County Wexford is an eastern county in Ireland, bordered by the Irish Sea. It is part of the South-East Region, it is named after the town of Wexford and was based on the historic Gaelic territory of Hy Kinsella, whose capital was Ferns. Wexford County Council is the local authority for the county; the population of the county was 149,722 at the 2016 census. The county is rich in evidence of early human habitation. Portal tombs exist at Newbawn -- and date from the Neolithic period or earlier. Remains from the Bronze Age period are far more widespread. Early Irish tribes formed the Kingdom of Uí Cheinnsealaig, an area, larger than the current County Wexford. County Wexford was one of the earliest areas of Ireland to be Christianised, in the early 5th century. From 819 onwards, the Vikings invaded and plundered many Christian sites in the county. Vikings settled at Wexford town near the end of the 9th century. In 1169, Wexford was the site of the invasion of Ireland by Normans at the behest of Diarmuid Mac Murrough, King of Uí Cheinnsealaig and king of Leinster.
This was followed by the subsequent colonisation of the country by the Anglo-Normans. The native Irish began to regain some of their former territories in the 14th century in the north of the county, principally under Art MacMurrough Kavanagh. Under Henry VIII, the great religious houses were dissolved, 1536–41. On 23 October 1641, a major rebellion broke out in Ireland, County Wexford produced strong support for Confederate Ireland. Oliver Cromwell and his English Parliamentarian Army captured it; the lands of the Irish and Anglo-Normans were confiscated and given to Cromwell's soldiers as payment for their service in the Parliamentarian Army. At Duncannon, in the south-west of the county, James II, after his defeat at the Battle of the Boyne, embarked for Kinsale and to exile in France. County Wexford was the most important area in which the Irish Rebellion of 1798 was fought, during which significant battles occurred at The Battle of Oulart Hill during the 1798 rebellion. Vinegar Hill and New Ross.
The famous ballad "Boolavogue" was written in remembrance of the Wexford Rising. At Easter 1916, a small rebellion occurred on cue with that in Dublin. During World War II, German planes bombed Campile. In 1963 John F. Kennedy President of the United States, visited the county and his ancestral home at Dunganstown, near New Ross. Wexford is the 13th largest of Ireland's thirty-two counties in area, 14th largest in terms of population, it is the largest of Leinster's 12 counties in size, fourth largest in terms of population. The county is located in the south-east corner of the island of Ireland, it is bounded by the sea on two sides—on the south by the Atlantic Ocean and on the east by St. George's Channel and the Irish Sea; the River Barrow forms its western boundary. The Blackstairs Mountains form part of the boundary to the north, as do the southern edges of the Wicklow Mountains; the adjoining counties are Waterford, Kilkenny and Wicklow. County Town: Wexford Market Town: Gorey County Wexford is known as Ireland's "sunny southeast" because, in general, the number of hours of sunshine received daily is higher than in the rest of the country.
This has resulted in Wexford becoming one of the most popular places in Ireland in. The county has a changeable, oceanic climate with few extremes; the North Atlantic Drift, a continuation of the Gulf Stream, moderates winter temperatures. There is a meteorological station located at Rosslare Harbour. January and February are the coldest months, with temperatures ranging from 4–8 °C on average. July and August are the warmest months, with temperatures ranging from 12–18 °C on average; the prevailing winds are from the south-west. Precipitation falls throughout the year. Mean annual rainfall is 800–1,200 millimetres; the county receives less snow than more northerly parts of Ireland. Heavy snowfalls are rare, but can occur; the one exception is Mount Leinster, visible from a large portion of the county, covered with snow during the winter months. Frost is frequent in coastal areas. Low-lying fertile land is the characteristic landscape of the county; the highest point in the county is Mount Leinster at 795 metres, in the Blackstairs Mountains in the north-west on the boundary with County Carlow.
