Ferrari 195 Inter
See the 195 S sports racer The 195 Inter is a sportscar produced by Ferrari in 1950 as a grand tourer version of the Ferrari 195 S racer. Introduced at the 1950 Paris Motor Show, it was similar to the 166 Inter shown a year earlier and was aimed at the same affluent clientele,27 were built in less than a year, receiving the odd-numbered chassis numbers. Coachbuilders were Carrozzeria Vignale, Carrozzeria Ghia, Carrozzeria Touring and Motto, like the last of the 166 Inters, the wheelbase was stretched by 80 mm to 2,500 mm, but the larger 2.3 L version of the Colombo V12 was the true differentiator. The engine increase was accomplished by pushing the bore from 60 to 65 mm, a single Weber 36DCF carburettor was normally fitted, for a total output of 130 hp though some used triple carbs. The more-potent Ferrari 212 Inter was introduced at the 1951 Paris show and outlived the 195
Berlinetta is an especially sporty form of coupé. Typically a two-seater, the type may include 2+2s, the original meaning for berlinetta in Italian is “little saloon”. Introduced in the 1930s, the term was popularized by Ferrari in the 1950s, Opel, Alfa Romeo, and other European car manufacturers have used the Berlinetta label. In North America, Chevrolet produced a version of the Chevrolet Camaro called the Berlinetta, the model offered European styling touches to emphasize the interior rather than the performance of the car, which had long been the main selling point of the Camaro
Ferrari 250 GTO
The Ferrari 250 GTO is a GT car produced by Ferrari from 1962 to 1964 for homologation into the FIAs Group 3 Grand Touring Car category. It was powered by Ferraris Tipo 168/62 V12 engine, the 250 in its name denotes the displacement in cubic centimeters of each of its cylinders, GTO stands for Gran Turismo Omologato, Italian for Grand Touring Homologated. Just 39250 GTOs were manufactured between 1962 and 1964 and this includes 33 cars with 1962-63 bodywork, three with 1964 bodywork similar to the Ferrari 250 LM, and three 330 GTO specials with a larger engine. Four of the older 1962-1963 cars were updated in 1964 with Series II bodies, when new, the GTO cost $18,000 in the United States, with buyers personally approved by Enzo Ferrari and his dealer for North America, Luigi Chinetti. In May 2012 the 1962250 GTO made for Stirling Moss set a record selling price of $38,115,000. In October 2013, Connecticut-based collector Paul Pappalardo sold chassis number 5111GT to a buyer for a new record of around $52 million.
In 2004, Sports Car International placed the 250 GTO eighth on a list of Top Sports Cars of the 1960s, Motor Trend Classic placed the 250 GTO first on a list of the Greatest Ferraris of All Time. Popular Mechanics named it the Hottest Car of All Time, the 250 GTO was designed to compete in GT racing, where its rivals would include the Shelby Cobra, Jaguar E-Type and Aston Martin DP214. The development of the 250 GTO was headed by chief engineer Giotto Bizzarrini, although Bizzarrini is usually credited as the designer of the 250 GTO, he and most other Ferrari engineers were fired in 1962 due to a dispute with Enzo Ferrari. Further development of the 250 GTO was overseen by new engineer Mauro Forghieri, the design of the car was a collaborative effort and cannot be ascribed to a single person. The mechanical aspects of 250 GTO were relatively conservative at the time of its introduction, using engine, the chassis of the car was based on that of the 250 GT SWB, with minor differences in frame structure and geometry to reduce weight and lower the chassis.
The car was built around a hand-welded oval tube frame, incorporating A-arm front suspension, rear live-axle with Watts linkage, disc brakes, the engine was the race-proven Tipo 168/62 Comp. 3.0 L V12 as used in the 250 Testa Rossa Le Mans winner, an all-alloy design utilizing a dry sump and six 38DCN Weber carburetors, it produced approximately 300 horsepower. The gearbox was a new 5-speed unit with Porsche-type synchromesh, Bizzarrini focused his design effort on the cars aerodynamics in an attempt to improve top speed and stability. The body design was informed by wind tunnel testing at Pisa University as well as road, the resulting all-aluminium bodywork had a long, low nose, small radiator inlet, and distinctive air intakes on the nose with removable covers. Early testing resulted in the addition of a rear spoiler, the underside of the car was covered by a belly pan and had an additional spoiler underneath formed by the fuel tank cover. The aerodynamic design of the 250 GTO was a technical innovation compared to previous Ferrari GT cars.
