Internal combustion engine
An internal combustion engine is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. In an internal combustion engine the expansion of the high-temperature and high-pressure gases produced by combustion applies direct force to some component of the engine, the force is applied typically to pistons, turbine blades, rotor or a nozzle. This force moves the component over a distance, transforming chemical energy into mechanical energy. The first commercially successful internal combustion engine was created by Étienne Lenoir around 1859, firearms are a form of internal combustion engine. Working fluids can be air, hot water, pressurized water or even liquid sodium, ICEs are usually powered by energy-dense fuels such as gasoline or diesel, liquids derived from fossil fuels. While there are many applications, most ICEs are used in mobile applications and are the dominant power supply for vehicles such as cars, aircraft.
Typically an ICE is fed with fossil fuels like natural gas or petroleum products such as gasoline, there is a growing usage of renewable fuels like biodiesel for compression ignition engines and bioethanol or methanol for spark ignition engines. Hydrogen is sometimes used, and can be made from fossil fuels or renewable energy. Various scientists and engineers contributed to the development of internal combustion engines, in 1791, John Barber developed a turbine. In 1794 Thomas Mead patented a gas engine, in 1794 Robert Street patented an internal combustion engine, which was the first to use liquid fuel, and built an engine around that time. In 1798, John Stevens built the first American internal combustion engine, in 1807, Swiss engineer François Isaac de Rivaz built an internal combustion engine ignited by electric spark. In 1823, Samuel Brown patented the first internal combustion engine to be applied industrially, in 1860, Belgian Jean Joseph Etienne Lenoir produced a gas-fired internal combustion engine.
In 1864, Nikolaus Otto patented the first atmospheric gas engine, in 1872, American George Brayton invented the first commercial liquid-fuelled internal combustion engine. In 1876, Nikolaus Otto, working with Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach, patented the compressed charge, in 1879, Karl Benz patented a reliable two-stroke gas engine. In 1892, Rudolf Diesel developed the first compressed charge, compression ignition engine, in 1926, Robert Goddard launched the first liquid-fueled rocket. In 1939, the Heinkel He 178 became the worlds first jet aircraft, at one time, the word engine meant any piece of machinery — a sense that persists in expressions such as siege engine. A motor is any machine that produces mechanical power, electric motors are not referred to as Engines, combustion engines are often referred to as motors. In boating an internal combustion engine that is installed in the hull is referred to as an engine, reciprocating piston engines are by far the most common power source for land and water vehicles, including automobiles, ships and to a lesser extent, locomotives
Formula Two, abbreviated to F2, was a type of open wheel formula racing first codified in 1948. It was replaced in 1985 by Formula 3000, but revived by the FIA from 2009–2012 in the form of the FIA Formula Two Championship. The goal of the 2009 revival was to develop a low-cost series to young drivers a chance to compete in the highest tiers of motorsport. In December 2012, series promoter MSV announced that Formula Two would not take place after 2013 due to declining entrant numbers, a third attempt at establishing the series was announced in 2015. Formula 2 returned in 2017, the former GP2 series became FIA Formula 2 in the March leading up to the 2017 season, for much of the history of Formula One, Formula Two has represented the penultimate step on the motorsport ladder. Prior to the Second World War, there existed a division of racing for cars smaller. This category was usually called voiturette racing and provided a means for amateur or less experienced drivers and smaller marques to prove themselves.
By the outbreak of war, the rules for voiturette racing permitted 1.5 L supercharged engines, in 1946, the 3.0 L supercharged rules were abandoned and Formulae A and B introduced. This left no category below Formula A/Formula One, so Formula Two was first formally codified in 1948 by FIA as a smaller and cheaper complement to the Grand Prix cars of the era. Among the races held in this first year of Formula Two was the 1948 Stockholm Grand Prix, the rules limited engines to two-litre naturally aspirated or 750 cc supercharged. As a result, the cars were smaller and this encouraged new marques such as Cooper to move up to Formula Two, before competing against the big manufacturers of Alfa Romeo and Maserati. In fact, Formula One in its early years attracted so few entrants that in 1952 and 1953 all World Championship Grand Prix races, except the unique Indianapolis 500, were run in Formula Two. F2 went into decline with the arrival of the 2.5 L F1 in 1954 and this became dominated by rear-engined Coopers drawing on their Formula 3 and Bobtail sports car, with Porsches based on their RSK sports cars enjoying some success.
