A tire or tyre is a ring-shaped vehicle component that covers the wheels rim to protect it and enable better vehicle performance. Most tires, such as those for automobiles and bicycles, provide traction between the vehicle and the road providing a flexible cushion that absorbs shock. The materials of modern tires are synthetic rubber, natural rubber and wire, along with carbon black. They consist of a tread and a body, the tread provides traction while the body provides containment for a quantity of compressed air. Before rubber was developed, the first versions of tires were bands of metal fitted around wooden wheels to prevent wear and tear. Pneumatic tires are used on many types of vehicles, including cars, motorcycles, trucks, heavy equipment, and aircraft. Metal tires are used on locomotives and railcars, and solid rubber tires are still used in various non-automotive applications, such as some casters, lawnmowers. The etymology of tire is that the word is a form of attire. The spelling tyre does not appear until the 1840s when the English began shrink fitting railway car wheels with malleable iron, traditional publishers continued using tire.
The Times newspaper in Britain was still using tire as late as 1905, the spelling tyre began to be commonly used in the 19th century for pneumatic tires in the UK. However, over the course of the 20th century, tyre became established as the standard British spelling, the earliest tires were bands of leather, placed on wooden wheels, used on carts and wagons. The tire would be heated in a fire, placed over the wheel and quenched, causing the metal to contract. A skilled worker, known as a wheelwright, carried out this work, the outer ring served to tie the wheel segments together for use, providing a wear-resistant surface to the perimeter of the wheel. The word tire thus emerged as a variant spelling to refer to the bands used to tie wheels. The first patent for what appears to be a standard pneumatic tire appeared in 1847 lodged by the Scottish inventor Robert William Thomson, this never went into production. The first practical pneumatic tire was made in 1888 on May Street, Belfast, by Scots-born John Boyd Dunlop and it was an effort to prevent the headaches of his 10-year-old son Johnnie, while riding his tricycle on rough pavements.
His doctor, Sir John Fagan, had prescribed cycling as an exercise for the boy, Fagan participated in designing the first pneumatic tires. In Dunlops tire patent specification dated 31 October 1888, his interest is only in its use in cycles, in September 1890, he was made aware of an earlier development but the company kept the information to itself
Auto racing is a sport involving the racing of automobiles for competition. Almost as soon as automobiles had been invented, races of various sorts were organised, by the 1930s specialist racing cars had developed. There are now numerous different categories, each with different rules and it was won by the carriage of Isaac Watt Boulton. Internal combustion auto racing events began soon after the construction of the first successful gasoline-fueled automobiles, the first organized contest was on April 28,1887, by the chief editor of Paris publication Le Vélocipède, Monsieur Fossier. It ran 2 kilometres from Neuilly Bridge to the Bois de Boulogne, on July 22,1894, the Parisian magazine Le Petit Journal organized what is considered to be the worlds first motoring competition, from Paris to Rouen. One hundred and two competitors paid a 10-franc entrance fee, the first American automobile race is generally held to be the Thanksgiving Day Chicago Times-Herald race of November 28,1895. Press coverage of the event first aroused significant American interest in the automobile, brooklands, in Surrey, was the first purpose-built motor racing venue, opening in June 1907.
It featured a 4.43 km concrete track with high-speed banked corners, One of the oldest existing purpose-built automobile racing circuits in the United States, still in use, is the 2. 5-mile -long Indianapolis Motor Speedway in Speedway, Indiana. It is the largest capacity venue of any variety worldwide, with a top capacity of some 257. NASCAR was founded by Bill France, Sr. on February 21,1948, the first NASCAR Strictly Stock race ever was held on June 19,1949, at Daytona Beach, Florida. From 1962, sports cars temporarily took a seat to GT cars. From 1972 through 2003, NASCARs premier series was called the Winston Cup Series, the changes that resulted from RJRs involvement, as well as the reduction of the schedule from 48 to 31 races a year, established 1972 as the beginning of NASCARs modern era. The IMSA GT Series evolved into the American Le Mans Series, the European races eventually became the closely related Le Mans Series, both of which mix prototypes and GTs. The best-known variety of racing, Formula One, which hosts the famous Monaco Grand Prix.
