodgers affiliate by the Albuquerque Dukes who won several PCL championships in the 1970s and 1980s before relocating to Oregon as the Portland Beavers in 2001; the Isotopes began play in 2003. The Isotopes were affiliated with the Florida Marlins from 2003 to 2008 and the Dodgers from 2009 to 2014, they have won three division titles. The Isotopes' mascot is Orbit, a yellow and red alien. In 2016, Forbes listed the team as the 14th-most valuable Minor League Baseball team with a value of $34 million; the team's name recalls the fictional Springfield Isotopes from the long-running TV series The Simpsons, first appearing in the 1990 Season 2 episode "Dancin' Homer" where main character Homer Simpson temporarily becomes their mascot, the titular Dancin’ Homer.
In the episode "Hungry, Hungry Homer", which first aired on March 4, 2001, Homer attempts to thwart the team's plan to move to Albuquerque by going on a hunger strike. Subsequently, when the Albuquerque Tribune asked its online readers to help choose a new name for the Cannons, "Isotopes" received 67% of the 120,000 votes cast. Though team president Ken Young admitted that the name came from the series, he said at the name's unveiling, "We picked it because over the past year it has become a popular name, it does have something to do with Albuquerque." The "Isotopes" name was deemed appropriate, since New Mexico has a number of well-known scientific and military facilities dealing with nuclear technology, such as Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, the Waste Isolation Pilot Project, as well as the site of the Trinity test. In addition, uranium mining was a significant industry in the state during the Cold War. In the three months after the team's name was announced in September 2002, before the team took the field, the team sold more merchandise than the Albuquerque Dukes sold in any single season, led minor league baseball in merchandising revenue in 2003.
The team said they were able to tell when episodes featuring the Springfield Isotopes would air in different markets based on clusters of orders from different viewing areas. The team has no working agreements with The Simpsons. However, statues of Homer, Bart and Marge Simpson are located at Isotopes Park. In the first month of 2001, a group of businessmen spearheaded by a businessman named Ken Young and an entrepreneur named Mike Koldyke entered into an agreement with the current owners of the Calgary Cannons with the sole intention of bringing the team to Albuquerque for the 2003 season. Albuquerque, at the time, had been without a baseball team since March 2000 as the prior team, the Albuquerque Dukes, had been moved to Portland, following the sale of the franchise to Marshall Glickman and Mike Higgins. After the two sides agreed to the sale of the Calgary Cannons, Ken Young and Mike Koldyke gave the city of Albuquerque a major condition before making the move to Albuquerque; the city of Albuquerque would have to either build a new stadium or renovate the pre-existing Albuquerque Sports Stadium.
A few months in May 2001, the city of Albuquerque approved a vote to allocate $25 million towards the renovation of Albuquerque Sports Stadium, thus completing all contingencies required for the move of the Calgary Cannons. Ken Young and Mike Koldyke finalized the purchase of the Calgary Cannons and, prior to the 2003 season, completed the move to Albuquerque as well as changing the team name from the Cannons to the Isotopes; as it turned out, the renovation of Albuquerque Sports Stadium turned into a construction of a new facility, Isotopes Park. While Isotopes Park retained its predecessor's general structure and dimensions, all that remained of the old stadium was the playing field; the team saw a tremendous amount of success and popularity come their way in the following baseball seasons. Following the move to Albuquerque, the Isotopes played their first official game in Albuquerque on April 11, 2003. At Isotopes Park, the baseball team was greeted by over 12,000 fans in their opening day game.