Other high points: Black Rock Mountain, 599 m. It is located within County Wexford. Croghan Mountain on the Wexford-Wicklow border - 606 m Annagh Hill, 454 m, near the Wicklow border Slieveboy, 420 m Notable hills include: Carrigbyrne Hill; the major rivers are the Barrow. At 192 km in length, the river Barrow is the second-longest river on the island of Ireland. Smaller rivers of note are the Owenduff, Corrock, Boro, Owenavorragh and Bann rivers. There are no significant fresh-water lakes in the county. Small seaside lakes or lagoons exist at two locations – one is called Lady's Island Lake and the other Tacumshin Lake; the Wexford Cot is a flat bottomed boat used for fishing on the tidal mudflats in Wexford a canoe shaped
An Garda Síochána, more referred to as the Gardaí or "the Guards", is the police service of the Republic of Ireland. The service is headed by the Garda Commissioner, appointed by the Irish Government, its headquarters are in Dublin's Phoenix Park. Since the formation of the Garda Síochána in 1923, it has been a predominantly unarmed force, more than three-quarters of the force do not carry firearms; as of 31 July 2018, the police service had 2,310 civilian staff. Operationally, the Garda Síochána is organised into six geographical regions: the Eastern, Southern, South-Eastern and Dublin Metropolitan Regions. In addition to its crime detection and prevention roles, road safety enforcement duties, community policing remit, the police service has some diplomatic and witness protection responsibilities and border control functions; the service was named the Civic Guard in English, but in 1923 it became An Garda Síochána in both English and Irish. This is translated as "the Guardian of the Peace". Garda Síochána na hÉireann appears on its logo but is used elsewhere.
The full official title of the police service is used in speech. How it is referred to depends on the register being used, it is variously known as An Garda Síochána. Although Garda is singular, in these terms it is used like police. An individual officer is called a garda, or, informally, a "guard". A police station is called a Garda station. Garda is the name of the lowest rank within the force. "Guard" is the most common form of address used by members of the public speaking to a garda on duty. A female officer was once referred to as a bangharda; this term was abolished in 1990, but is still used colloquially in place of the now gender-neutral garda. The service is headed by the Garda Commissioner, whose immediate subordinates are two Deputy Commissioners – in charge of "Policing and Security" and "Governance and Strategy" – and a Chief Administrative Officer with responsibility for resource management. There is an Assistant Commissioner for each of the six geographical Regions, along with a number dealing with other national support functions.
The six geographical Garda Regions, each overseen by an Assistant Commissioner, are: Dublin Metropolitan Region Eastern Northern Southern South-Eastern WesternAt an equivalent or near-equivalent level to the Assistant Commissioners are the positions of Chief Medical Officer, Executive Director of Information and Communications Technology, Executive Director of Finance. Directly subordinate to the Assistant Commissioners are 40 Chief Superintendents, about half of whom supervise what are called Divisions; each Division contains a number of Districts, each commanded by a Superintendent assisted by a team of Inspectors. Each District contains a number of Subdistricts, which are commanded by Sergeants; each Subdistrict contains only one Garda station. A different number of Gardaí are based at each station depending on its importance. Most of these stations employ the basic rank of Garda, referred to as the rank of Guard until 1972; the most junior members of the service are students, whose duties can vary depending on their training progress.
They are assigned clerical duties as part of their extracurricular studies. The Garda organisation has 2,000 non-officer support staff encompassing a range of areas such as human resources, occupational health services and procurement, internal audit, IT and telecommunications and fleet management, scenes-of-crime support and analysis, training and general administration; the figure includes industrial staff such as traffic wardens and cleaners. It is ongoing government policy to bring the level of non-officer support in the organisation up to international standards, allowing more officers to undertake core operational duties; the Garda Síochána Act 2005 provided for the establishment of a Garda Reserve to assist the force in performing its functions, supplement the work of members of the Garda Síochána. The intent of the Garda Reserve is "to be a source of local strength and knowledge". Reserve members are to carry out duties defined by the Garda Commissioner and sanctioned by the Minister for Justice and Equality.