In single-seater, the wheels are not covered, and the cars often have aerofoil wings front, in Europe and Asia, open-wheeled racing is commonly referred to as Formula, with appropriate hierarchical suffixes. In North America, the Formula terminology is not followed, the sport is usually arranged to follow an international format, a regional format, and/or a domestic, or country-specific, format. In North America, the used in the National Championship have traditionally been similar though less sophisticated than F1 cars. The series most famous race is the Indianapolis 500, the other major international single-seater racing series is GP2
Scuderia Ferrari S. p. A. competing as Scuderia Ferrari is the official name of the racing division of luxury Italian auto manufacturer and competes in Formula One racing. It is the oldest surviving and most successful Formula One team, the team was founded by Enzo Ferrari, initially to race cars produced by Alfa Romeo, though by 1947 Ferrari had begun building its own cars. As a constructor, Ferrari has a record 16 Constructors Championships, Alberto Ascari, Juan Manuel Fangio, Mike Hawthorn, Phil Hill, John Surtees, Niki Lauda, Jody Scheckter, Michael Schumacher and Kimi Räikkönen have won a record 15 Drivers Championships for the team. Since Räikkönens title in 2007 the team narrowly lost out on the 2008 drivers title with Felipe Massa, Schumacher is the teams most successful driver. Joining the team in 1996 and departing in 2006 he won five titles and 72 Grands Prix for the team. His titles came consecutively between 2000 and 2004, including the constructors title of 1999 consecutively being won until the end of 2004, this was the teams most successful period.
Currently, World Champions Kimi Räikkönen and Sebastian Vettel are the two race drivers. The team is known for its passionate support base known as the tifosi. The Italian Grand Prix at Monza is regarded as the home race. The Scuderia Ferrari team was founded by Enzo Ferrari on 16 November 1929 and became the team of Alfa Romeo. In 1938, Alfa Romeo management made the decision to enter racing under its own name, establishing the Alfa Corse organisation, Enzo Ferrari disagreed with this change in policy and was finally dismissed by Alfa in 1939. The terms of his leaving forbade him from motorsport under his own name, in 1939 Ferrari started work on a racecar of his own, the Tipo 815. The 815s, designed by Alberto Massimino, were thus the first Ferrari cars, World War II put a temporary end to racing, and Ferrari concentrated on an alternative use for his factory during the war years, doing machine tool work. After the war, Ferrari recruited several of his former Alfa colleagues and established a new Scuderia Ferrari, the team owns and operates a test track on the same site, the Fiorano Circuit built in 1972, which is used for testing road and race cars.
The team is named after its founder, Enzo Ferrari, Scuderia is Italian for a stable reserved for racing horses and is commonly applied to Italian motor racing teams. In 1947 Ferrari constructed the 12-cylinder,1.5 L Tipo 125, a Formula One version of the Tipo 125, the Ferrari 125 F1 was developed in 1948 and entered in several Grand Prix, at the time a World Championship had not yet been established. In 1950, the Formula One World Championship was established, and it is the only team to have competed in every season of the World Championship, from its inception to the current day. The company switched to the large-displacement naturally aspirated formula for the 275,340, after the 1951 Formula One season the Alfa team withdrew from F1, causing the authorities to adopt the Formula Two regulations due to the lack of suitable F1 cars
2011 Malaysian Grand Prix
The 2011 Malaysian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 10 April 2011 at the Sepang International Circuit in Selangor, Malaysia. It was the round of the 2011 Formula One season. The 56-lap race was won by Red Bull driver Sebastian Vettel after starting from pole position, Jenson Button finished second in a McLaren, and Nick Heidfeld completed the podium for Renault, in third place. As a consequence of the race, Vettel extended his lead in the World Drivers Championship to 24 points over Button. Buttons McLaren team-mate Lewis Hamilton, who finished eighth in Malaysia, fell 4 points behind Button in third, several teams made driver changes for the first practice session. GP2 driver Davide Valsecchi took part, replacing Heikki Kovalainen at Lotus, tyre supplier Pirelli brought its silver-banded hard compound tyre as the harder prime tyre and the yellow-banded soft compound as the softer option compound. This was the same selection that Bridgestone had chosen to bring to the Malaysian Grand Prix for the past two years.