In the Isotopes' opening season, the baseball team saw over 575,000 fans enter their stadium to watch their newly acquired team perform. During the 2003 season, Albuquerque saw immediate success as their new team won the 2003 Central Division Title and in addition to that, entered the 2003 Pacific Coast League Playoffs. In 2008, the Albuquerque Isotopes achieved a new feat when they reached a new franchise record in attendance with over 590,000 fans. In July 2009, Albuquerque received an unusual amount of nationwide attention following the arrival of Manny Ramirez; the outfielder at the time was under intense scrutiny for a suspension he received after testing positive for performance-enhancing drugs, more known as PEDs, was slated to play a total of three games with the Albuquerque Isotopes before returning to the major league. The Albuquerque Isotopes ran multiple promotions for the arrival of Manny Ramirez including advertisements, wigs bearing an extreme similarity to the hair of Manny Ramirez, etc. which led to a then-attendance record with over 15,000 fans attending the outfielder's opening game with the Isotopes
Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball is a professional baseball organization, the oldest of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. A total of 30 teams play with 15 teams in each league; the NL and AL were formed as separate legal entities in 1901 respectively. After cooperating but remaining separate entities beginning in 1903, the leagues merged into a single organization led by the Commissioner of Baseball in 2000; the organization oversees Minor League Baseball, which comprises 256 teams affiliated with the Major League clubs. With the World Baseball Softball Confederation, MLB manages the international World Baseball Classic tournament. Baseball's first all-professional team was founded in Cincinnati in 1869; the first few decades of professional baseball were characterized by rivalries between leagues and by players who jumped from one team or league to another. The period before 1920 in baseball was known as the dead-ball era. Baseball survived a conspiracy to fix the 1919 World Series, which came to be known as the Black Sox Scandal.
The sport rose in popularity in the 1920s, survived potential downturns during the Great Depression and World War II. Shortly after the war, Jackie Robinson broke baseball's color barrier; the 1950s and 1960s were a time of expansion for the AL and NL new stadiums and artificial turf surfaces began to change the game in the 1970s and 1980s. Home runs dominated the game during the 1990s, media reports began to discuss the use of anabolic steroids among Major League players in the mid-2000s. In 2006, an investigation produced the Mitchell Report, which implicated many players in the use of performance-enhancing substances, including at least one player from each team. Today, MLB is composed of 1 in Canada. Teams play 162 games each season and five teams in each league advance to a four-round postseason tournament that culminates in the World Series, a best-of-seven championship series between the two league champions that dates to 1903. Baseball broadcasts are aired on television and the Internet throughout North America and in several other countries throughout the world.
MLB has the highest season attendance of any sports league in the world with more than 73 million spectators in 2015. MLB is governed by the Major League Baseball Constitution; this document has undergone several incarnations since its creation in 1876. Under the direction of the Commissioner of Baseball, MLB hires and maintains the sport's umpiring crews, negotiates marketing and television contracts. MLB maintains a unique, controlling relationship over the sport, including most aspects of Minor League Baseball; this is due in large part to the 1922 U. S. Supreme Court ruling in Federal Baseball Club v. National League, which held that baseball is not interstate commerce and therefore not subject to federal antitrust law; this ruling has been weakened only in subsequent years. The weakened ruling granted more stability to the owners of teams and has resulted in values increasing at double-digit rates. There were several challenges to MLB's primacy in the sport between the 1870s and the Federal League in 1916.
The chief executive of MLB is the commissioner Rob Manfred. The chief operating officer is Tony Petitti. There are five other executives: president, chief communications officer, chief legal officer, chief financial officer, chief baseball officer; the multimedia branch of MLB, based in Manhattan, is MLB Advanced Media. This branch oversees each of the 30 teams' websites, its charter states that MLB Advanced Media holds editorial independence from the league, but it is under the same ownership group and revenue-sharing plan. MLB Productions is a structured wing of the league, focusing on video and traditional broadcast media. MLB owns 67 percent of MLB Network, with the other 33 percent split between several cable operators and satellite provider DirecTV, it operates out of studios in Secaucus, New Jersey, has editorial independence from the league. In 1920, the weak National Commission, created to manage relationships between the two leagues, was replaced with the much more powerful Commissioner of Baseball, who had the power to make decisions for all of professional baseball unilaterally.