The bodies were constructed by Scaglietti, with the exception of early prototypes with bodies constructed in-house by Ferrari or by Pininfarina, Cars were produced in many colours, with the most famous being the bright red Rosso Cina
Automobili Stanguellini is an Italian maker of small sports cars, based in Modena and founded by Vittorio Stanguellini, it was most active between 1946 and 1960. They continued to produce cars until 1981, when Vittorio Stanguellini died, thenceforth. The Stanguellini family has had an involvement with the motor car. Vittorios grandfather founded a company in 1879, and his father was the first one in Modena to register a car. By the time Vittorio took over, in 1929, the business included a FIAT agency. Vittorio Stanguellini began tuning and modifying Maserati, Alfa Romeo and Fiat cars for racing and he was a friendly rival of Enzo Ferrari in Modena beginning in the late 1920s. Vittorio formed Squadra Corse Stanguellini in 1938 and quickly found success when he modified a Maserati 6CM which took the victory at the 1938 Targa Florio. Stanguellinis cars competed in sports car racing events and major alike. Vittorio Stanguellini used his experience tuning Fiats in the pre-war days, focusing on the 750 &1100 cc classes, Stanguellini sports cars were beautifully engineered cars with light-alloy cylinder blocks, twin overhead camshafts and dual side-draught Weber carburettors.
This would add up to a claimed 60 bhp at 7500 rpm from the 741 cc sports engine and 90 bhp at 7000 rpm from the larger engine, providing top speeds of around 180 km/h and 190 km/h respectively. Unlike many other of the so-called Etceterinis, Stanguellini were loath to use foreign parts, bodywork was usually by local Carrozzeria Reggiano. Vittorio Stanguellini tried very hard to gain a win at the 24 Hours of Le Mans, with his limited resources, he never was able to achieve this. His best finish was a fourth in class, Vittorio Stanguellini had been making special aluminum twin-cam cylinder heads for the Fiat 1100 block since 1947. However, in 1950 he finished his most ambitious project, a complete 750cc racing engine - designed from a sheet of paper by Oberdan Golfieri. This was a light weight 9000 rpm engine based on a specially cast aluminum block, Stanguellini racing cars achieved extraordinary success worldwide with this engine in the 1950s, including numerous national championships in Italy and France.
Briggs Cunningham purchased a 750cc twin-cam car which he raced in the United States, the Vanderbilt Cup was run as a Formula Junior race in 1960. In 1947, a Bertone bodied four-seat berlinetta was offered, using familiar Fiat 1100TV parts in a tubular chassis and this was offered with a 1,500 cc engine. A Fiat 750-based two-seater was offered up the following year, in 1963, Stanguellini completed a single-seat streamliner called the Colibrì, powered by a 250 cc Moto Guzzi motorcycle racing engine
Ferrari 212 Export
The Ferrari 212 Export was a sports racing car produced by Ferrari in 1951 to replace the 195 S. It had a shorter wheelbase than the Ferrari 212 Inter grand tourer, the Colombo 2.6 L V12 used in the Export had an 8.0,1 compression ratio, up from the 7.5,1 ratio used in the Inter. Rather than the Inters 150 bhp at 6000 rpm single Weber 36 DCF carburetor engine, twenty-eight 212 Export models were built, most of them used in competition. In 1951,212 Exports took the first three places in the Tour de France automobile racing event and won the Giro di Sicilia, www. QV500. com - Ferrari 212 Part 2,212 Export. Archived from the original on October 25,2008, barchetta-The Classic and Sports Car Channel
A sports car is a small, usually two seater, two door automobile designed for spirited performance and nimble handling. According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, the first known use of the term was in 1928, Sports cars may be spartan or luxurious, but high maneuverability and minimum weight are requisite. The basis for the car is traced to the early 20th century touring cars and roadsters. These raced in rallies, such as the Herkomer Cup, Prinz-Heinrich-Fahrt. These would shortly be joined by the French DFP and the Rolls-Royce Silver Ghost. In 1921, Ballot premiered its 2LS, with a remarkable 75 hp DOHC two liter, designed by Ernest Henry, capable of 150 km/h, at most, one hundred were built in four years and this was followed by the SOHC 2LT and 2LTS. The same year, Benz built a supercharged 28/95PS four for the Coppa Florio, duerkopps Zoller-blown two liter in 1924, as well. There was a clear cleavage by 1925, by the end of the 1920s, AC produced a 2-liter six, the 3. Benz introduced the powerful SS and SSK, and Alfa Romeo, hispano-Suizas Alfonso XIII is considered the first sportcar developed between 1911 and 1914.