Shortly after qualifying, the FIA moved the pole position slot from the left- to the side of the circuit. Before the race, winner of one in Melbourne - Sebastian Vettel - led the Drivers Championship with the 25 points he gained for winning the only race thus far in 2011. The rest of the standings were as the drivers had finished at that race - Lewis Hamilton on 18, in the Constructors Championship, Red Bull lead with 35 points, McLaren were second with 26, and Ferrari were a further 8 behind McLaren on 18 points. Renault were in fourth, just behind on 15 points, Toro Rosso on 4, and Force India on 3, completed the points scoring teams. The first practice session was run in humid but dry conditions, Mark Webber was the fastest driver in the first session, over a second and a half faster than Lewis Hamilton and two seconds faster than Michael Schumacher. Overall lap times were slower at the circuit than in 2010. The session was scattered with incidents, Virgin driver Jérôme dAmbrosio suffered a fault that caused his right-front suspension to fail.
The team were unable to repair the problem in time for the practice session. Further down the pit lane, Renault experienced two problems, first with Nick Heidfeld, whose front-right tyre locked in place. Vitaly Petrov was sidelined with a failure for most of the first session. Webber once again topped the second session, but his margin to Jenson Button was just five thousandths of a second
A chassis consists of an internal vehicle frame that supports an artificial object in its construction and use, can provide protection for some internal parts. An example of a chassis is the underpart of a motor vehicle, if the running gear such as wheels and transmission, and sometimes even the drivers seat, are included, the assembly is described as a rolling chassis. In the case of vehicles, the rolling chassis means the frame plus the running gear like engine, drive shaft, differential. An under body, which is not necessary for integrity of the structure, is built on the chassis to complete the vehicle. For commercial vehicles, a rolling chassis consists of an assembly of all the parts of a truck to be ready for operation on the road. The design of a car chassis will be different than one for commercial vehicles because of the heavier loads. Commercial vehicle manufacturers sell chassis only and chassis, as well as chassis cab versions that can be outfitted with specialized bodies and these include motor homes, fire engines, box trucks, etc.
In particular applications, such as buses, a government agency like National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in the U. S. defines the design standards of chassis. An armoured fighting vehicles hull serves as the chassis and comprises the part of the AFV that includes the tracks, drivers seat. This describes the hull, although common usage might include the upper hull to mean the AFV without the turret. The hull serves as a basis for platforms on tanks, armoured carriers, combat engineering vehicles. In an electronic device, the chassis consists of a frame or other supporting structure on which the circuit boards. In the absence of a frame, the chassis refers to the circuit boards and components themselves. The combination of chassis and outer covering is called an enclosure. Vietnam Studies, Department of the Army, Washington, D. C.1978
Sebastian Vettel is a German racing driver, currently driving in Formula One for Scuderia Ferrari. He is a four-time Formula One World Champion, having won the championship in 2010,2011,2012 and 2013 with Red Bull Racing and he is among the most successful F1 drivers of all time. He is one of four drivers to have won four or more drivers titles. He is contracted to remain as a Formula One driver with Scuderia Ferrari until at least the end of 2017. Vettel started his career in Formula One as a test driver for BMW Sauber and made his debut with the team at the 2007 United States Grand Prix, in the season, he signed with Toro Rosso and stayed with the team into 2008. He became the youngest race winner at the time when he took victory at the 2008 Italian Grand Prix, in his first year driving for Red Bull in 2009, Vettel finished the season as the youngest-ever World Drivers Championship runner-up. The following year he went on to become the youngest driver ever to win the World Drivers Championship, in the same year he helped Red Bull win the teams first World Constructors Championship.
He followed up his first championship with three titles, becoming the youngest double and quadruple world champion in Formula One. The 2011 and 2013 titles saw Vettel dominating the seasons and wrapping up the titles early, after his winless 2014 season he returned to winning ways in his first Ferrari season, being the closest challenger to the dominant Mercedes cars and winning three races. He is currently in place among all time race winners. Vettel was born in Heppenheim, West Germany, to Norbert and he has one younger brother and two older sisters, Melanie, a dental technician, and Stefanie, a physiotherapist for disabled children. Vettel suggested in an interview that he was terrible at school, Vettel is a fan of The Beatles, collecting several records, including Abbey Road and his favourite song being Drive My Car. In an interview on Top Gear, Vettel stated that he was a fan of British comedy such as Little Britain, Vettel lives in Thurgovia, Switzerland amongst other racing drivers and is a fan of German football team Eintracht Frankfurt.