From 1901 to 1960, the American and National Leagues fielded eight teams apiece. In the 1960s, MLB expansion added eight teams, including the first non-U. S. Team. Two teams were added in the 1970s. From 1969 through 1993, each league consisted of an West Division. A third division, the Central Division, was formed in each league in 1994; until 1996, the two leagues met on the field only during the All-Star Game. Regular-season interleague play was introduced in 1997. In March 1995 two new franchises, the Arizona Diamondbacks and Tampa Bay Devil Rays, were awarded by MLB, to begin play in 1998; this addition brought the total number of franchises to 30. In early 1997, MLB decided to assign one new team to each league: Tampa Bay joined the AL and Arizona joined the NL; the original plan was to have an odd number of teams in each league, but in order for every team to be able to play daily, this would have required interleague play to be scheduled throughout the entire season. However, it
The Arizona Diamondbacks shortened as the D-backs, are an American professional baseball team based in Phoenix, Arizona. The club competes in Major League Baseball as a member of the National League West division; the team has played every home game in franchise history at Chase Field known as Bank One Ballpark. The Diamondbacks have won one World Series championship – becoming the fastest expansion team in the Major Leagues to win a championship, which it did in only the fourth season since the franchise's inception, they remain the only professional men's sports team from Arizona to have won a championship title. On March 9, 1995, Phoenix was awarded an expansion franchise to begin play for the 1998 season. A $130 million franchise fee was paid to Major League Baseball and on January 16, 1997, the Diamondbacks were voted into the National League; the Diamondbacks' first major league game was played against the Colorado Rockies on March 31, 1998, at Bank One Ballpark. The ballpark was renamed Chase Field in 2005, as a result of Bank One Corporation's merger with JPMorgan Chase & Co.
Since their debut, the Diamondbacks have won five NL West division titles, one NL pennant, one Wild Card game, the 2001 World Series. The Diamondbacks' original colors were purple, black and copper, their first logo was an italicized block letter "A" with a diamond pattern, the crossbar represented by a snake's tongue. Prior to their inaugural season, they released their baseball caps; the home cap had a cream color crown with a purple button. The road cap had a turquoise visor and button, their alternate cap had a turquoise crown with a purple button. Depending on the cap, the "A" logo on the front of the cap had different color variations. In the Diamondbacks' second season, they introduced a new logo, a copper color snake in the shape of a letter "D", it was used on a solid black cap. The franchise unveiled new uniforms and colors of Sedona Red, Sonoran Sand and black on November 8, 2006; the red shade is named for the sandstone canyon at Red Rock State Park near Sedona, while the beige shade is named for the Sonoran Desert.
A sleeve patch was added featuring a lowercase. The team kept the "D" logo, but was altered and put on an all red cap to be used as their game cap, they kept the "A" logo with the new colors applied to it, with a solid black cap used as the alternate cap. A similar color scheme is used by the Arizona Coyotes of the National Hockey League. Prior to the 2016 season, the Diamondbacks reincorporated teal into its color scheme while keeping Sedona Red, Sonoran Sand and black, they unveiled eight different uniform combinations, including two separate home white and away grey uniforms. One major difference between the two sets is that the non-teal uniforms feature a snakeskin pattern on the shoulders, while the teal-trimmed uniforms include a charcoal/grey snakeskin pattern on the back. Arizona kept the throwback pinstriped sleeveless uniforms from their 2001 championship season for use during Thursday home games; the primary television play-by-play voice for the team's first nine seasons of play was Thom Brennaman, who broadcasts baseball and college football games nationally for Fox Television.
Brennaman was the TV announcer for the Chicago Cubs and Cincinnati Reds before being hired by Diamondbacks founder Jerry Colangelo in 1996, two years before the team would begin play. In October 2006, Brennaman left the Diamondbacks to call games with his father for the Reds beginning in 2007, signing a four-year deal; the English language flagship radio station is KTAR. Greg Schulte is the regular radio play-by-play voice, a 25-year veteran of sports radio in the Phoenix market well known for his previous work on Phoenix Suns, Arizona Cardinals and Arizona State University broadcasts. Jeff Munn is a backup radio play-by-play announcer, he is well known to many Phoenix area sports fans, having served as the public address announcer for the Suns at America West Arena in the 1990s. He is the play-by-play radio voice for ASU women's basketball. On November 1, 2006, the team announced that the TV voice of the Milwaukee Brewers since 2002, Daron Sutton, would be hired as the Diamondbacks primary TV play-by-play voice.