Two companies would offer really reliable sports cars, Austin with the Seven, the drive train and engine layout significantly influences the handling characteristics of an automobile, and is crucially important in the design of a sports car. The front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is common to cars of any era and has survived longer in sports cars than in mainstream automobiles. Examples include the Caterham 7, Mazda MX-5, and the Chevrolet Corvette, more specifically, many such sports cars have a FMR layout, with the centre of mass of the engine between the front axle and the firewall. In search of improved handling and weight distribution, other layouts are sometimes used, the RMR layout is commonly found only in sports cars—the motor is centre-mounted in the chassis, and powers only the rear wheels. Some high-performance sports car manufacturers, such as Ferrari and Lamborghini have preferred this layout, Porsche is one of the few remaining manufacturers using the rear-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout.
The motors distributed weight across the wheels, in a Porsche 911, provides excellent traction, Porsche has continuously refined the design and in recent years added electronic driving aids to counteract these inherent design shortcomings. The front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout layout which is the most common in sport compacts and hot hatches, its conservative handling effect, particularly understeer, and the fact that many drivers believe rear wheel drive is a more desirable layout for a sports car count against it. The Fiat Barchetta, Saab Sonett, and Berkeley cars are cars with this layout. Before the 1980s few sports cars used four-wheel drive, which had added a lot of weight
The Ferrari Daytona, officially designated the Ferrari 365 GTB/4, is a two-seat grand tourer produced by Ferrari from 1968 to 1973. It was introduced at the Paris Auto Salon in 1968 to replace the 275 GTB/4, the Daytona was succeeded by the mid-engined 365 GT4 Berlinetta Boxer in 1973. To this day, Ferrari itself only rarely refers to the 365 as the Daytona, unlike Lamborghinis then-new, mid-engined Miura, the Daytona was a traditional front-engined, rear-drive car. At a compression ratio of 9.3,1, it produced 357 PS, 0-60 mph acceleration was just 5.4 seconds. The five-speed manual transmission was mounted in the rear for optimal weight distribution, although a Pininfarina design, as with many previous Ferrari road cars styled by Leonardo Fioravanti, the 365 GTB/4 was radically different. Its sharp-edged styling resembled a Lamborghini more than a traditional Pininfarina Ferrari, early Daytonas featured fixed headlights behind an acrylic glass cover. A new U. S. safety regulation banning headlights behind covers resulted in retractable pop-up twin headlights in 1971, the generally accepted total number of Daytonas from the Ferrari club historians is 1,406 over the life of the model.
This figure includes 156 UK right-hand-drive coupés,122 factory-made spyders, all bodies except the first Pininfarina prototype were produced by Italian coachbuilder Scaglietti, which at the time already had a reputable record of working with Ferrari. Historically, and especially since the mid-1980s and early 1990s, there has mostly been a market price difference between a real berlinetta and a real spyder. Many berlinettas were turned into spyders by aftermarket mechanics, often to increase the monetary value or simply because of the owners preference for an open car. Differences in value have typically remained, even after the most skillful conversions, no Berlinettas were converted into Spyders by Scaglietti, Ferrari would not allow this, or now. The first racing version of the 365GTB/4 was prepared in 1969, Ferrari did not produce an official competition car until late in 1970. The official cars were built in three batches of five each, in 1970-1,1972 and 1973. They all featured a lightweight body making use of aluminium and fibreglass panels, the engine was unchanged from the road car in the first batch of competition cars, but tuned in the latter two batches.
The cars were not raced by the official Scuderia Ferrari team and they enjoyed particular success in the 24 Hours of Le Mans, with results including a 5th overall in 1971, followed by GT class wins in 1972,1973 and 1974. In 1972 Ferrari 365 GTB/4s took the first 5 places of the GT class, the final major success of the car was in 1979, when a 1973 car achieved a class victory in the 24 Hours of Daytona. In 1971, the Daytona gained fame when one was driven by Dan Gurney and Brock Yates in the inaugural Cannonball Baker Sea-To-Shining-Sea Memorial Trophy Dash. Showcasing the cars potential for sustained high speed travel, the pair won with an speed of 80.1 miles per hour
Sports car racing
Sports car racing is a form of circuit auto racing with sports cars that have two seats and enclosed wheels. They may be purpose-built or related to road-going models, a type of hybrid between the purism of open-wheelers and the familiarity of touring car racing, this style is often associated with the annual Le Mans 24 Hours endurance race. First run in 1923, Le Mans is one of the oldest motor races still in existence, other classic but now defunct sports car races include the Italian classics, the Targa Florio and Mille Miglia, and the Mexican Carrera Panamericana. Most top class sports car races emphasize endurance and strategy, longer races usually involve complex pit strategy and regular driver changes. These makers top road cars have often very similar both in engineering and styling to those raced. This close association with the nature of the cars serves as a useful distinction between sports car racing and touring cars. The 12 Hours of Sebring,24 Hours of Daytona, and 24 Hours of Le Mans were once considered the trifecta of sports car racing.