Vettel has described himself as competitive and impatient, Vettel appears in advertisements for Head & Shoulders. Vettel provided the voice of character Sebastian Schnell in the version of the movie Cars 2 dubbed for German-speaking audiences, Vettel is in a relationship with Hanna Prater, a childhood friend. In January 2014, Vettel became a father for the first time with the birth of his daughter, in September 2015, Vettel became a father for the second time with the birth of his second daughter, Matilda. In 2015, Forbes estimated that Vettels annual income was $33 million, on the Formula One circuit, Kimi Räikkönen, his Ferrari teammate for 2015 to 2017, is a close friend. Vettel shows to have a friendship with fellow drivers such as Lewis Hamilton, Michael Schumacher, Nico Rosberg with whom he repeatedly showcases a close
Red Bull Racing
Red Bull Racing is an Austrian Formula One racing team based in Milton Keynes, England. It is one of two F1 teams owned by beverage company Red Bull GmbH, the other being Scuderia Toro Rosso, the team won four successive Constructors Championship titles, in 2010,2011,2012, and 2013, becoming the first Austrian licensed team to win the title. The team produced the world champion driver of 2010,2011,2012. Managed by Christian Horner, the team has used Renault engines since 2007, Red Bull Racing used TAG Heuer-branded Renault engines starting from the 2016 season. The current Red Bull team can trace its origins back to the Stewart Grand Prix outfit that made its debut in 1997. Jackie Stewart sold his team to the Ford Motor Company late in 1999, Red Bull, an energy drinks company, agreed its purchase of Jaguar Racing on the final day of the sale,15 November 2004. BBC Sport reported that Ford asked bidders for a symbolic US$1 in return for a commitment to invest US$400 million in the team over three grand prix seasons.
The team continued to have access to the Cosworth engine developed for their 2005 chassis, Christian Horner was installed as the new Team boss and lined up David Coulthard and Christian Klien to drive for the team. Red Bull Racing was not the start of Red Bulls involvement in Formula One, after setting up a Formula One team of its own, Red Bull ended its long-term partnership with the Swiss team. The drinks company runs a young drivers programme, Red Bull Junior Team, high-profile drivers who have received this backing include Enrique Bernoldi, Christian Klien, Patrick Friesacher, Vitantonio Liuzzi and Scott Speed. Red Bull sponsors many drivers and teams competing in the GP2 Series, Red Bulls owner, Dietrich Mateschitz, reportedly tried to recruit former Formula One driver and BMW Motorsport chief Gerhard Berger to help guide the team through its debut season. For 2005, the chassis was christened the RB1, Red Bull Racing used Cosworth engines in its maiden year due to the ease of continuing with the engine Jaguar Racing used.
Former McLaren driver David Coulthard led the team, Coulthard was chosen for his experience, considered ideal to help lead the fledgling team. For the second car, Red Bull shared the drive two of its young sponsored drivers, Christian Klien, who had driven for Jaguar in 2004 and 2004 F3000 champion Vitantonio Liuzzi. At first it was announced that Klien and Liuzzi would swap driving duty every four races, Red Bulls first year in Formula One was a massive success compared to their predecessors, Jaguar Racing. They were 6th in the Constructors Championship for most of the season, in a single season they amassed more points than Jaguar had in 2003 and 2004. Coulthard, after a poor 2003 and 2004 with McLaren, was a revelation for the team while Klien showed that he had improved from 2004. Overall they scored 34 points,24 for Coulthard,9 for Klien and 1 for Liuzzi, Red Bull was a consistent points and occasional podium challenger for most of their debut season
Kinetic energy recovery system
A kinetic energy recovery system is an automotive system for recovering a moving vehicles kinetic energy under braking. The recovered energy is stored in a reservoir for use under acceleration. Xtrac and Flybrid are both licensees of Torotraks technologies, which employ a small and sophisticated ancillary gearbox incorporating a continuously variable transmission, the CPC-KERS is similar as it forms part of the driveline assembly. However, the whole mechanism including the flywheel sits entirely in the vehicle’s hub, in the CPC-KERS, a differential replaces the CVT and transfers torque between the flywheel, drive wheel and road wheel. The first of these systems to be revealed was the Flybrid and this system weighs 24 kg and has an energy capacity of 400 kJ after allowing for internal losses. A maximum power boost of 60 kW for 6.67 seconds is available, the 240 mm diameter flywheel weighs 5.0 kg and revolves at up to 64,500 rpm. Maximum torque at the flywheel is 18 Nm, and the torque at the connection is correspondingly higher for the change in speed.