With reduced training of 128 hours, these duties and powers must be executed under the supervision of regular members of the Service. The first batch of 36 Reserve Gardaí graduated on 15 December 2006 at the Garda College, in Templemore; as of October 2016, there were 789 Garda Reserve members with further training scheduled for 2017. Special Crime Operations consists of: Garda National Bureau of Criminal Investigation Criminal Assets Bureau Garda National Drugs and Organised Crime Bureau Garda National Economic Crime Bureau Garda National Cyber Crime Bureau Garda National Immigration Bureau Garda National Protective Services Bureau Technical Bureau Special Tactics & Operations Command: Emergency Response Unit Armed Support Units Operational Support Services that consists of: Air Support Unit Water Unit Dog Uni
County Monaghan is a county in Ireland. It is in the province of Ulster, it is named after the town of Monaghan. Monaghan County Council is the local authority for the county; the population of the county is 60,483 according to the 2011 census. The county has existed since 1585, when the Mac Mathghamhna rulers of Airgíalla agreed to join the Kingdom of Ireland. Following the 20th-century Irish War of Independence and the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty, Monaghan was one of three Ulster counties to join the Irish Free State rather than Northern Ireland. Monaghan is the fifth smallest of the Republic's 26 counties in area and fourth smallest by population, it is the smallest of Ulster's nine counties in size and the smallest in terms of population. Cremorne Dartree Farney Monaghan Trough 1. Monaghan = 7,452 2. Carrickmacross = 4,925 3. Castleblayney = 3,634 4. Clones = 1,761 5. Ballybay = 1,461 Notable mountains include Mullyash Mountain and Coolberrin Hill. Lakes include Lough Avaghon, Dromore Lough, Drumlona Lough, Lough Egish, Emy Lough, Lough Fea, Inner Lough, Muckno Lough and White Lough.
Notable rivers include the River Glyde, the Ulster Blackwater and the Dromore River. Monaghan has a number including Rossmore Forest and Dartrey Forest. Managed by Coillte since 1988, the majority of trees are conifers. Due to a long history of intensive farming and recent intensive forestry practices, only small pockets of native woodland remain; the Finn Bridge is a border crossing point over the River Finn to County Fermanagh. It is close to Scotshouse. Lead was mined in County Monaghan. Mines included Lisdrumgormley Lead Mines. In 1585, the English lord deputy of Ireland, Sir John Perrot, visited the area and met the Irish chieftains, they requested that Ulster be divided into counties and land in the kingdom of Airgíalla be apportioned to each of the McMahon chiefs. A commission was established to accomplish this and County Monaghan came into being; the county was subdivided into five baronies: Farney, Dartrey and Truagh, left under the control of the McKenna chieftains. After the defeat of the rebellion of Hugh O'Neill, The O'Neill and the Ulster chieftains in 1603, the county was not planted like the other counties of Ulster.
The lands were instead left in the hands of the native chieftains. In the Irish Rebellion of 1641 the McMahons and their allies joined the general rebellion of Irish Catholics. Following their defeat, some colonisation of the county took place with Scottish and English families. County Monaghan is traversed by the derelict Ulster Canal, however Waterways Ireland are embarking on a scheme to reopen the canal from Lough Erne into Clones; the Ulster Railway linked Monaghan with Armagh and Belfast in 1858 and with the Dundalk and Enniskillen Railway at Clones in 1863. It became part of the Great Northern Railway in 1876; the partition of Ireland in 1922 turned the boundary with County Armagh into an international frontier, after which trains were delayed by customs inspections. In 1957 the Government of Northern Ireland made the GNR Board close the line between Portadown and the border, giving the GNRB no option but to withdraw passenger services between the border and Clones as well. CIÉ took over the remaining section of line between Clones and Glaslough in 1958 but withdrew goods services between Monaghan and Glaslough in 1959 and between Clones and Monaghan in 1960, leaving Monaghan with no railway service.
Monaghan is divided into four local electoral areas: Carrickmacross, Castleblayney and Monaghan. The towns of Ballybay, Castleblayney and Monaghan are represented by nine-member town councils which deal with local matters such as the provision of utilities and housing. For the purposes of elections to Dáil Éireann, the county is part of the Cavan–Monaghan Constituency which elects five T. D.s. In the 2011 general election, there was a voter turnout of 72.7%. For elections to the European Parliament, the county is part of the Midlands–North-West constituency. Politically, the county is considered a stronghold for Sinn Féin, the largest party in the county, followed by Fine Gael. County Monaghan is the birthplace of the poet and writer Patrick Kavanagh, who based much of his work in the county. Kavanagh is one of the most significant figures in 20th-century Irish poetry; the poems "Stony Grey Soil" and "Shancoduff" refer to the county. Monaghan has produced several successful artists. Chief among these is George Collie, born in Carrickmacross and trained at the Dublin Metropolitan School of Art.
