Fernando Alonso Díaz audio is a Spanish Formula One racing driver and a double World Champion who is currently racing for McLaren-Honda. He is often regarded as one of the greatest Formula One drivers, born in Oviedo, the capital of the autonomous region of Asturias, Alonso started in karting from the age of 3. He won three consecutive karting championships in Spain from 1994 to 1997, and he became world karting champion in 1996 and he made his Formula One debut in the 2001 season with Minardi, and moved to the Renault team as a test driver the next year. Starting in 2003 Alonso became one of the drivers of the team. On 25 September 2005, he won the Formula One World Drivers Championship title at the age of 24 years and 58 days, after retaining the title the following year, Alonso became the youngest double Champion at the time. He joined McLaren in 2007, before returning to Renault for two seasons in 2008 and 2009, for the 2010 season, he joined Scuderia Ferrari. His strongest title challenges were in 2010 and 2012, finishing both seasons just adrift of title winner Sebastian Vettel and he left Ferrari at the end of the 2014 season, two years prior to the original expiry of his contract.
Nicknamed El Nano, a pseudonym for Fernando in Asturias, his place of birth. With his fourth-place finish in the 2013 Japanese Grand Prix, scoring his 1, 571st career point, the record has once again been broken by Sebastian Vettel at the 2015 Italian Grand Prix. As of January 2016, Alonso is the only Spanish driver to have won a Formula One Grand Prix and is the driver with the sixth highest number of Grand Prix wins, Fernando Alonso was born in Oviedo, Asturias in northern Spain. His mother worked in a department store and his father was employed as a mechanic in a factory near Oviedo. Alonso has a sister, Lorena. Alonsos father José Luis, a kart racer, wanted to pass on his passion to his children. He built a kart, originally meant for eight-year-old Lorena, but unlike her three-year-old brother, Alonso attended the Holy Guardian Angel Primary School in Oviedo until he was 14 when he attended the Institute Leopoldo Alas Clarín of San Lazaro. He dropped out in 2000 as his commitment to motor racing prevented him from further studying, Alonso lived in Oxford, England until he moved his residence to Switzerland in 2006.
Alonso owned a house in Mont-sur-Rolle, near Lake Geneva from 2006 to 2010 and it is highly common for Formula One stars to take up residence in Switzerland to reduce their tax bills. In the winter of 2010–11, Alonso moved back to Oviedo in order to be closer to friends and family, Alonso married Raquel del Rosario, lead singer of Spanish pop band El Sueño de Morfeo, on 17 November 2006. They announced their intention to divorce in December 2011, in mid-2012, Alonso started dating Russian model Dasha Kapustina
A tire or tyre is a ring-shaped vehicle component that covers the wheels rim to protect it and enable better vehicle performance. Most tires, such as those for automobiles and bicycles, provide traction between the vehicle and the road providing a flexible cushion that absorbs shock. The materials of modern tires are synthetic rubber, natural rubber and wire, along with carbon black. They consist of a tread and a body, the tread provides traction while the body provides containment for a quantity of compressed air. Before rubber was developed, the first versions of tires were bands of metal fitted around wooden wheels to prevent wear and tear. Pneumatic tires are used on many types of vehicles, including cars, motorcycles, trucks, heavy equipment, and aircraft. Metal tires are used on locomotives and railcars, and solid rubber tires are still used in various non-automotive applications, such as some casters, lawnmowers. The etymology of tire is that the word is a form of attire. The spelling tyre does not appear until the 1840s when the English began shrink fitting railway car wheels with malleable iron, traditional publishers continued using tire.
The Times newspaper in Britain was still using tire as late as 1905, the spelling tyre began to be commonly used in the 19th century for pneumatic tires in the UK. However, over the course of the 20th century, tyre became established as the standard British spelling, the earliest tires were bands of leather, placed on wooden wheels, used on carts and wagons. The tire would be heated in a fire, placed over the wheel and quenched, causing the metal to contract. A skilled worker, known as a wheelwright, carried out this work, the outer ring served to tie the wheel segments together for use, providing a wear-resistant surface to the perimeter of the wheel. The word tire thus emerged as a variant spelling to refer to the bands used to tie wheels. The first patent for what appears to be a standard pneumatic tire appeared in 1847 lodged by the Scottish inventor Robert William Thomson, this never went into production. The first practical pneumatic tire was made in 1888 on May Street, Belfast, by Scots-born John Boyd Dunlop and it was an effort to prevent the headaches of his 10-year-old son Johnnie, while riding his tricycle on rough pavements.