Ferrari originally developed their Sharknose Dino 156 as a Formula Two car, the dominant engine of this formula was the Coventry Climax FPF four-cylinder, with the rare Borgward sixteen-valve unit enjoying some success. A slightly enlarged version of the F2 Cooper won the first two Formula One Grands Prix in 1958, marking the beginning of the era in Formula One. Formula Two was largely the domain of Formula One stars on their days off, engines were mostly by Cosworth and Honda, though some other units appeared, including various Fiat based units and dedicated racing engines from BMC and BRM. For 1967, the FIA increased the engine capacity to 1600cc. The FIA introduced the European Formula Two Championship in 1967, driving a Matra MS5, won the inaugural championship by 11 points from the Australian, Frank Gardner
Royal Dutch Shell
Royal Dutch Shell plc, commonly known as Shell, is a British–Dutch multinational oil and gas company headquartered in the Netherlands and incorporated in the United Kingdom. It is one of the six oil and gas supermajors and the sixth-largest company in the world measured by 2016 revenues. Shell was first in the 2013 Fortune Global 500 list of the worlds largest companies and it has renewable energy activities in the form of biofuels and wind. Shell has operations in over 70 countries, produces around 3.7 million barrels of oil equivalent per day and has 44,000 service stations worldwide, as of 31 December 2014, Shell had total proved reserves of 13.7 billion barrels of oil equivalent. Shell Oil Company, its subsidiary in the United States, is one of its largest businesses. Shell holds 50% of Raízen, a joint venture with Cosan, which is the third-largest Brazil-based energy company by revenues, Shell was formed in 1907 through the amalgamation of the Royal Dutch Petroleum Company of the Netherlands and the Shell Transport and Trading Company of the United Kingdom.
Shell first entered the industry in 1929. In 1970 Shell acquired the mining company Billiton, which it sold in 1994. In recent decades gas exploration and production has become an important part of Shells business. Shell acquired BG Group in 2016, making it the worlds largest producer of liquefied natural gas, Shell has a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE100 Index. It has secondary listings on Euronext Amsterdam and the New York Stock Exchange, as of January 2013, Shells largest shareholder was Capital Research Global Investors with 9. 85% ahead of BlackRock in second with 6. 89%. Shells logo, known as the pecten, is one of the most familiar commercial symbols in the world and it was a move largely driven by the need to compete globally with Standard Oil. The Shell Transport and Trading Company was a British company, founded in 1897 by Marcus Samuel, 1st Viscount Bearsted, and his brother Samuel Samuel. Their father had owned a company in Houndsditch, London.
For various reasons, the new firm operated as a company, whereby the merging companies maintained their legal existence. The terms of the merger gave 60 percent ownership of the new group to the Dutch arm and 40 percent to the British, national patriotic sensibilities would not permit a full-scale merger or takeover of either of the two companies. The Dutch company, Koninklijke Nederlandsche Petroleum Maatschappij at The Hague, was in charge of production, the British Anglo-Saxon Petroleum Company was based in London, to direct the transport and storage of the products. During the First World War, Shell was the supplier of fuel to the British Expeditionary Force
Dunlop is a brand of tyres owned by various companies around the world. It is owned and operated by Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company in North America, Australia, in India the brand is owned by Dunlop India Ltd. whose parent company is the Ruia Group. In Asia and Latin America by Sumitomo Rubber Industries, in 1985, Dunlop Rubber Company was acquired by BTR plc, and Sumitomo acquired the rights to manufacture and market Dunlop branded road tyres. Sumitomo did not acquire any Dunlop company, in 1997 Sumitomo gained agreement to use the Dunlop name in its corporate name, and changed the name of its UK subsidiary to Dunlop Tyres Ltd. The company has manufacturing operations throughout the world. With the closure of the Washington plant in 2006, Goodyear Dunlop ceased mainstream car, until May 2014 Goodyear Dunlop occupied a compact part of the site with their British main office. In the UK, the company operates as an organisation, importing tyres from manufacturing plants around the world, including China, Slovenia.