Sutton was signed to a five-year contract with a team option for three more years. Sutton is considered one of the best of the younger generation of baseball broadcasters, his signature chants include "let's get some runs". Sutton's father is Hall of current Atlanta Braves broadcaster Don Sutton. Former Diamondbacks and Chicago Cubs first baseman Mark Grace and former Major League knuckleball pitcher Tom Candiotti were the Diamondbacks primary color analysts for the 2006 and 2007 seasons. Former Diamondbacks third baseman Matt Williams did color commentary on occasion, as did former Cardinals and NBC broadcast legend Joe Garagiola, Sr. a longtime Phoenix-area resident and father of Joe Garagiola, Jr. the first GM of the Diamondbacks. The Diamondbacks announced in July 2007 that for the 2008 season, all regionally broadcast Diamondbacks TV games will be shown on Fox Sports Arizona, a few could be shown on the national Fox
New York Mets
The New York Mets are an American professional baseball team based in the New York City borough of Queens. The Mets compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the National League East division; the Mets are one of two Major League clubs based in New York City. One of baseball's first expansion teams, the Mets were founded in 1962 to replace New York's departed NL teams, the Brooklyn Dodgers and the New York Giants; the Mets' colors are composed of the Dodgers' blue and the Giants' orange, which form the outer two bands of the New York City flag. During the 1962 and 1963 seasons, the Mets played their home games at the Polo Grounds. From 1964 to 2008, the Mets' home ballpark was Shea Stadium. In 2009, they moved into Citi Field. In their 1962 inaugural season, the Mets posted a record of 40–120, the worst regular season record since MLB went to a 162-game schedule; the team never finished better than second to last until the 1969 "Miracle Mets" beat the Baltimore Orioles in the 1969 World Series in what is considered one of the biggest upsets in World Series history.
Since they have played in four additional World Series, including a dramatic run in 1973 that ended in a seven-game loss to the Oakland Athletics, a second championship in 1986 over the Boston Red Sox, a Subway Series loss against their cross-town rivals the New York Yankees in 2000, a five-game loss to the Kansas City Royals in 2015. The Mets qualified to play in the Major League Baseball postseason in 1988 and 2006, coming within one game of the World Series both years. After near-misses in 2007 and 2008, the Mets made the playoffs in 2015 for the first time in nine years, won their first NL pennant in 15 years; the team again returned to the playoffs in this time with a wild card berth. This was the team's second back-to-back playoff appearance, the first occurring during the 1999 and 2000 seasons; as of the end of the 2018 MLB season, the Mets overall win-loss record is 4362–4732, good for a.480 win percentage. After the 1957 season, the Brooklyn Dodgers and New York Giants relocated from New York to California to become the Los Angeles Dodgers and San Francisco Giants leaving the largest city in the United States with no National League franchise and only one major league team, the New York Yankees of the American League.
With the threat of a New York team joining a new third league, the National League expanded by adding the New York Mets following a proposal from William Shea. In a symbolic reference to New York's earlier National League teams, the new team took as its primary colors the blue of the Dodgers and the orange of the Giants, colors featured on the Flag of New York City; the nickname "Mets" was adopted: it was a natural shorthand to the club's corporate name, "The New York Metropolitan Baseball Club, Inc.", hearkened back to the "Metropolitans", its brevity was advantageous for newspaper headlines. For the first two years of its existence, the team played its home games at the historic Polo Grounds in Upper Manhattan. In 1964, they moved into newly constructed Shea Stadium in Flushing, where the Mets played until the 2008 season. In 2009, the club moved into Citi Field, adjacent to the former Shea Stadium site. During their history, the Mets have won two World Series titles, five National League pennants and six National League East titles.