His doctor, Sir John Fagan, had prescribed cycling as an exercise for the boy, Fagan participated in designing the first pneumatic tires. In Dunlops tire patent specification dated 31 October 1888, his interest is only in its use in cycles, in September 1890, he was made aware of an earlier development but the company kept the information to itself
The Ferrari F1-2000 was a Formula One racing car designed by Rory Byrne for the 2000 Formula One season. The car was a development of the F300 and F399 from the previous two seasons, using the same basic gearbox and a new engine with a wider V-angle. This new wider angle improved and lowered the centre of gravity of the car and it featured improved aerodynamics, which put it on par with that years McLaren MP4/15. Michael Schumacher drove the F1-2000 to his third World Drivers Title and it defended Ferraris constructors crown, and signified the start of the teams dominance throughout the first half of the decade
Michael Schumacher is a German retired racing driver. He is a seven-time Formula One World Champion and is regarded as one of the greatest Formula One drivers of all time. He was named Laureus World Sportsman of the Year twice and he won two titles with Benetton in 1994 and 1995 before moving to Ferrari where he drove for eleven years. His time with Ferrari yielded five consecutive titles between 2000 and 2004, Schumacher holds many of Formula Ones driver records, including most championships, race victories, fastest laps, pole positions and races won in a single season –13 in 2004. In 2002, he became the driver in Formula One history to finish in the top three in every race of a season and also broke the record for most consecutive podium finishes. According to the official Formula One website, he is statistically the greatest driver the sport has ever seen, after beginning in karting, Schumacher won the German drivers championships in Formula König and Formula Three before joining Mercedes in the World Sportscar Championship.
In 1991, his Mercedes-funded race debut for the Jordan Formula One team resulted in Schumacher being signed by Benetton Formula One team as their driver for the rest of that season. Establishing himself as a top driver, finishing third in 1992 and fourth in 1993, in 1995 he repeated the success, this time with a greater margin. Schumacher moved to Ferrari in 1996, Schumacher came close to winning the 1997 and 1998 titles, before breaking his leg at the 1999 British Grand Prix, ending another title run. Things came good for Schumacher who won five consecutive drivers titles from 2000 to 2004. Schumacher retired from Formula One driving in 2006 staying with Ferrari as an advisor and he came close to an eighth title that year, but due to technical problems in the final two races he fell short to Fernando Alonso. Schumacher agreed to return for Ferrari part-way through 2009, as cover for the badly injured Felipe Massa, Schumacher returned to Formula One on a permanent basis from 2010 with the Mercedes team before retiring for a second time at the conclusion of the 2012 season.
Off the track, Schumacher is an ambassador for UNESCO and a spokesman for driver safety and he has been involved in numerous humanitarian efforts throughout his life and donated tens of millions of dollars to charity. In December 2013, Schumacher suffered a head injury while skiing. He was airlifted to a hospital and placed in an induced coma. He was in the coma for six months from 29 December 2013 until 16 June 2014 and he left the hospital in Grenoble for further rehabilitation at the University Hospital in Lausanne. On 9 September 2014, Schumacher was relocated to his home where he continues to receive medical treatment, Schumacher was born in Hürth, North Rhine-Westphalia, to Rolf Schumacher, a bricklayer, and his wife Elisabeth. When Schumacher was four, his father modified his pedal kart by adding a small motorcycle engine, when Schumacher crashed it into a lamp post in Kerpen, his parents took him to the karting track at Kerpen-Horrem, where he became the youngest member of the karting club
2006 Canadian Grand Prix
The 2006 Canadian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 25 June 2006 at the Circuit Gilles Villeneuve in Montreal, Canada. The 70-lap race was the round of the 2006 Formula One season. Räikkönen subsequently finished in position, completing the podium for the McLaren team. Alonso had now taken six wins and three places from the first nine races. There was problems at the start of the race when the two Midland cars collided at the hairpin on Lap 1, before Juan Pablo Montoya. Rosberg retired, whilst Montoya continued until he collided with a in the race. Schumacher was stuck behind Jarno Trulli for a proportion of the race before he finally managing to overtake him, although. With just a handful of laps left the safety car was out for a time when home-town hero Jacques Villeneuve crashed into the wall because of brake failure. Räikkönen, who was 2nd in the snake of cars behind the safety car, was unable to take advantage of closing up to Alonso due to the presence of back-markers in front of him and he eventually lost the position to Schumacher.