The Goodyear Dunlop joint venture is managed from sites in Luxembourg and Brussels, fort Dunlop was a motorsport manufacturing operation located in a corner of the original Dunlop factory in Erdington, established in 1891 until May 2014. This factory produced specialised vintage and touring car tyres, on 30 May 2014, the Birmingham factory ceased tyre production, ending Dunlop tyre production in the UK. The main Birmingham building has been redeveloped extensively as a residential and hotel complex, with a modern shopping facility, car dealerships. It can be observed between junction 5 and 6 of the M6, on the side of the motorway. Dunlop Tyres is the tyre supplier to the British Touring Car Championship, V8 Supercars Championship. It was the sole supplier for the Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters from 2000-2010. Dunlop supplies tyres to the Japanese Super GTs Nakajima Racing, classes in the FIA World Endurance Championship, the Dunlop GP Racer D209 tyre has been chosen repeatedly as a control tyre for the R&G Racing GSX-R Trophy motorcycle race.
It has chosen for the Henderson Harley-Davidson XR1200 Trophy. The History of the Pneumatic Tyre
1960 British Grand Prix
The 1960 British Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at the Silverstone Circuit, England, on 16 July 1960. The race was the round of the 1960 Formula One season. The race was won by reigning World Champion Jack Brabham and Innes Ireland finished in third place, between the two, multiple motorcycle Grand Prix World Champion John Surtees took second place. * Lance Reventlow and Chuck Daigh were entered with the vehicle following extensive damage to their Scarab cars at the preceding French Grand Prix. Daigh proved the faster during practice and so Reventlow was withdrawn, pole position, Jack Brabham -1,34.6 Fastest Lap, Graham Hill -1,34. Motorcycle champion Surtees takes second place, archived from the original on 14 August 2007. GRAND PRIX RESULTS, BRITISH GP,1960, archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007
Ferrari 156 F1
Phil Hill won the 1961 World Championship of Drivers and Ferrari secured the 1961 International Cup for F1 Manufacturers, both victories achieved with the 156. The 1961 version was affectionately dubbed sharknose due to its air intake nostrils. Then-Ferrari factory policy inevitably saw all the remaining sharknose 156s scrapped by the end of the 1963 season, such a 156 is exhibited in the Galleria Ferrari at Maranello, probably a replica. A similar intake duct styling was applied to the six SP series Ferraris in 1961 and 1962 that were designed by Carlo Chiti. Ferrari started the season with a 65-degree Dino engine, replaced by a new engine with the V-angle increased to 120-degrees, a V-6 engine with 120-degree bank is smoother at producing power because every 120-degree rotation of engine crankshaft produces a power pulse. This change increased the power by 10 hp, bore and stroke were 73.0 mm ×58.8 mm with a displacement of 1,476.60 cc and a claimed 190 hp at 9500 rpm. For 1962, a 24-valve version was planned with 200 hp at 10,000 rpm, at the 1962 British Grand Prix, Phil Hill raced a new version with a six-speed transmission mounted in front of the engine.
In August, at the German Grand Prix, Lorenzo Bandini tested a variant with modified front and rear suspension. The updated Ferrari 156, used in the 1963 and 1964 seasons, but had a rather conventional intake, somewhat larger than the Ferrari 158 introduced in 1964. In 1963 the 12-valve version fitted with Bosch direct-fuel injection instead of carburetors achieved that power level, the last victory for the Ferrari 156 was achieved by Italian Lorenzo Bandini in the 1964 Austrian Grand Prix
1960 Indianapolis 500
The 44th International 500-Mile Sweepstakes was held at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway in Speedway, Indiana on Monday, May 30,1960. The event was part of the 1960 USAC National Championship Trail and it would be the final time World Championship points would be awarded at the Indy 500. Often regarded as the greatest two-man duel in Indianapolis 500 history, Jim Rathmann and Rodger Ward battled out nearly the entire second half. Rathmann took the lead for good on lap 197 after Ward was forced to slow down with a worn out tire, Rathmanns margin of victory of 12.75 seconds was the second-closest finish in Indy history at the time. The inaugural 500 Festival Open Invitation was held at the Speedway Golf Course in the four leading up to the race. Time trials was scheduled for four days, but the day was rained out. Saturday May 14 – Pole Day time trials Eddie Sachs set a record of 146.592 mph to win the pole position. Sunday May 15 – Second day time trials Saturday May 21 – Third day time trials The third day of trials was rained out.