The system occupies a volume of 13 litres, already in 2006, a first KERS system based on supercapacitors has been studied at EPFL in the framework of the development of the Formula S2000. A 180kJ system has developed in collaboration with other institutes. Two minor incidents were reported during testing of various KERS systems in 2008, the first occurred when the Red Bull Racing team tested their KERS battery for the first time in July, it malfunctioned and caused a fire scare that led to the teams factory being evacuated. The second was less than a week when a BMW Sauber mechanic was given a shock when he touched Christian Kliens KERS-equipped car during a test at the Jerez circuit. Formula One has stated that they support responsible solutions to the environmental challenges. Teams began testing systems in 2008, energy can either be stored as energy or as electrical energy. With the introduction of KERS in the 2009 season, only four teams used it at point in the season, Renault, BMW. Eventually, during the season, Renault and BMW stopped using the system, vodafone McLaren Mercedes became the first team to win an F1 GP using a KERS equipped car when Lewis Hamilton won the Hungarian Grand Prix on July 26,2009.
Their second KERS equipped car finished fifth, at the following race, Lewis Hamilton became the first driver to take pole position with a KERS car, his team mate, Heikki Kovalainen qualifying second. This was the first instance of an all KERS front row, on August 30,2009, Kimi Räikkönen won the Belgian Grand Prix with his KERS equipped Ferrari. It was the first time that KERS contributed directly to a victory, with second placed Giancarlo Fisichella claiming Actually
BBS Kraftfahrzeugtechnik AG is a high-performance automobile wheel design company headquartered in Schiltach, Germany. BBS serves North America through BBS of America, located in Braselton, Georgia, BBS produces wheels for motorsport, OEM, and aftermarket applications. The company employs approximately 1,200 employees worldwide, the initials BBS are based on the last names of the two founders and the city in which the company was founded. In 2007 BBS went bankrupt and was taken over by the Belgian firm Punch International, as of July 1st 2015, Nice Corp became the majority owner. In 1972 BBS pioneered the development of a racing wheel. This innovation earned BBS Kraftfahrzeugtechnik the Automechanika Innovation Award 2006 in the tuning segment, BBS entered into a technical cooperation agreement in 1990 with ASA, a Korean company that was starting wheel production. Ltd manufactures the BBS F1 Magnesium wheel and All racing Aluminum wheels, since BBS is a customer of Washibeam, manufacture of the wheel will not be discontinued if BBS goes bankrupt. BBS has and continues to supply OEM wheel applications to a number of automobile brands, lexus began using BBS wheels on its IS-F when launched in 2008, updating the design for the 2010 model year and again for 2012.
The cross-spoke design, which resembles a wire wheel and was common on sports cars produced from the 1980s to the early 1990s. This design is light in weight compared to other styles of the time. One of the most popular BBS produced wheels was the three-piece RS released in 1977, another popular and commonly replicated wheel design is the RG, the companys first wheel produced. The company supplies motorsports applications and is the largest supplier of wheels for Indy Racing League Series, official website BBS promotional video showing manufacturing processes
SpA is a multinational company based in Milan, formerly listed on the Milan Stock Exchange since 1922. It was acquired in 2015 by ChemChina, the company is one of the largest tyre manufacturers behind Bridgestone, Michelin and Goodyear. It is present in over 160 countries, has 20 manufacturing sites in 14 countries, Pirelli has been sponsoring sport competitions since 1907 and is the exclusive tyre supplier for the Formula One Championship for 2011–2019 and for the FIM World Superbike Championship. Pirelli is now a pure tyre manufacturing company, in the past it has launched fashion project and operated in renewable energy and sustainable mobility. Founded in Milan in 1872 by Giovanni Battista Pirelli, the company specialised in rubber and derivative processes. Thereafter, Pirellis activities were focused on the production of tyres and cables. In 2005, Pirelli sold its division to Goldman Sachs. In the 1950s, Alberto Pirelli commissioned the building of a skyscraper, Pirelli Tower, in 1974, Pirelli invented the wide radial tyre, upon a request from the Lancia rally racing team for a tyre strong enough to withstand the power of the new Lancia Stratos.