Notes ^1 – David Coulthard was demoted to 22nd because of a change after qualifying. Note, only the top five positions are included for both sets of standings
Royal Dutch Shell
Royal Dutch Shell plc, commonly known as Shell, is a British–Dutch multinational oil and gas company headquartered in the Netherlands and incorporated in the United Kingdom. It is one of the six oil and gas supermajors and the sixth-largest company in the world measured by 2016 revenues. Shell was first in the 2013 Fortune Global 500 list of the worlds largest companies and it has renewable energy activities in the form of biofuels and wind. Shell has operations in over 70 countries, produces around 3.7 million barrels of oil equivalent per day and has 44,000 service stations worldwide, as of 31 December 2014, Shell had total proved reserves of 13.7 billion barrels of oil equivalent. Shell Oil Company, its subsidiary in the United States, is one of its largest businesses. Shell holds 50% of Raízen, a joint venture with Cosan, which is the third-largest Brazil-based energy company by revenues, Shell was formed in 1907 through the amalgamation of the Royal Dutch Petroleum Company of the Netherlands and the Shell Transport and Trading Company of the United Kingdom.
Shell first entered the industry in 1929. In 1970 Shell acquired the mining company Billiton, which it sold in 1994. In recent decades gas exploration and production has become an important part of Shells business. Shell acquired BG Group in 2016, making it the worlds largest producer of liquefied natural gas, Shell has a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE100 Index. It has secondary listings on Euronext Amsterdam and the New York Stock Exchange, as of January 2013, Shells largest shareholder was Capital Research Global Investors with 9. 85% ahead of BlackRock in second with 6. 89%. Shells logo, known as the pecten, is one of the most familiar commercial symbols in the world and it was a move largely driven by the need to compete globally with Standard Oil. The Shell Transport and Trading Company was a British company, founded in 1897 by Marcus Samuel, 1st Viscount Bearsted, and his brother Samuel Samuel. Their father had owned a company in Houndsditch, London.
For various reasons, the new firm operated as a company, whereby the merging companies maintained their legal existence. The terms of the merger gave 60 percent ownership of the new group to the Dutch arm and 40 percent to the British, national patriotic sensibilities would not permit a full-scale merger or takeover of either of the two companies. The Dutch company, Koninklijke Nederlandsche Petroleum Maatschappij at The Hague, was in charge of production, the British Anglo-Saxon Petroleum Company was based in London, to direct the transport and storage of the products. During the First World War, Shell was the supplier of fuel to the British Expeditionary Force
Ferrari 312 is the name of several different Ferrari race cars which have 3 litre 12-cylinder engines. This article is about the Formula One car raced in 1966–1969, other cars with the same model number include the 312B, 312T F1 cars and the 312P and 312PB sportscars. The Ferrari 312 was the designation of the 3 litre V-12 Formula One cars raced by the Italian team from 1966 to 1969, designed under the leadership of Mauro Forghieri, there were two distinct variations using this designation, the 1966 version and the completely different 1967-69 version. The 66 cars carried on the numbering sequence from the previous years 1.5 litre cars. To avoid confusion, the cars are referred to as 312/66. For the 1966 Formula One season, there was a change in the technical regulations, the F1 teams, even though asking for the return to power, were more or less surprised and not well prepared. Ferraris first 1966 car consisted of a 3. 3-liter V12 engine that was taken from the Ferrari 275P2 sportscar prototypes, modified to 3000cc, the designation 312, which would be used for a number of cars, indicated a 3-litre, 12-cylinder engine.