He was a prolific exhibitor at the Royal Hibernian Academy throughout his lifetime and is represented by works in the collection of the National Gallery of Ireland and the Ulster Museum. Monaghan was the home county of the Irish writer Sir Shane Leslie, 3rd Baronet of Glaslough, who lived at Castle Leslie in the north-east corner of the county. A Catholic convert, Irish nationalist and first cousin of Winston Churchill, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Leslie became an important literary figure in the early 1900s, he was a close friend of many politicians and writers of the day including the American novelist F. Scott Fitzgerald, who dedicated his second novel, The Beautiful and Damned, to Leslie. Monaghan County Museum is recognised as one of the l
Confession, in many religions, is the acknowledgment of one's sins or wrongs. Buddhism has been from its inception a tradition of renunciation and monasticism. Within the monastic framework of the sangha regular confession of wrongdoing to other monks is mandatory. In the suttas of the Pali Canon Bhikkhus sometimes confessed their wrongdoing to the Buddha himself; that part of the Pali Canon called the Vinaya requires that monks confess their individual sins before the bi-weekly convening for the recitation of the Patimokkha. In Catholic teaching, the Sacrament of Penance is the method of the Church by which individual men and women confess sins committed after baptism and have them absolved by God through the administration of a Priest; the Catholic rite, obligatory at least once a year for serious sin, is conducted within a confessional box, booth or reconciliation room. This sacrament is known by many names, including penance and confession. While official Church publications refer to the sacrament as "Penance", "Reconciliation" or "Penance and Reconciliation", many laypeople continue to use the term "Confession" in reference to the Sacrament.
For the Catholic Church, the intent of this sacrament is to provide healing for the soul as well as to regain the grace of God, lost by sin. A perfect act of contrition, wherein the penitent expresses sorrow for having offended God and not out of fear of eternal punishment outside of confession removes the eternal punishment associated with mortal sin but a Catholic is obliged to confess his or her mortal sins at the earliest opportunity. In theological terms, the priest acts in persona Christi and receives from the Church the power of jurisdiction over the penitent; the Council of Trent quoted John 20:22-23 as the primary Scriptural proof for the doctrine concerning this sacrament, but Catholics consider Matthew 9:2-8, 1 Corinthians 11:27, Matthew 16:17-20 to be among the Scriptural bases for the sacrament. The Catholic Church teaches that sacramental confession requires three "acts" on the part of the penitent: contrition, disclosure of the sins, satisfaction; the basic form of confession has not changed for centuries, although at one time confessions were made publicly.
The penitent begins sacramental confession by saying, "Bless me Father, for I have sinned. It has been since my last confession." The penitent must confess what he/she believes to be grave and mortal sins, in both kind and number, in order to be reconciled with God and the Church. The sinner may confess venial sins. According to the Catechism, "without being necessary, confession of everyday faults is strongly recommended by the Church. Indeed the regular confession of our venial sins helps us form our conscience, fight against evil tendencies, let ourselves be healed by Christ and progress in the life of the Spirit. By receiving more through this sacrament the gift of the Father's Mercy, we are spurred to be merciful as He is merciful". "When Christ's faithful strive to confess all the sins that they can remember, they undoubtedly place all of them before the divine mercy for pardon." As a result, if the confession was good, "the sacrament was valid" the penitent inadvertently forgot some mortal sins, which are forgiven as well.
