An exhibition game is a sporting event whose prize money and impact on the player's or the team's rankings is either zero or otherwise reduced. In team sports, matches of this type are used to help coaches and managers select and condition players for the competitive matches of a league season or tournament. If the players play in different teams in other leagues, exhibition games offer an opportunity for the players to learn to work with each other; the games can be held between parts of the same team. An exhibition game may be used to settle a challenge, to provide professional entertainment, to promote the sport, to commemorate an anniversary or a famous player, or to raise money for charities. Several sports leagues hold all-star games to showcase their best players against each other, while other exhibitions games may pit participants from two different leagues or countries to unofficially determine who would be the best in the world. International competitions like the Olympic Games may hold exhibition games as part of a demonstration sport.
In the early days of football, friendlies were the most common type of match. However, since the development of The Football League in England in 1888, league tournaments became established, in addition to lengthy derby and cup tournaments. By the year 2000, national leagues were established in every country throughout the world, as well as local or regional leagues for lower level teams. Since the introduction of league football, most club sides play a number of friendlies before the start of each season. Friendly football matches are considered to be non-competitive and are only used to "warm up" players for a new season/competitive match. There is nothing competitive at stake and some rules may be changed or experimented with; such games take place between a large club and small clubs that play nearby, such as those between Newcastle United and Gateshead. Although most friendlies are one-off matches arranged by the clubs themselves, in which a certain amount is paid by the challenger club to the incumbent club, some teams do compete in short tournaments, such as the Community Shield, Emirates Cup, Teresa Herrera Trophy, International Champions Cup and the Amsterdam Tournament.
Although these events may involve sponsorship deals and the awarding of a trophy and may be broadcast on television, there is little prestige attached to them. International teams play friendlies in preparation for the qualifying or final stages of major tournaments; this is essential, since national squads have much less time together in which to prepare. The biggest difference between friendlies at the club and international levels is that international friendlies take place during club league seasons, not between them; this has on occasion led to disagreement between national associations and clubs as to the availability of players, who could become injured or fatigued in a friendly. International friendlies give team managers the opportunity to experiment with team selection and tactics before the tournament proper, allow them to assess the abilities of players they may select for the tournament squad. Players can be booked in international friendlies, can be suspended from future international matches based on red cards or accumulated yellows in a specified period.
Caps and goals scored count towards a player's career records. In 2004, FIFA ruled that substitutions by a team be limited to six per match in international friendlies in response to criticism that such matches were becoming farcical with managers making as many as 11 substitutions per match. Matches in multinational football tournaments such as the King's Cup, the Kirin Cup, the China Cup are considered international friendlies by FIFA. In the UK and Ireland, "exhibition match" and "friendly match" refer to two different types of games; the types described above as friendlies are not termed exhibition matches, while annual all-star matches such as those held in the US Major League Soccer or Japan's Japanese League are called exhibition matches rather than friendly matches. A one-off match for charitable fundraising involving one or two all-star teams, or a match held in honor of a player for contribution to his/her club, may be described as exhibition matches but they are referred to as charity matches and testimonial matches respectively.
A bounce game is a non-competitive football match played between two sides as part of a training exercise or to give players match practice. Managers may use bounce games as an opportunity to observe a player in action before offering a contract; these games are played on a training ground rather than in a stadium with no spectators in attendance. Exhibition fights were once common in boxing. Jack Dempsey fought many exhibition bouts after retiring. Joe Louis fought a charity fight on his rematch with Buddy Baer, but this was not considered an exhibition as it was for Louis' world Heavyweight title. Muhammad Ali fought many exhibitions, including one with Lyle Alzado. In more modern times, Mike Tyson, Julio Cesar Chavez Sr. Jorge Castro, Óscar de la Hoya and Floyd Mayweather Jr. have been involved in exhibition fights. Although not fought for profit, amateur bouts and sparring sessions are not considered to be exhibition fights. Prior to the
Portuguese Angola refers to Angola during the historic period when it was a territory under Portuguese rule in southwestern Africa. In the same context, it is occasionally referred to as Portuguese West Africa. Ruling along the coast and engaging in military conflicts with the Kingdom of Kongo, in the 18th century Portugal managed to colonise the interior Highlands. However, full control of the entire territory was not achieved until the beginning of the 20th century, when agreements with other European powers during the Scramble for Africa fixed the colony's interior borders. In 1975, Portuguese Angola became the independent People's Republic of Angola; the history of Portuguese presence on the territory of contemporary Angola lasted from the arrival of the explorer Diogo Cão in 1484 until the decolonization of the territory in November 1975. During these five centuries, several different situations have to be distinguished; when Diogo Cão and other explorers reached the Kongo Kingdom at the end of the 15th century, Angola as such did not exist.