The engine was rather heavy, and due to the capacity, lower on power. John Surtees drove this contraption unsuccessfully in Monaco while Lorenzo Bandini drove a Ferrari Dino 2. 4-liter V6. Surtees won the race, the 1966 Belgian Grand Prix, a track that favoured power with its long straights. The issue was about priorities in racing, as Ferrari was under pressure from Ford in sports car racing, Mike Parkes replaced Surtees, who went to Cooper which used Maserati engines, to finish second in the driver championship with a further win. For Ferrari, Ludovico Scarfiotti won a race, the 1966 Italian Grand Prix at Monza which helped Ferrari finish second in the Constructors Championship, in 1967, the team fired Dragoni and replaced him with Franco Lini. Chris Amon partnered Bandini to drive a somewhat improved version of the 1966 V12 car, at the 1967 Monaco Grand Prix, Bandini crashed and suffered heavy injuries when he was trapped under his burning car, several days he succumbed to his injuries. Ferrari re-hired Mike Parkes, but Parkes suffered career-ending injuries weeks at the 1967 Belgian Grand Prix, a fatal crash, another bad crash, no race win, and only 5th in the Constructors Championship marked a bad year for the Italians.
In addition, the new Ford Cosworth DFV engine that had its debut in the Lotus 49 would dominate F1 in the 15 years to come, the 1968 season was little better. Young talent Jacky Ickx won the wet 1968 French Grand Prix with his driving skills, things became more complicated during the season by the introduction of aerodynamic aids into F1, and their quick development. At the end of the season, the Scuderia Ferrari was only 4th in the Constructors Championship, manager Franco Lini quit, and so did Ickx, moving to Brabham. The car was succeeded by the 312B which was introduced for the 1970 Formula One season, in 1998, a drivable, detailed virtual recreation of the 1967 Ferrari 312 appeared as one of the leading cars in Grand Prix Legends, a PC-based simulation of the 1967 F1 championship
2006 Bahrain Grand Prix
The 2006 Bahrain Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at the Bahrain International Circuit in Sakhir, Bahrain on 12 March 2006. The 57-lap race was the round of the 2006 Formula One season. It was won by the 2005 World Champions, Fernando Alonso, ferrari driver and polesitter Michael Schumacher began his final season in Formula One with second position. Kimi Räikkönen completed the podium after he finished in place with the McLaren team. The race was the first Grand Prix for future world champion Nico Rosberg, son of World Champion Keke Rosberg and it was the debut race for the BMW Sauber, Toro Rosso, Midland F1 and Super Aguri teams, and drivers Scott Speed and Yuji Ide. The bottom six teams in the 2005 Constructors Championship and Super Aguri were entitled to run a car in free practice on Friday. These drivers drove on Friday but did not compete in qualifying or the race, the race was the first run under the new 2006 qualifying rules, in which the one-hour session is split into three knock out parts.
The second part saw fewer surprises, with the runners lining up for the final top 10 part. The result was that the Ferraris swept the front row, at the start of the race, Fernando Alonso moved up to second in the first lap, only for Michael Schumacher to begin to pull away. Alonso was involved in a collision with Schumachers teammate Felipe Massa. Massa was never a threat after this point, not helped by a delay in his pit stop to change tyres the same lap, alonsos teammate Giancarlo Fisichella played little part in the race due to an engine mapping problem which restricted power. He retired on the 21st lap due to hydraulic failure, to the surprise of few, Kimi Räikkönen quickly moved his way up the field, only being delayed by Jacques Villeneuve and Fisichella for a short period of time, before passing both men. Further down the field, Nick Heidfeld and Nico Rosberg, who was making his Grand Prix début, both men were significantly delayed, but recovered. Heidfelds day continued to get worse, as an incident with David Coulthard was investigated after the race, Juan Pablo Montoya finished 5th in his McLaren, having never been a threat throughout the race.
Rosberg set the fastest lap of the race, becoming the youngest driver ever to achieve this in a Grand Prix, honda suffered mixed fortunes throughout the race. Early on fans were treated to a fight between Rubens Barrichello and Jenson Button, as Button slipped down the order due to a slow getaway. Button eventually fought his way back up, twice passing Juan Pablo Montoya at the end of the straight and he eventually finished 4th,0.6 seconds behind Räikkönen in 3rd. Räikkönen fought hard throughout the race, stopping once on his way to the last podium spot
A chassis consists of an internal vehicle frame that supports an artificial object in its construction and use, can provide protection for some internal parts. An example of a chassis is the underpart of a motor vehicle, if the running gear such as wheels and transmission, and sometimes even the drivers seat, are included, the assembly is described as a rolling chassis. In the case of vehicles, the rolling chassis means the frame plus the running gear like engine, drive shaft, differential. An under body, which is not necessary for integrity of the structure, is built on the chassis to complete the vehicle. For commercial vehicles, a rolling chassis consists of an assembly of all the parts of a truck to be ready for operation on the road. The design of a car chassis will be different than one for commercial vehicles because of the heavier loads. Commercial vehicle manufacturers sell chassis only and chassis, as well as chassis cab versions that can be outfitted with specialized bodies and these include motor homes, fire engines, box trucks, etc.