As a safeguard not to become something like "subconsciously inadvertent" to avoid saying some sins, these must be confessed in the next confession. It is allowed, however allowed, except for certain devotional purposes sensible to concentrate in one's examination of conscience on the time since the last Confession. In general, Eastern Catholic and Orthodox Christians choose an individual to trust as his or her spiritual guide. In most cases this may be a starets; this person is referred to as one's "spiritual father". Once chosen, the individual turns to their spiritual guide for advice on their spiritual development, confessing sins, asking advice. Orthodox Christians tend to confess only to this individual and the closeness created by this bond makes the spiritual guide the most qualified in dealing with the person, so much so that no one can override what a spiritual guide tells his charges. What is confessed to one's spiritual guide is protected by the same seal as would be any priest hearing a confession.
Only an ordained priest may pronounce the absolution. Confession does not take place in a confessional, but in the main part of the church itself before an analogion set up near the iconostasion. On the analogion is placed a Gospel Book and a blessing cross; the confession takes place before an icon of Jesus Christ. Orthodox understand that the confession is not made to the priest, but to Christ, the priest stands only as witness and guide. Before confessing, the penitent venerates the Gospel Book and cross, places the thumb and first two fingers of his right hand on the feet of Christ as he is depicted on the cross; the confessor will read an admonition warning the penitent to make a full confession, holding nothing back. As with administration of other sacraments, in cases of emergency confession may be heard anywhere. For this reason in the Russian Orthodox Churc
Dundalk is the county town of County Louth, Ireland. It is on the Castletown River, which flows into Dundalk Bay, is near the border with Northern Ireland, halfway between Dublin and Belfast, it has associations with the mythical warrior hero Cú Chulainn. The Dundalk area has been inhabited since at least 3500 BC during the Neolithic period. A tangible reminder of this early presence can still be seen in the form of the Proleek Dolmen, the eroded remains of a megalithic tomb located in the Ballymascanlon area to the north of Dundalk. Celtic culture arrived in Ireland around 500 BC. According to the legendary historical accounts, the group settled in North Louth were known as the Conaille Muirtheimne and took their name from Conaill Carnagh, legendary chief of the Red Branch Knights of Ulster, their land now forms lower Dundalk. Dundalk had been developed as an unwalled Sráid Bhaile; the streets passed along a gravel ridge which runs from the present day Bridge Street in the North, through Church Street to Clanbrassil Street to Earl Street, to Dublin Street.
In 1169 the Normans set about conquering large areas. By 1185 a Norman nobleman named Bertram de Verdun erected a manor house at Castletown Mount and subsequently obtained the town's charter in 1189. Another Norman family, the De Courcys, led by John de Courcy, settled in the Seatown area of Dundalk, the "Nova Villa de Dundalke". Both families assisted in the fortification of the town, building walls and other fortification in the style of a Norman fortress; the town of Dundalk was developed as it lay close to an easy bridging point over the Castletown River and as a frontier town, the northern limit of The Pale. In 1236 Bertram's granddaughter, Rohesia commissioned Castle Roche to fortify the region, to offer protection from the Irish territory of Ulster; the town was sacked during the Bruce campaign. After taking possession of the town Edward Bruce proclaimed himself King of Ireland and remained here for nearly a whole year before his army was defeated and himself slain after being attacked by John de Birmingham.
Dundalk had been under Royalist control for centuries, until 1647 when it became occupied by The Northern Parliamentary Army of Colonel George Monck. The modern town of Dundalk owes its form to Lord Limerick in the 17th century, he commissioned the construction of streets leading to the town centre. In addition to the demolition of the old walls and castles, he had new roads laid out eastwards of the principal streets; the most important of these new roads connected a newly laid down Market Square, which still survives, with a linen and cambric factory at its eastern end, adjacent to what was once an army cavalry and artillery barracks. In the 19th century, the town grew in importance and many industries were set up in the local area, including a large distillery; this development was helped by the opening of railways, the expansion of the docks area or'Quay' and the setting up of a board of commissioners to run the town. The partition of Ireland in May 1921 turned Dundalk into a border town and the Dublin–Belfast main line into an international railway.