In the 1920s, the used in endurance racing and Grand Prix were still basically identical, with fenders. Cars such as the Bugatti Type 35 were almost equally at home in Grands Prix and endurance events, but specialisation gradually started to differentiate the sports-racer from the Grand Prix car. As mainly Italian cars and races defined the genre, the category was called Gran Turismo, as long distances had to be travelled and some basic comfort were necessary in order to endure the task. After the Second World War, sports car racing emerged as a form of racing with its own classic races. Top Grand Prix drivers competed regularly in sports car racing, from 1962 sports cars temporarily took a back seat to GT cars with the FIA replacing the World Championship for Sports Cars with the International Championship for GT Manufacturers. The US scene tended to feature small MG and Porsche cars in the smaller classes, the combination of mostly British chassis and American V8 engines gave rise to the popular and spectacular Can-Am series in the 1960s and 1970s.
Clubmans provided much entertainment at club-racing level from the 1960s into the 1990s, after a relative period of decline in the 1980s a British GT Championship emerged in the mid-90s. Road races such as the Mille Miglia included everything from stock touring cars to World Championship contenders, the Mille Miglia was the largest sporting event in Italy until a fatal accident caused its demise in 1957. The Targa Florio, another road race, remained part of the world championship until the 1970s. Between the late 1960s and late 1970s, Matra and Renault made significant, the competition at Le Mans even made it to the movie screens, with Steve McQueens film Le Mans. This era was seen by many as the highpoint of sports car racing, with the technology, a peculiarly American form of sports car racing was the Can-Am series, in which virtually unlimited sports prototypes competed in relatively short races
Gioacchino Colombo was an Italian automobile engine designer. He began work as an apprentice to Vittorio Jano at Alfa Romeo, in 1937, Colombo designed the 158 engine for the Alfetta and caught the attention of Enzo Ferrari. Ferrari asked Colombo to design a small V12 for use in the new Ferrari marques racing, the first Ferrari-Colombo engine appeared on May 11,1947. Colombos great work for Ferrari was a tiny 1.5 L V12, first used in the Tipo 125,159, and 166 sports cars. This engine, known in Ferrari circles as the Colombo engine, was produced for road cars and these included the famed 3.0 L Ferrari 250 racing, and GT cars. Colombos engine was not as successful in Formula One racing, after stunning early success in the 166, the engine was supercharged for use in Formula One but failed to perform well. Ferrari hedged his bets, as he often did, by bringing on competing designer Aurelio Lampredi to create a naturally aspirated V12. Later, Colombos former mentor, Vittorio Jano, came to Ferrari, Colombo left Ferrari in 1950 and returned to Alfa Romeo.
Here, he oversaw the companys racing efforts, including the success that year of Nino Farina and, in 1951, in 1953, Colombo turned to Maserati and created the 250F Grand Prix car. Two years later, Colombo headed to newly restarted Bugatti to work on the 251 and he worked for MV Agusta in 1957-1970. Colombo died in Milan in 1988
The Ferrari 250 is a sports car built by Ferrari from 1953 to 1964. The companys most successful line, the 250 series included several variants. It was replaced by the 275 and the 330, most 250 road cars share the same two wheelbases,2,400 mm for short wheelbase and 2,600 mm for long wheelbase. Most convertibles used the SWB type, nearly all 250s share the same Colombo Tipo 125 V12 engine. At 2,953 cc, it was notable for its weight and impressive output of up to 300 PS in the Testa Rossa. The V12 weighed hundreds of less than its chief competitors — for example. Ferrari uses the displacement of a cylinder as the model designation. The light V12 propelled the small Ferrari 250 racing cars to numerous victories, typical of Ferrari, the Colombo V12 made its debut on the race track, with the racing 250s preceding the street cars by three years. The first 250 was the experimental 250 S berlinetta prototype entered in the 1952 Mille Miglia for Giovanni Bracco, the car was entered at Le Mans and in the Carrera Panamericana.