Its present territory comprised a number of separate peoples, some organized as kingdoms or tribal federations of varying sizes. The Portuguese were interested in trade, principally in slaves, they therefore maintained a peaceful and mutually profitable relationship with the rulers and nobles of the Kongo Kingdom, whom they Christianised and taught Portuguese, allowing them a share of the benefits from the slave trade. They established small trading posts on the lower Congo, in the area of the present Democratic Republic. A more important trading settlement on the Atlantic coast was erected at Soyo in the territory of the Kongo Kingdom, it is now Angola's northernmost town, apart from the Cabinda exclave. In 1575, the settlement of Luanda was established on the coast south of the Kongo Kingdom, in the 17th century the settlement of Benguela farther to the south. From 1580 to the 1820s, well over a million people from present-day Angola were exported as slaves to the so-called New World to Brazil, but to North America.
According to Oliver and Atmore, "for 200 years, the colony of Angola developed as a gigantic slave-trading enterprise". Kingdom of Portugal sailors, explorers and merchants had a long-standing policy of conquest and establishment of military and trading outposts in Africa with the conquest of Muslim-ruled Ceuta in 1415 and the establishment of bases in present-day Morocco and the Gulf of Guinea; the Portuguese had Catholic beliefs and their military expeditions included from the beginning the conversion of foreign peoples. In the 17th century, conflicting economic interests led to a military confrontation with the Kongo Kingdom. Portugal defeated the Kongo Kingdom in the Battle of Mbwila on October 29, 1665, but suffered a disastrous defeat at the Battle of Kitombo when they tried to invade Kongo in 1670. Control of most of the central highlands was achieved in the 18th century. Further reaching attempts at conquering the interior were undertaken in the 19th century However, full Portuguese administrative control of the entire territory was not achieved until the beginning of the 20th century.
In 1884, the United Kingdom, which up to that time refused to acknowledge that Portugal possessed territorial rights north of Ambriz, concluded a treaty recognising Portuguese sovereignty over both banks of the lower Congo. However, the treaty, meeting with opposition there and in Germany, was not ratified. Agreements concluded with the Congo Free State, the German Empire and France in 1885–1886 fixed the limits of the province, except in the south-east, where the frontier between Barotseland and Angola was determined by an Anglo-Portuguese agreement of 1891 and the arbitration award of King Vittorio Emanuele III of Italy in 1905. During the period of Portuguese colonial rule of Angola, cities and trading posts were founded, railways were opened, ports were built, a Westernised society was being developed, despite the deep traditional tribal heritage in Angola which the minority European rulers were neither willing nor interested in eradicating. Since the 1920s, Portugal's administration showed an increasing interest in developing Angola's economy and social infrastructure.
In 1951, the Portuguese Colony of Angola became an overseas province of Portugal. In the late 1950s the National Front for the Liberation of Angola and the People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola began to organize strategies and action plans to fight Portuguese rule and the remunerated system which affected many of the native African people from the countryside, who were relocated from their homes and made to perform compulsory work always unskilled hard labour, in an environment of economic boom. Organised guerrilla warfare began in 1961, the same year that a law was passed to improve the working conditions of the unskilled native workforce, demanding more rights. In 1961, the Portuguese Government indeed abolished a number of basic legal provisions which discriminated against black people, like the Estatuto do Indigenato. However, the conflict, conversely known as the Colonial War or the War of Liberation, erupted in the North of the territory when UPA rebels based in Republic of the Congo massacred both white and black civilians in surprise attacks in the countryside.