The Mets qualified for the postseason as the National League wild card team in 1999, 2000, 2016. The Mets have appeared in five World Series, more than any other expansion team in MLB history, their two championships are the most titles among expansion teams, equal to the tallies of the Toronto Blue Jays, Miami Marlins, Kansas City Royals. The Mets held the New York baseball single-season attendance record for 29 years, they broke the Yankees' 1948 record by drawing nearly 2.7 million spectators in 1970. The Mets broke their own record five times before the record was regained by the Yankees in 1999; the 1962 Mets posted a 40–120 record, a record for the most losses in a season since 1899. In 1966, the Mets famously bypassed future Hall of Famer Reggie Jackson in the amateur draft, instead selecting Steve Chilcott, who never played in the majors, but the following year, they acquired future Hall of Famer Tom Seaver in a lottery. Seaver helped the 1969 "Miracle Mets" win the new National League East division title defeat the Atlanta Braves to win the National League pennant and the favored Baltimore Orioles to win the 1969 World Series.
In 1973, the Mets rallied from 5th place to win the division, despite a record of only 82–79. They shocked the favored Cincinnati Reds "Big Red Machine" in the NLCS and pushed the defending World Series champion Oakland Athletics to a seventh game, but lost the series. Notably, 1973 was the only NL East title between 1970 and 1980 that wasn't won by either the Philadelphia Phillies or the Pittsburgh Pirates. Star pitcher Tom Seaver was traded in 1977, on a day remembered as "the Midnight Massacre", the Mets fell into last place for several years; the franchise turned around in the mid-1980s. During this time the Mets drafted slugger Darryl Strawberry and 1985 Cy Young Award winner Dwight Gooden. In addition, former National League MVP and perennial Gold Glove winner Keith Hernandez was obtained by the Mets in 1983. In 1985, they acquired Hall of Fame catcher Gary Carter from the Montreal Expos and won 98 games, but narrowly missed the playoffs. In 1986, they won the division with a record of 108–54, one of the best in National Le
The Milwaukee Brewers are an American professional baseball team based in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The Brewers compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the National League Central division; the team is named for the city's association with the brewing industry. Since 2001, the Brewers have played their home games at Miller Park, which has a seating capacity of 41,900; the team was founded in 1969 as the Seattle Pilots, an expansion team of the American League, in Seattle, Washington. The Pilots played their home games at Sick's Stadium. After only one season, the team relocated to Milwaukee, becoming known as the Brewers and playing their home games at Milwaukee County Stadium. In 1998, the Brewers joined the National League, they are the only franchise to play in four divisions since the advent of divisional play in Major League Baseball in 1969. They are one of two current MLB franchises to switch leagues in their history, the other one being the Houston Astros; the team's only World Series appearance came in 1982.
After winning the ALCS against the California Angels, the Brewers faced off against the St. Louis Cardinals in the World Series, losing 4–3. In 2011, the Brewers defeated the Arizona Diamondbacks to win the NLDS 3–2, but lost in the NLCS to the eventual World Series champion Cardinals 4–2. Originating as an expansion team in 1969, in Seattle, Washington, as the Seattle Pilots, the club played for one season in the American League West Division before being acquired in bankruptcy court by Bud Selig, who moved the team to Milwaukee, they would continue to play in the West Division for two more years. Before the beginning of the 1972 season the Brewers agreed to switch over to the American League East to make room for the Texas Rangers who had relocated from Washington. Beginning in 1994, due to divisional re-alignment, the Brewers moved to the newly created American League Central division. In all, the Brewers were part of the American League from their creation in 1969 through the 1997 season, after which they moved to the National League Central Division.