The Irish Free State opened customs and immigration facilities at Dundalk to check goods and passengers crossing the border by train. The Irish Civil War of 1922–23 saw a number of confrontations in Dundalk; the local Fourth Northern Division of the Irish Republican Army under Frank Aiken, who took over Dundalk barracks after the British left, tried to stay neutral but 300 of them were detained by the National Army in August 1922. However, a raid on Dundalk Gaol freed over 100 other anti-treaty prisoners. Aiken did not try to hold the town and before withdrawing he called for a truce in a meeting in the centre of Dundalk; the 49 Infantry Battalion and 58 Infantry Battalion of the National Army were based in Dundalk along with No.8 armoured locomotive and two armoured cars of their Railway Protection Corps. For several decades after the end of the Civil War, Dundalk continued to function as a market town, a regional centre, a centre of administration and manufacturing, its position close to the border gave it considerable significance during the "Troubles" of Northern Ireland.
Many people were sympathetic to the cause of the Provisional Irish Republican Sinn Féin. It was in this period that Dundalk earned the nickname'El Paso', after the Texan border town of the same name on the border with Mexico. In December 2000, Taoiseach Brian Cowen welcomed US president Bill Clinton to Dundalk to mark the conclusion of the Troubles and the success of the Northern Ireland peace process. Cowen said: Dundalk is a meeting point between Dublin and Belfast, has played a central role in the origin and evolution of the peace process. More than most towns in our country, Dundalk, as a border town, has appreciated the need for a lasting and just peace. On 1 September 1973, the 27 Infantry Battalion of the Irish Army was established with its Headquarters in Dundalk barracks, renamed Aiken Barracks in 1986 in honour of Frank Aiken. Dundalk suffered economically when Irish membership of the European Economic Community in the 1970s exposed local manufacturers to foreign competition that they were ill-equipped to cope with.
The result was the closure of many local factories, resulting in the highest unemployment rate in Leinster, Ireland's richest province. High unemployment produced serious s
Colm O'Gorman is the Executive Director of Amnesty International Ireland. He is founder and former director of One in Four, he is a survivor of clerical sexual abuse, first came to public attention by speaking out against the perpetrators. O'Gorman subsequently founded One in Four, an Irish charity which supports men and women who have been sexually abused and/or suffered sexual violence, he was a Senator in 2007, representing the Progressive Democrats. Colm O'Gorman was born in County Wexford, his father was Seán O'Gorman, of Adamstown, County Wexford – a farmer and local Fianna Fáil politician. Seán O'Gorman was a member of Wexford County Council, moved with his family to live in Wexford town, he twice stood unsuccessfully as a Fianna Fáil candidate in general elections: in 1969 and 1973. In 2002, Colm O'Gorman settled near County Wexford, he is raising two children with his husband Paul. When this was revealed it generated debate on fosterships in the Irish media; as an adolescent in County Wexford – between the age of 15 and 18 – O'Gorman was sexually abused by Fr Seán Fortune.
The abuse occurred between 1981 and 1983. He became the first of Fortune's many victims to come forward and report the assaults to the Irish police. In 1998, he sued the Bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Ferns and the Dublin Papal Nuncio, inter alia the Pope, John Paul II, who claimed diplomatic immunity, his case against the Catholic Diocese of Ferns was settled in 2003 with an admission of negligence and the payment of damages – in April 2003, O'Gorman was awarded €300,000 damages. O'Gorman documented his lawsuit in the BBC documentary Suing the Pope, he campaigned to set up the Ferns Inquiry, the first Irish state inquiry into clerical sexual abuse. He founded the charity One in Four in London in 1999 and established its sister organisation in Ireland in 2002, he is a well-known figure in Irish media as an advocate of child sexual abuse victims and a commentator and campaigner on sexual violence. He was named one of the ESB/Rehab People of the Year and received a TV3/Daily Star "Best of Irish" award in 2002, one of the Sunday Independent/Irish Nationwide People of the Year in 2003 and in the same year he was awarded the James Larkin Justice Award by the Labour Party for his contribution to social justice in Ireland.