After visiting the United Nations, rebel leader Holden Roberto returned to Kinshasa and organised Bakongo militants. Holden Roberto launched an incursion into Angola on March 15, 1961, leading 4,000 to 5,000 militants, his forces took farms, government outposts, trading centres, killing everyone they encountered. At least 1,000 whites and an unknown number of blacks were killed. Commenting
Supertaça Cândido de Oliveira
The Supertaça Cândido de Oliveira is an annual Portuguese football match played since 1979 between the winners of the previous season's league and cup competitions. In the case that one team has won both competitions it will play again against the runners-up of the Taça de Portugal; the Supertaça has been organised by the Portuguese Football Federation since 1981, is played in August, just before the start of the league season. The trophy is named after former player and sports journalist Cândido de Oliveira. In the 1943–44 season, the Super Cup was created for a special game between Primeira Divisão champions Sporting CP and Taça de Portugal winners Benfica, on occasion of the inauguration of the Estádio Nacional; the commissioned trophy was named Taça Império – not to be mistaken with Taça do Império, the first incarnation of the Taça de Portugal. After the game, it was decided that the competition was to be continued, but it was canceled; the second incarnation came 20 years when Casa da Imprensa instituted a trophy, the Taça de Ouro da Imprensa to be challenged between the national champions and the cup winners.
The Super Cup started unofficially in 1978–79 with a local derby between Boavista and Porto that ended with a 2–1 victory for Boavista. The following season, another derby occurred between Benfica and Sporting, which constituted the second unofficial Super Cup and the first played over two legs. With the success of both unofficial Super Cup editions, the Portuguese Football Federation decided to uphold the competition on a yearly basis in a two-legged format; the first official edition took place in the 1981–82 season under the current name. The rules stated that two matches were played and that the aggregate result would determine the winner. If a draw occurred a replay of the match should be played in a neutral ground; this occurred six times — 1984, 1991, 1993, 1994, 1995 and 2000 — with the replay of the 1984 edition being contested again in two legs. Because interest in the Super Cup was waning and in order to reduce the crowded football calendar, in the 2000–01 season, the FPF decided to abolish the two-legged format and replay match and use a single match played in a neutral ground to determine the winner.
Note: Teams in italics played the Super Cup as losing Cup finalists, since their opponents had won both the Championship and the Cup in that same year. Note: These statistics do not include the editions of 1944 and 1964. List of association football competitions in Portugal List of Supertaça Cândido de Oliveira winning managers Supertaça Cândido de Oliveira official page Portugal - List of Super Cup Winners, RSSSF.com
In sport, a cap is a metaphorical term for a player's appearance in a game at international level. The term dates from the practice in the United Kingdom of awarding a cap to every player in an international match of association football. In the early days of football, the concept of each team wearing a set of matching shirts had not been universally adopted, so each side would distinguish itself from the other by wearing a specific sort of cap. An early illustration of the first international football match between Scotland and England in 1872 shows the Scottish players wearing cowls, the English wearing a variety of school caps; the practice was first approved on 10 May 1886 for association football after a proposal made by N. Lane Jackson, founder of the Corinthians: That all players taking part for England in future international matches be presented with a white silk cap with red rose embroidered on the front; these to be termed International Caps. The act of awarding a cap is applied to other sports.