Sunday May 22 – Fourth day time trials Jim Hurtubise nearly broke the elusive, hurtubises four-lap qualifying average of 149.056 mph featured a new one-lap record of 149.601 mph, to establish himself as the fastest qualifier in the field. After Carburetion tests, Dempsey Wilson replaced Jimmy Daywalt as the driver for the #23 entry, the race started out with four contenders in the first half. Rodger Ward took the lead on lap 1 from the outside of the front row, two laps later, Ward was back in the lead, and the record-setting number of lead changes was already under way. Troy Ruttman and Jim Rathmann took turns at the front, the first caution came out on lap 47, after Duane Carter spun in turn 3. He did not hit the wall, came to a rest in the infield grass, Jim McWithey came into the pits without any brakes. He brushed the inside pit wall trying to slow the car down, in the race, Eddie Russo and Wayne Weiler suffer single-car crashes. Rodger Ward stalled his engine twice during his first pit stop, after getting back on the track, he started charging to catch up to the front of the field.
Shortly after the point, Eddie Sachs and Troy Ruttman would both drop out of the race, ultimately leaving Rathmann and Ward to battle it out in front. On about lap 124, Tony Bettenhausen came in for a pit stop. He complained of an engine, but returned to the track
Scuderia Ferrari S. p. A. competing as Scuderia Ferrari is the official name of the racing division of luxury Italian auto manufacturer and competes in Formula One racing. It is the oldest surviving and most successful Formula One team, the team was founded by Enzo Ferrari, initially to race cars produced by Alfa Romeo, though by 1947 Ferrari had begun building its own cars. As a constructor, Ferrari has a record 16 Constructors Championships, Alberto Ascari, Juan Manuel Fangio, Mike Hawthorn, Phil Hill, John Surtees, Niki Lauda, Jody Scheckter, Michael Schumacher and Kimi Räikkönen have won a record 15 Drivers Championships for the team. Since Räikkönens title in 2007 the team narrowly lost out on the 2008 drivers title with Felipe Massa, Schumacher is the teams most successful driver. Joining the team in 1996 and departing in 2006 he won five titles and 72 Grands Prix for the team. His titles came consecutively between 2000 and 2004, including the constructors title of 1999 consecutively being won until the end of 2004, this was the teams most successful period.
Currently, World Champions Kimi Räikkönen and Sebastian Vettel are the two race drivers. The team is known for its passionate support base known as the tifosi. The Italian Grand Prix at Monza is regarded as the home race. The Scuderia Ferrari team was founded by Enzo Ferrari on 16 November 1929 and became the team of Alfa Romeo. In 1938, Alfa Romeo management made the decision to enter racing under its own name, establishing the Alfa Corse organisation, Enzo Ferrari disagreed with this change in policy and was finally dismissed by Alfa in 1939. The terms of his leaving forbade him from motorsport under his own name, in 1939 Ferrari started work on a racecar of his own, the Tipo 815. The 815s, designed by Alberto Massimino, were thus the first Ferrari cars, World War II put a temporary end to racing, and Ferrari concentrated on an alternative use for his factory during the war years, doing machine tool work. After the war, Ferrari recruited several of his former Alfa colleagues and established a new Scuderia Ferrari, the team owns and operates a test track on the same site, the Fiorano Circuit built in 1972, which is used for testing road and race cars.
The team is named after its founder, Enzo Ferrari, Scuderia is Italian for a stable reserved for racing horses and is commonly applied to Italian motor racing teams. In 1947 Ferrari constructed the 12-cylinder,1.5 L Tipo 125, a Formula One version of the Tipo 125, the Ferrari 125 F1 was developed in 1948 and entered in several Grand Prix, at the time a World Championship had not yet been established. In 1950, the Formula One World Championship was established, and it is the only team to have competed in every season of the World Championship, from its inception to the current day. The company switched to the large-displacement naturally aspirated formula for the 275,340, after the 1951 Formula One season the Alfa team withdrew from F1, causing the authorities to adopt the Formula Two regulations due to the lack of suitable F1 cars
A chassis consists of an internal vehicle frame that supports an artificial object in its construction and use, can provide protection for some internal parts. An example of a chassis is the underpart of a motor vehicle, if the running gear such as wheels and transmission, and sometimes even the drivers seat, are included, the assembly is described as a rolling chassis. In the case of vehicles, the rolling chassis means the frame plus the running gear like engine, drive shaft, differential. An under body, which is not necessary for integrity of the structure, is built on the chassis to complete the vehicle. For commercial vehicles, a rolling chassis consists of an assembly of all the parts of a truck to be ready for operation on the road. The design of a car chassis will be different than one for commercial vehicles because of the heavier loads. Commercial vehicle manufacturers sell chassis only and chassis, as well as chassis cab versions that can be outfitted with specialized bodies and these include motor homes, fire engines, box trucks, etc.