In particular applications, such as buses, a government agency like National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in the U. S. defines the design standards of chassis. An armoured fighting vehicles hull serves as the chassis and comprises the part of the AFV that includes the tracks, drivers seat. This describes the hull, although common usage might include the upper hull to mean the AFV without the turret. The hull serves as a basis for platforms on tanks, armoured carriers, combat engineering vehicles. In an electronic device, the chassis consists of a frame or other supporting structure on which the circuit boards. In the absence of a frame, the chassis refers to the circuit boards and components themselves. The combination of chassis and outer covering is called an enclosure. Vietnam Studies, Department of the Army, Washington, D. C.1978
Martini & Rossi
Martini & Rossi is an Italian multinational alcoholic beverage company primarily associated with the Martini brand of vermouth and with sparkling wine. It produces the French vermouth, Noilly Prat, the company started in the mid-19th century, as a vermouth bottling plant in Pessione — the Distilleria Nazionale di Spirito di Vino. Three men came to dominate the company, businessman Alessandro Martini, winemaker Luigi Rossi and accountant Teofilo Sola, the Sola family sold out in 1879, and the company became known as Martini & Rossi. 1892 – The business is taken over by Rossis four sons,1929 – The Martini Ball & Bar logo is registered for the first time. 1930 – Rossis grandsons take over control of the company,1977 – The company is restructured with the creation of the General Beverage Corporation. 1993 – Martini & Rossi merged with Bacardi, since the earliest days of the company, Martini have marketed their products aggressively, with some memorable TV advertising and sponsoring events under their MARTINI Terrazza logo.
The company has been involved in motor racing sponsorship under the Martini Racing banner since 1968, for the 2014 season it is the title sponsor of Williams F1, with the team officially called Williams Martini Racing, and the car in the traditional Martini racing colors. Vermouth is made from wine with added sugar and botanicals, Martini Rosso —1863 Martini Bianco —1910 Martini Extra Dry — This was launched on New Years Day 1900. Official website Martini & Rossi SpA, history of the company from fundinguniverse. com
A transmission is a machine in a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power. Often the term refers simply to the gearbox that uses gears and gear trains to provide speed. In British English, the term refers to the whole drivetrain, including clutch, prop shaft, differential. In American English, the term more specifically to the gearbox alone. The most common use is in vehicles, where the transmission adapts the output of the internal combustion engine to the drive wheels. Such engines need to operate at a high rotational speed, which is inappropriate for starting, stopping. The transmission reduces the engine speed to the slower wheel speed. Transmissions are used on bicycles, fixed machines. Often, a transmission has multiple gear ratios with the ability to switch between them as speed varies and this switching may be done manually or automatically. Directional control may be provided, single-ratio transmissions exist, which simply change the speed and torque of motor output.
The output of the transmission is transmitted via the driveshaft to one or more differentials, while a differential may provide gear reduction, its primary purpose is to permit the wheels at either end of an axle to rotate at different speeds as it changes the direction of rotation. Conventional gear/belt transmissions are not the mechanism for speed/torque adaptation. Alternative mechanisms include torque converters and power transformation, automatic transmissions use a valve body to shift gears using fluid pressures in conjunction with an ecm. Early transmissions included the right-angle drives and other gearing in windmills, horse-powered devices, and steam engines, in support of pumping, most modern gearboxes are used to increase torque while reducing the speed of a prime mover output shaft. This means that the shaft of a gearbox rotates at a slower rate than the input shaft. A gearbox can be set up to do the opposite and provide an increase in speed with a reduction of torque. Some of the simplest gearboxes merely change the rotational direction of power transmission.
Many typical automobile transmissions include the ability to select one of several gear ratios, in this case, most of the gear ratios are used to slow down the output speed of the engine and increase torque