Although in some sports physical caps may not now always be given the term "cap" for an international or other appearance has been retained as an indicator of the number of occasions on which a sportsperson has represented a team in a particular sport. Thus, a "cap" is awarded for each game played and so a player who has played x games, for the team, is said to have been capped x times or have won x caps; the practice of awarding a physical cap varies from sport to sport. It may be awarded prior to a player's debut or for national teams, a commemorative cap may be awarded after a player reaches the 100th cap; as an example, the England men's association football teams still awards physical caps. Players are awarded one cap for every match they play — unless they play in a World Cup or European Championship finals tournament, they are given a single cap for the competition — with the names of all their opponents stitched into the fabric of the cap itself. For example, when David Beckham made his one hundredth appearance for England, because a number of his appearances had been at World Cup and European Championship final tournaments for which he received only one cap, he received only his 85th physical cap.
The world record holder for the highest number of international caps as of 5 November 2010 is retired American player Kristine Lilly, who has 354 caps. In men's association football, the record belongs to former player Ahmed Hassan of Egypt; the first footballer to win 100 international caps was Billy Wright of England's Wolverhampton Wanderers. Wright went on to appear 105 times for England, 90 of them. FIFA rules state that any club that refuses to release a player for national team duty is barred from using the player for two matches, a rule, intended to discourage clubs from pretending that the player is injured. However, it is a player's choice to refuse to retire from his or her national team; some current leading holders of association football caps are: 184 – Ahmed Hassan, Egypt 178 – Hossam Hassan, Egypt 178 – Mohamed Al-Deayea, Saudi Arabia 177 – Claudio Suárez, Mexico 178 in Mexican records 169 – Gianluigi Buffon, Italy 168 – Iván Hurtado, Ecuador 167 – Iker Casillas, Spain 166 – Vitālijs Astafjevs, Latvia 164 – Cobi Jones, United States 163 - Sergio Ramos, Spain 163 – Mohammed Al-Khilaiwi, Saudi Arabia 161 – Adnan Al-Talyani, United Arab Emirates 158 – Bader Al-Mutawa, Kuwait 157 – Landon Donovan, United States 354 – Kristine Lilly, United States World record holder 311 – Christie Rampone, United States 275 – Mia Hamm, United States 272 – Julie Foudy, United States 259 - Christine Sinclair, Canada 256 – Abby Wambach, United States 239 – Joy Fawcett, United States 231 – Heather O'Reilly, United States 214 – Birgit Prinz, Germany 214 – Therese Sjögran, SwedenBold denotes players active in international football.
In cricket, there are two types of caps. Firstly, there is the international type; some countries award a domestic type known as a "county cap". The latter system is most applied in English county cricket. Most counties do not automatically award caps to players on their first appearance. Indeed, one can play at the highest domestic level for several years, have a quite significant career in first-class cricket, without winning a cap; the world record for the number of caps in Test cricket is held by Sachin Tendulkar of India, who has, over the course of a 22-year career, collected 200. Tendulkar holds the record for One Day Internationals, with 463 caps. In rugby union, 35 players have reached 100 international caps as of 5 June 2012. Players from England, Scotland and Ireland are eligible for selection to the British and Irish Lions touring squad. Lions matches are classed as full international tests, caps are awarded; the Pacific Islanders team, composed of players from Fiji, Tonga and Cook Islands have a similar arrangement, although no players involved have so far reached 100 caps.
Players still active at Test level are in bold type. Richie McCaw, New Zealand — 148 Brian O'Driscoll, Ireland — 141 George Gregan, Australia — 139 Gethin Jenkins, Wales, 131 — Ronan O'Gara, Ireland — 130 Keven Mealamu, New Zealand — 125 Victor
Augusto de Vasconcelos
Augusto César de Almeida de Vasconcelos Correia, GCSE, better known as Augusto de Vasconcelos was a Portuguese surgeon and diplomat, who served as 57th Prime Minister of Portugal. He graduated at the Lisbon Medico-Surgical School in 1891, where he taught becoming a Professor of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Lisbon. A Republican since his youth, he was Minister of Foreign Affairs of the first Constitutional Government of the Portuguese First Republic, whose Prime Minister was João Pinheiro Chagas, from October 12, 1911 to November 12, 1911, he succeeded Chagas as Prime Minister of another Portuguese Republican Party government, in power from November 11, 1911 to June 4, 1912. In that government, too, he held the post of Foreign Minister as well as that of Prime Minister, he was Foreign Minister again from June 16, 1912 to January 9, 1913. He served as Plenipotentiary Minister in Madrid and London, during World War I, which Portugal entered in 1916 on the Allies' side. Subsequently, he led the Portuguese delegation at the Peace Conference, in Paris, in 1919.