Milwaukee had been a National League city when its team was the Milwaukee Braves. In 1981, Milwaukee won the American League East Division in the second half of the strike-shortened season. In the playoffs, they lost the divisional series to three games to two. In 1982, Milwaukee won the American League East Division and the American League Pennant, earning their only World Series appearance to date as the Brewers. In the Series, they lost to the St. Louis Cardinals four games to three. In 1998, the Brewers changed leagues, they were put in the recently created NL Central. In 2008, for the first time in the 26 years since their World Series appearance, the Brewers advanced to postseason play by winning the National League wild card, they were eliminated in the National League Division Series by the eventual World Series champion Philadelphia Phillies. On September 23, 2011, the Milwaukee Brewers clinched their first division title in 29 years, they won the National League Division Series in five games over the Arizona Diamondbacks, but lost the National League Championship Series to the eventual World Series champion St. Louis Cardinals in six games.
In 2018, the Brewers clinched a spot in the post-season for the first time since 2011 with a 2–1 victory over the St. Louis Cardinals on September 26, 2018. On September 29, they tied with the Cubs for first place in the National League Central, with a record of 95–67; this tie was broken on October 1st, when the Brewers defeated the Cubs 3–1 in the NL Central tiebreaker to improve to 96–67 and win the division by one game. They went on to defeat the Colorado Rockies 3–0 to win the NLDS, but in the following NLCS, they lost out to the Los Angeles Dodgers in 7 games; the first Brewers uniforms were "hand-me-downs" from the Seattle Pilots. Because the move to Milwaukee received final approval less than a week before the start of the season, there was no time to order new uniforms. Selig had planned to change the Brewers' colors to navy blue and red in honor of the minor league American Association's Milwaukee Brewers, but was forced to remove the Seattle markings from the Pilots' blue-and-gold uniforms and sew "BREWERS" on the front.
However, the outline of the Pilots' logo remained visible. The uniforms had unique striping on the sleeves left over from the Pilots days; the cap was an updated version of the Milwaukee Braves cap in yellow. It was decided to keep blue and gold as the team colors, they have remained so since; the Brewers got their own flannel design in 1971. This design was the same as the one used in 1970, but with blue and yellow piping on the sleeves and collar. In 1972, the Brewers entered the double-knit era with uniforms based upon their flannels: all white with "BREWERS" on the front and blue and yellow trim on the sleeves, neck and down the side of the pants; this is the uniform that Hank Aaron wore with the club in his final seasons and that Robin Yount wore in his first. During this period, the logo of the club was the Beer Barrel Man, used by the previous minor league Brewers since at least the 1940s; the Brewers mascot, Bernie Brewer was introduced in 1973. The Brewers unveiled new uniforms for the 1978 season.
The uniforms waistband. The road uniforms continued to be powder blue, but for the first time the city name, "MILWAUKEE", graced the chest in an upward slant. In addition, this season saw the introduction of the logo, to de
Baseball is a bat-and-ball game played between two opposing teams who take turns batting and fielding. The game proceeds when a player on the fielding team, called the pitcher, throws a ball which a player on the batting team tries to hit with a bat; the objectives of the offensive team are to hit the ball into the field of play, to run the bases—having its runners advance counter-clockwise around four bases to score what are called "runs". The objective of the defensive team is to prevent batters from becoming runners, to prevent runners' advance around the bases. A run is scored when a runner advances around the bases in order and touches home plate; the team that scores the most runs by the end of the game is the winner. The first objective of the batting team is to have a player reach first base safely. A player on the batting team who reaches first base without being called "out" can attempt to advance to subsequent bases as a runner, either or during teammates' turns batting; the fielding team tries to prevent runs by getting batters or runners "out", which forces them out of the field of play.
Both the pitcher and fielders have methods of getting the batting team's players out. The opposing teams switch forth between batting and fielding. One turn batting for each team constitutes an inning. A game is composed of nine innings, the team with the greater number of runs at the end of the game wins. If scores are tied at the end of nine innings, extra innings are played. Baseball has no game clock. Baseball evolved from older bat-and-ball games being played in England by the mid-18th century; this game was brought by immigrants to North America. By the late 19th century, baseball was recognized as the national sport of the United States. Baseball is popular in North America and parts of Central and South America, the Caribbean, East Asia in Japan and South Korea. In the United States and Canada, professional Major League Baseball teams are divided into the National League and American League, each with three divisions: East and Central; the MLB champion is determined by playoffs. The top level of play is split in Japan between the Central and Pacific Leagues and in Cuba between the West League and East League.