The 250 S used a 2,250 mm wheelbase with a Tuboscocca tubular trellis frame, suspension was by double wishbones at the front, with double longitudinal semi-elliptic springs locating the live axle at the rear. The car had the drum brakes and worm-and-sector steering typical of the period, the dry-sump 3.0 L engine used three Weber 36DCF carburettors and was mated directly to a five-speed manual transmission. Following the success of the 250 S in the Mille Miglia, Pinin Farina created coupé bodywork which had a small grille, compact tail and panoramic rear window, and the new car was launched as the 250 MM at the 1953 Geneva Motor Show. Carrozzeria Vignales open barchetta version was a design whose recessed headlights. The 250 MMs wheelbase was longer than the 250 S at 2,400 mm, the V12 engines dry sump was omitted from the production car, and the transmission was reduced by one gear. Power was increased to 240 PS, the four-cylinder 625 TF and 735 S replaced the V12-powered 250 MM in 1953. The 250 MMs race debut was at the 1953 Giro di Sicilia with privateer Paulo Marzotto, a Carrozzeria Morelli-bodied 250 MM barchetta driven by Clemente Biondetti came fourth in the 1954 Mille Miglia.
The 1954250 Monza was and unusual hybrid of the light four-cylinder 750 Monza, the model used the 250 engine in the short-wheelbase chassis from the 750 Monza. The first two used the Pininfarina barchetta shape of the 750 Monza and a one-off 500 Mondial, two more 250 Monzas were built by Carrozzeria Scaglietti, an early use of the now-familiar coachbuilder
See the 340 F1, a Formula One racer, and 340 America, a GT car The Ferrari 340 Mexico was a Ferrari race car. It used 4. 1l Lampredi V12 engine producing around 280bhp, just 4 were made in 1952,3 Vignale Berlinettas and 1 Vignale Spyder, all designed by Giovanni Michelotti. The Ferrari 340 MM was a powerful version of the 340 Mexico which was intended for the Carrera Panamericana. The use of Weber carburettors helped the 340 achieve 280 hp at 6600 rpm,11 examples were made,4 Pinin Farina Berlinettas,2 Touring Spyders and 5 Vignale Spyders. Some were converted to 375 MM spec, Ferrari, A Complete Guide to All Models
Automotive design is the profession involved in the development of the appearance, and to some extent the ergonomics, of motor vehicles or more specifically road vehicles. This most commonly refers to automobiles but refers to motorcycles, buses, the functional design and development of a modern motor vehicle is typically done by a large team from many different disciplines included within automotive engineering. Automotive design in context is primarily concerned with developing the visual appearance or aesthetics of the vehicle. Automotive design is practiced by designers who usually have an art background, the task of the design team is usually split into three main aspects, exterior design, interior design, and color and trim design. Graphic design is an aspect of design, this is generally shared amongst the design team as the lead designer sees fit. Design focuses not only on the outer shape of automobile parts. The aesthetic value will need to correspond to ergonomic functionality and utility features as well, though not all the new vehicular gadgets are to be designated as factory standard items, some of them may be integral to determining the future course of any specific vehicular models.
The stylist responsible for the design of the exterior of the vehicle develops the proportions, Exterior design is first done by a series of digital or manual drawings. Progressively, drawings that are more detailed are executed and approved by appropriate layers of management, Clay and or digital models are developed from, and along with the drawings. The data from these models are used to create a full sized mock-up of the final design. With three- and five-axis CNC milling machines, the model is first designed in a computer program and carved using the machine. Even in times of high-class 3d software and virtual models on power walls, here the emphasis is on ergonomics and the comfort of the passengers. The procedure here is the same as with exterior design, the color and trim designer is responsible for the research and development of all interior and exterior colors and materials used on a vehicle. These include paints, fabric designs, grains, headliner, wood trim, contrast and pattern must be carefully combined to give the vehicle a unique interior environment experience.
Designers work closely with the exterior and interior designers, designers draw inspiration from other design disciplines such as, industrial design, home furnishing and sometimes product design. Specific research is done into global trends to design for two to three model years in the future. Trend boards are created from research in order to keep track of design influences as they relate to the automotive industry. The designer uses this information to develop themes and concepts that are further refined and tested on the vehicle models