After that he concentrated on diplomacy, in the service of the League of Nations as a Delegate of Portugal. He helped to solve international conflicts, like the Chaco War between Bolivia and Paraguay in 1935. From 1935 to 1937 he occupied the office of President of the League of Nations, he received the Grand Crosses of the Order of Saint James of the Sword, the Order of Isabel the Catholic, the Order of the Crown of Belgium and both the Orders of Merit of Chile and Peru and was Grand Officer of the Légion d'honneur of France, etc. He was a son of Júlio César de Vasconcelos Correia, an Engineer and a Shipbuilder, wife Constança Libânia Auta de Almeida, his father was a natural son of António César de Vasconcelos Correia, 1st Viscount and 1st Count of Torres Novas and 93rd Governor-General of India, thus being a second cousin once removed of Fernando Peyroteo and three times removed of José Couceiro. He married in Lisbon, Santa Catarina, Hermínia Laura de Albuquerque Henriques Moreira, widow of Augusto Pereira Leite and daughter of José Joaquim Henriques Moreira, Division General, Commander of the Municipal Guard, Commander of the Order of Aviz and Knight of the Order of the Tower and Sword, etc. and wife Maria Hermínia de Albuquerque de Mesquita e Paiva, daughter of the 2nd Viscount of Oleiros, had: Júlio Moreira de Vasconcelos, a medical doctor and without issue Maria Teresa Moreira de Vasconcelos and without issue José Moreira de Vasconcelos, an engineer, married to Maria Gabriela de Sampaio e Melo, had issue: Maria de Sampaio e Melo de Vasconcelos and without issue José Maria de Sampaio e Melo de Vasconcelos and without issue Maria Isabel de Sampaio e Melo de Vasconcelos and without issue Augusto António de Sampaio e Melo de Vasconcelos, married to Maria Helena do Patrocínio Nogueira Maria José de Sampaio e Melo de Vasconcelos, married to José Afonso de Almada Negreiros, son of José Sobral de Almada Negreiros and wife Sarah Afonso Maria Micaela de Sampaio e Melo de Vasconcelos, married to politician Raúl Miguel de Oliveira Rosado Fernandes Maria Teresa de Sampaio e Melo de Vasconcelos, married to José Maria da Fonseca Caldeira Cabral Maria Isabel Moreira de Vasconcelos, married to Pedro de Sárrea Mascarenhas Gaivão, without issue Augusto de Vasconcelos's genealogy in a Portuguese genealogical site
Bola de Prata (Portugal)
The Bola de Prata is a Primeira Liga award for the top scorer. In case two or more players have the same number of goals, the award goes to the footballer with the fewest games played, it was first awarded as a prize in the 1952–53 season by sports newspaper A Bola. Héctor Yazalde holds the record for most goals in a single season, with 46, achieved in the 1973–74 season. Fernando Peyroteo recorded the highest goals-to-games ratio to win the award, 2.43, in 1937–38. There have been 49 different winners. 17 players have won the award in more than one occasion, with Eusébio having the record with seven wins. Eusébio holds the record for most consecutive wins, with five. Rui Jordão, Paulinho Cascavel and Mário Jardel are the only players to win the award with two clubs, Cascavel is the only one to achieve it in consecutive seasons
The violin, sometimes known as a fiddle, is a wooden string instrument in the violin family. Most violins have a hollow wooden body, it is highest-pitched instrument in the family in regular use. Smaller violin-type instruments exist, including the violino piccolo and the kit violin, but these are unused; the violin has four strings tuned in perfect fifths, is most played by drawing a bow across its strings, though it can be played by plucking the strings with the fingers and by striking the strings with the wooden side of the bow. Violins are important instruments in a wide variety of musical genres, they are most prominent in the Western classical tradition, both in ensembles and as solo instruments and in many varieties of folk music, including country music, bluegrass music and in jazz. Electric violins with solid bodies and piezoelectric pickups are used in some forms of rock music and jazz fusion, with the pickups plugged into instrument amplifiers and speakers to produce sound. Further, the violin has come to be played in many non-Western music cultures, including Indian music and Iranian music.