The World Baseball Classic, organized by the World Baseball Softball Confederation, is the major international competition of the sport and attracts the top national teams from around the world. A baseball game is played between two teams, each composed of nine players, that take turns playing offense and defense. A pair of turns, one at bat and one in the field, by each team constitutes an inning. A game consists of nine innings. One team—customarily the visiting team—bats in the top, or first half, of every inning; the other team -- customarily the home team -- bats in second half, of every inning. The goal of the game is to score more points than the other team; the players on the team at bat attempt to score runs by circling or completing a tour of the four bases set at the corners of the square-shaped baseball diamond. A player bats at home plate and must proceed counterclockwise to first base, second base, third base, back home to score a run; the team in the field attempts to prevent runs from scoring and record outs, which remove opposing players from offensive action until their turn in their team's batting order comes up again.
When three outs are recorded, the teams switch roles for the next half-inning. If the score of the game is tied after nine innings, extra innings are played to resolve the contest. Many amateur games unorganized ones, involve different numbers of players and innings; the game is played on a field whose primary boundaries, the foul lines, extend forward from home plate at 45-degree angles. The 90-degree area within the foul lines is referred to as fair territory; the part of the field enclosed by the bases and several yards beyond them is the infield. In the middle of the infield is a raised pitcher's mound, with a rectangular rubber plate at its center; the outer boundary of the outfield is demarcated by a raised fence, which may be of any material and height. The fair territory between home plate and the outfield boundary is baseball's field of play, though significant events can take place in foul territory, as well. There are three basic tools of baseball: the ball, the bat, the glove or mitt: The baseball is about the size of an adult's fist, around 9 inches in circumference.
It wound in yarn and covered in white cowhide, with red stitching. The bat is a hitting tool, traditionally made of a solid piece of wood. Other materials are now used for nonprofessional games, it is a hard round stick, about 2.5 inches in diameter at the hitting end, tapering to a narrower handle and culminating in a knob. Bats used by adults are around 34 inches long, not longer than 42 inches; the glove or mitt is a fielding tool, made of padded leather with webbing between the fingers. As an aid in catching and holding onto the ball, it takes various shapes to meet the specific needs of differ
Rojos del Águila de Veracruz
The Rojos del Águila de Veracruz were a Triple-A level baseball team that played in the Mexican Baseball League of Minor League Baseball. They played their home games at the Estadio Universitario Beto Ávila in Veracruz. Baseball was introduced to Veracruz during the early 20th century by employees of American and British oil companies. Native employees began to take an interest in the games, played by the managers of these companies, who purchased uniforms for the new players; the uniforms they purchased were red, which had a lasting effect on future baseball teams in Veracruz. Mexican Eagle Petroleum Co. a Mexican oil company now known as Pemex, was the inspiration for the name of the first baseball club founded in Veracruz, the Rojos del Águila, founded on September 16, 1903. One of the original teams of the Mexican Baseball League, Águila won its first championship titles in 1937 and 1938, when the league was organized and began to keep statistics. Agustín Verde was the team's manager at the time.
Subsequent titles came in 1952 and 1961, both under The Kangaroo Santos Amaro's management, Enrique Izquierdo led the team to its fifth win in 1970. Their sixth win in 2012 was under manager Pedro Meré, "El Comemangos" They are one of the most recognized teams in the Mexican League. Águila played in the Veracruz Sports Park until 1986. When the team returned in 1992, it adopted Estadio Universitario Beto Ávila as the new headquarters; the Eagle won their first championship title in 1937, under Cuban Agustín Verde, in an official championship and inaugural Mexican Baseball League game. Martin Dihigo's outstanding performance, both on the pitching mound and in the batter's box, was a major contributing factor to their win; the team included field players Augustine "Pijini" Bejarano, Felino Cardenas Estaquillo Martinez, Martin "El Maestro" Dihigo, Francisco Medina, Alberto Cornejo, Nero Arjona, Donato "Toco" Aldama, Ramon Michelena, Antonio Tenorio, Julian Ramirez Pajón and Agustin Verde. Sabas Mora holds the win-loss record at 7-0 with an ERA of 2.09, Martin Dihigo is credited with winning the three games in a row needed to win the series.