In 2006 O'Gorman filmed Sex Crimes and the Vatican for the BBC Panorama documentary series, which claimed that the Vatican has used Crimen sollicitationis secret document to silence allegations of sexual abuse by priests and claimed Crimen sollicitationis was enforced for 20 years by Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger before he became Pope Benedict XVI. In April 2006, he announced that he would stand for the Progressive Democrats, a pro-free market liberal political party, in the 2007 general election in the Wexford constituency. On 3 May 2007, he was appointed to the Senate by the Taoiseach to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Senator Kate Walsh, he was not elected in the 2007 general election in Wexford polling 3% of the vote. He was not re-appointed to the 23rd Seanad in July 2007, he is the Executive Director of Amnesty International Ireland, appears to talk about human rights in Ireland and around the world. Official Colm O'Gorman site One In Four official site One In Four UK Apology and settlement from the Church Telegraph interview with O'Gorman
The Eucharist is a Christian rite, considered a sacrament in most churches, as an ordinance in others. According to the New Testament, the rite was instituted by Jesus Christ during the Last Supper. Through the Eucharistic celebration Christians remember both Christ's sacrifice of himself on the cross and his commission of the apostles at the Last Supper; the elements of the Eucharist, sacramental bread and sacramental wine, are consecrated on an altar and consumed thereafter. Communicants, those who consume the elements, may speak of "receiving the Eucharist", as well as "celebrating the Eucharist". Christians recognize a special presence of Christ in this rite, though they differ about how and when Christ is present. While all agree that there is no perceptible change in the elements, Roman Catholics believe that their substances become the body and blood of Christ. Lutherans believe the true body and blood of Christ are present "in, under" the forms of the bread and wine. Reformed Christians believe in a real spiritual presence of Christ in the Eucharist.
Others, such as the Plymouth Brethren and the Christadelphians, take the act to be only a symbolic reenactment of the Last Supper and a memorial. In spite of differences among Christians about various aspects of the Eucharist, there is, according to the Encyclopædia Britannica, "more of a consensus among Christians about the meaning of the Eucharist than would appear from the confessional debates over the sacramental presence, the effects of the Eucharist, the proper auspices under which it may be celebrated"; the Greek noun εὐχαριστία, meaning "thanksgiving", appears fifteen times in the New Testament but is not used as an official name for the rite. Do this in remembrance of me"; the term "Eucharist" is that by which the rite is referred to by the Didache, Ignatius of Antioch and Justin Martyr. Today, "the Eucharist" is the name still used by Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Roman Catholics, Anglicans and Lutherans. Other Protestant or Evangelical denominations use this term, preferring either "Communion", "the Lord's Supper", "Memorial", "Remembrance", or "the Breaking of Bread".
Latter-day Saints call it "Sacrament". The Lord's Supper, in Greek Κυριακὸν δεῖπνον, was in use in the early 50s of the 1st century, as witnessed by the First Epistle to the Corinthians: When you come together, it is not the Lord's Supper you eat, for as you eat, each of you goes ahead without waiting for anybody else. One remains hungry, another gets drunk; those who use the term "Eucharist" use the expression "the Lord's Supper", but it is the predominant term among Evangelical and Pentecostal churches, who avoid using the term "Communion". They refer to the observance as an "ordinance"; those Protestant churches avoid the term "sacrament".'Holy Communion' are used by some groups originating in the Protestant Reformation to mean the entire Eucharistic rite. Others, such as the Catholic Church, do not use this term for the rite, but instead mean by it the act of partaking of the consecrated elements; the term "Communion" is derived from Latin communio, which translates Greek κοινωνία in 1 Corinthians 10:16: The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not the communion of the blood of Christ?
The bread which we break, is it not the communion of the body of Christ? The phrase appears in various related forms five times in the New Testament in contexts which, according to some, may refer to the celebration of the Eucharist, in either closer or symbolically more distant reference to the Last Supper, it is the term used by the Plymouth Brethren. The "Blessed Sacrament" and the "Blessed Sacrament of the Altar" are common terms used by Catholics and some Anglicans for the consecrated elements when reserved in a tabernacle. "Sacrament of the Altar" is in common use among Lutherans. In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints the term "The Sacrament" is used of the rite. Mass is used in the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church, the Lutheran Churches, by many Anglicans, in some other forms of Western Christianity. At least in the Catholic Church, the Mass is a longer rite which always consists of two main parts: the Liturgy of the Word and the Liturgy of the Eucharist, in that order; the Liturgy of the Word consists of readings from scripture (the