The name fiddle is used regardless of the type of music played on it. The violin was first known in 16th-century Italy, with some further modifications occurring in the 18th and 19th centuries to give the instrument a more powerful sound and projection. In Europe, it served as the basis for the development of other stringed instruments used in Western classical music, such as the viola. Violinists and collectors prize the fine historical instruments made by the Stradivari, Guarneri and Amati families from the 16th to the 18th century in Brescia and Cremona and by Jacob Stainer in Austria. According to their reputation, the quality of their sound has defied attempts to explain or equal it, though this belief is disputed. Great numbers of instruments have come from the hands of less famous makers, as well as still greater numbers of mass-produced commercial "trade violins" coming from cottage industries in places such as Saxony and Mirecourt. Many of these trade instruments were sold by Sears, Roebuck and Co. and other mass merchandisers.
The parts of a violin are made from different types of wood. Violins can be strung with Perlon or other synthetic, or steel strings. A person who makes or repairs violins is called a violinmaker. One who makes or repairs bows is called an bowmaker; the word "violin" was first used in English in the 1570s. The word "violin" comes from "Italian violino, diminutive of viola"; the term "viola" comes from the expression for "tenor violin" in 1797, from Italian viola, from Old Provençal viola, Medieval Latin vitula" as a term which means "stringed instrument," from Vitula, Roman goddess of joy... or from related Latin verb vitulari, "to exult, be joyful." The related term "Viola da gamba" means "bass viol" is from Italian "a viola for the leg"." A violin is the "modern form of the smaller, medieval viola da braccio." The violin is called a fiddle, either when used in a folk music context, or in Classical music scenes, as an informal nickname for the instrument. The word "fiddle" was first used in English in the late 14th century.
The word "fiddle" comes from "fedele, fidel, earlier fithele, from Old English fiðele "fiddle,", related to Old Norse fiðla, Middle Dutch vedele, Dutch vedel, Old High German fidula, German Fiedel, "a fiddle. As to the origin of the word "fiddle", the "...usual suggestion, based on resemblance in sound and sense, is that it is from Medieval Latin vitula." The earliest stringed instruments were plucked. Two-stringed, bowed instruments, played upright and strung and bowed with horsehair, may have originated in the nomadic equestrian cultures of Central Asia, in forms resembling the modern-day Mongolian Morin huur and the Kazakh Kobyz. Similar and variant types were disseminated along East-West trading routes from Asia into the Middle East, the Byzantine Empire; the direct ancestor of all European bowed instruments is the Arabic rebab, which developed into the Byzantine lyra by the 9th century and the European rebec. The first makers of violins borrowed from various developments of the Byzantine lyra.
These included the lira da braccio. The violin in its present form emerged in early 16th-century northern Italy; the earliest pictures of violins, albeit with three strings, are seen in northern Italy around 1530, at around the same time as the words "violino" and "vyollon" are seen in Italian and French documents. One of the earliest explicit descriptions of the instrument, including its tuning, is from the Epitome musical by Jambe de Fer, published in Lyon in 1556. By this time, the violin had begun to spread throughout Europe; the violin proved popular, both among street musicians and the nobility. One of these "noble" instruments, the Charles IX, is the oldest surviving violin; the finest Renaissance carved and decorated violin in the world is the Gasparo da Salò owned by Ferdinand II, Archduke of Austria and from 1841, by the Norwegian virtuoso Ole Bull, who used it for forty years and thousands of concerts, for i