In 1938, Dihigo led the team to a second title, again directed by Agustín Verde+. Dihigo reached a batting average of.387, swept the pitching department with 18 wins and 2 losses and an ERA of 0.90, with 184 strikeouts. The team consisted of field players Martin "El Maestro" Dihigo, Silvio Garcia, Jacinto Roque, Manuel Salvatierra, Nero Arjona, José Luis Gómez Rodríguez, Donato "Toco" Aldama, Raul "Chicalón" Mendez, Jorge Rosas, Alberto Cornejo, Amado Alvarez and Julian "Handjob" Ramirez; the third team title in the Mexican Baseball League was won with another Cuban, Santos "The Kangaroo" Amaro. In this campaign, Santos Amaro led the team to another title with the help of Rene Gonzalez, who achieved the highest batting average of.370, Peter "Charrascas" Ramirez, Mario Ariosa, Antonio Castanon, Charles White, Earl "Red Skin" Taborn, Guillermo "Huevito" Alvarez, Reynaldo Green, Gonzalo "The Blackout" Morales, Ricardo "Chamaco" Garza, Rafael "Chino" Lopez, Jaime "El Loco" Abad, Manuel Fuentes, Octavio Favela, Ernesto Cortes, Federico Cortes, Isidro Ortiz and Santos Amaro himself as field players.
In the pitching department, the top player in that season was William "Don Pants" Lopez, who won 19 games for 8 lost, a 2.94 ERA. Pitching importance followed with Lino Donoso, Guadalupe Ortegón, Fernando Sanchez, Pedro Ramirez and Hector Moreno Marín "Pepino" Azamar. Nine years elapsed before the Eagle Reds returned to winning a pennant Mexican Baseball League game in 1961, again under the leadership of Santos Amaro; this season, the magic came with "tremendous thumper" Alfred Pinkston joining the team from the Mexico City Red Devils, with solid work in the batting order, led the Eagle to conquer a new championship. Pinkston, according to his numbers and to those who were fortunate enough to see him play, was a tremendous player, he hit.374 that year, highlighted the work of the "explosive" Cuban Witremundo "Witti" Quintana, that year, was the champion of runs of in league with 23 homers. Important in this season were the following batters that were above a.300 percentage: Asdrubal Baro, Miguel "Pilo" Gaspar and William Berzunza, followed by below average "Magic" Felipe Montemayor, Ernesto "Natas" Garcia, Paul Bernard, Mario Ariosa, Ramiro Caballero, Witremundo Quintana, Ronaldo "Ronnie" Camacho, Mario Luna, Juan de Dios Hernández Esquivel and Felipe Villareal.
On the pitch, a "legend" was born, a pillar to achieving the team win that season was Ramon "Three Skates" Arano, who managed to earn a record of 11 wins and 3 losses, a 3.72 ERA. Following in his footsteps were Jesus Williams, Lino "Chucumite" Donoso, Silvio Castellanos, Rodolfo Alvaro, Guillermo Lopez, Aubrey Grigsbi, Pablo Montes de Oca, Lazaro Uscanga, Guillermo Vazquez, Pedro Julián Ladera, Montane; as if it were predestined, it was another 9 years. The Eagle Reds were directed once again by this time Enrique Izquierdo, they had important figures for sure, but overall it was an year as individual accomplishments go. To highlight the work of Cuban Rogelio "El Borrego" Alvarez, he had 33 runs, was the league champion in that department, batted a.288 percentage. There were three players who hit over.300 percentage: Emilio Sosa, Roberto "The Engineer" Ortiz and Rolando Camarero. Other hitte