At that time, racing tyres were either slick tyres made with the cross ply technique, or radial tyres, both were unusable for the Lancia Stratos, as the radials were destroyed within 10 km, and the slicks too stiff. Lancia asked Pirelli for a solution, and in 1975 Pirelli created a wide tyre with a reduced sidewall height like a slick, Porsche started using the same tyres with the Porsche 911 Turbo. In 1988, Pirelli acquired the Armstrong Rubber Company, which was headquartered in New Haven, Connecticut, in 2002 the company started a range of Pirelli branded clothing and eyewear. In March 2015, it was announced that Pirelli shareholders has accepted a €7.1 billion bid from ChemChina for the company, the transaction was completed and the company was delisted in November 2015. The list of Pirelli main shareholders As of September 2016 The list of Pirelli Board of Directors, the Pirelli Calendar is published annually, and regularly features famous actresses and fashion models. The Pirelli Internetional Award is given annually for the best international multimedia involving the communication of science, power is nothing without control is the well known slogan of Pirelli Tyre Company, and is featured in numerous television and print advertisements.
Pirelli is the main sponsor of Italian football club Inter Milan. Pirelli has a history of sponsoring football teams, Pirelli is well known for its long term primary sponsorship of the Italian football team Inter Milan. Pirelli previously appeared as a sponsor on the shirts of the Maltese football club Valletta for a short time, Pirellis sponsorship of football teams is not limited to Europe, South America is a key market and as a result successful clubs have been sponsored by the tyre company. The Brazilian team Palmeiras, Uruguayan team Peñarol and Argentinian side Vélez Sársfield all had Pirelli as a shirt sponsor, when English Football League One side Burton Albion Football Club built their new stadium in 2005, Pirelli became the title sponsor of the new ground
Formula One is the highest class of single-seat auto racing that is sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de lAutomobile. The FIA Formula One World Championship has been the form of racing since the inaugural season in 1950. The formula, designated in the name, refers to a set of rules, the F1 season consists of a series of races, known as Grands Prix, held worldwide on purpose-built F1 circuits and public roads. The results of each race are evaluated using a system to determine two annual World Championships, one for drivers, one for constructors. The racing drivers are required to be holders of valid Super Licences, the races are required to be held on tracks graded 1, the highest grade a track can receive by the FIA. Most events are held in locations on purpose-built tracks, but there are several events in city centres throughout the world. Formula One cars are the fastest road racing cars in the world. Formula One cars race at speeds of up to approximately 375 km/h with engines currently limited in performance to a maximum of 15,000 RPM, the cars are capable of lateral acceleration in excess of five g in corners.
The performance of the cars is very dependent on electronics – although traction control and other driving aids have been banned since 2008 – and on aerodynamics, the formula has radically evolved and changed through the history of the sport. F1 had a global television audience of 425 million people during the course of the 2014 season. Grand Prix racing began in 1906 and became the most popular internationally in the second half of the twentieth century. The Formula One Group is the holder of the commercial rights. Its high profile and popularity have created a major merchandising environment, since 2000 the sports spiraling expenditures and the distribution of prize money favoring established top teams have forced complaints from smaller teams and led several teams to bankruptcy. On 23 January 2017 it was confirmed that Liberty Media had completed its $8 billion acquisition of Delta Topco, the Formula One series originated with the European Grand Prix Motor Racing of the 1920s and 1930s.
The formula is a set of rules that all cars must meet. Formula One was a new formula agreed upon after World War II during 1946, the first world championship race was held at Silverstone, United Kingdom in 1950. A championship for constructors followed in 1958, national championships existed in South Africa and the UK in the 1960s and 1970s. Non-championship Formula One events were held for years, but due to the increasing cost of competition