In particular applications, such as buses, a government agency like National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in the U. S. defines the design standards of chassis. An armoured fighting vehicles hull serves as the chassis and comprises the part of the AFV that includes the tracks, drivers seat. This describes the hull, although common usage might include the upper hull to mean the AFV without the turret. The hull serves as a basis for platforms on tanks, armoured carriers, combat engineering vehicles. In an electronic device, the chassis consists of a frame or other supporting structure on which the circuit boards. In the absence of a frame, the chassis refers to the circuit boards and components themselves. The combination of chassis and outer covering is called an enclosure. Vietnam Studies, Department of the Army, Washington, D. C.1978
Ferrari 246 F1
The Ferrari 246 F1 was a Ferrari racing car built for the Formula One World Championship of 1958. The regulations for 1954–1960 limited naturally aspirated engines to 2500 cc, the 246 used a 2417 cc Dino V6 engine with a 65° angle between the cylinder banks. This was the first use of a V6 engine in a Formula One car, the Ferrari 246 was good enough to win a World Championship for Mike Hawthorn and a second place in the Constructors Championship for Ferrari. The Ferrari 246 was not only the first V6-engined car to win a Formula One Grand Prix and this occurred at the 1960 Italian Grand Prix at Monza, where the major British teams boycotted the race. In 1960, the Ferrari 246 designation was used for the first mid-/rear-engined Ferrari, the 246P Formula One car. Grand Prix Racing – Ferrari Dino 246
A V6 engine is a V engine with six cylinders mounted on the crankshaft in two banks of three cylinders, usually set at either a 60 or 90 degree angle to each other. The V6 is one of the most compact engine configurations, usually ranging from 2.0 L to 4.3 L displacement, shorter than the inline 4, because of its short length, the V6 fits well in the widely used transverse engine front-wheel drive layout. The V6 engine has become widely adopted for medium-sized cars, often as an engine where an inline 4 is standard. Modern V6 engines commonly range in displacement from 2.0 to 4.3 L, though larger and smaller examples have been produced, such as the 1991 Mazda MX3, some of the first V6-powered automobiles were built in 1905 by Marmon. This firm became something of a V-engine specialist, beginning with V2 engines, V4s, V6s, V8s, and, in the 1930s, Marmon was one of the few automakers of the world to offer a V16-powered automobile. From 1908 to 1913 the Deutz Gasmotoren Fabrik produced benzene electric train sets used a V6 as generator engine.
Another V6-powered car was designed in 1918 by Leo Goosen for Buick Chief Engineer Walter L. Marr, only one prototype Buick V6 car was built in 1918, it was long used by the Marr family. The first series-production V6 was introduced by Lancia in 1950 with the Lancia Aurelia model, Lancia sought a smoother and more powerful engine that would fit into an existing narrow engine bay. A Lancia engineer, Francesco De Virgilio, began analyzing the vibration of alternative V-angles for a V6 engine in 1943 and he found that a V6 with its cylinders positioned at a 60° V-angle could be made uniquely smooth-running in comparison with other possible V-angles. There was resistance to his conclusion, because the V6 was a virtually unknown engine type in the 1950s and his design featured four main bearings and six crankpins, resulting in evenly spaced firing intervals and low vibrations. Other manufacturers took note and soon other V6 engines were designed, the use of the sweet spot of 60 degrees V-angle maximized power while minimizing vibration and exterior dimensions of the engine.
In short, GMC introduced a compact V6 design at a time when the engine was considered the pinnacle of 6-cylinder design. To save design time and expense, it was much like a V8 that had two cylinders chopped off. This uneven firing caused harmonic vibrations in the train that were perceived as a rough-running engine by the buyers. GM sold the tooling to Kaiser-Jeep in 1967, later, as a result of the 1973 oil crisis. In 1977, Buick introduced a split pin crankshaft to implement a version of this engine in which cylinders fired consistently every 120°. The V6 does not have the inherent freedom from vibration that the inline-six and flat-six have, counterweights on the crankshaft and a counter rotating balance shaft are required to compensate for the first order rocking motions. This causes an end-to-end rocking motion at crankshaft speed in a straight-three engine and this results in an engine which is short and relatively smooth, but too wide for most engine compartments