Scuderia Ferrari S. p. A. competing as Scuderia Ferrari is the official name of the racing division of luxury Italian auto manufacturer and competes in Formula One racing. It is the oldest surviving and most successful Formula One team, the team was founded by Enzo Ferrari, initially to race cars produced by Alfa Romeo, though by 1947 Ferrari had begun building its own cars. As a constructor, Ferrari has a record 16 Constructors Championships, Alberto Ascari, Juan Manuel Fangio, Mike Hawthorn, Phil Hill, John Surtees, Niki Lauda, Jody Scheckter, Michael Schumacher and Kimi Räikkönen have won a record 15 Drivers Championships for the team. Since Räikkönens title in 2007 the team narrowly lost out on the 2008 drivers title with Felipe Massa, Schumacher is the teams most successful driver. Joining the team in 1996 and departing in 2006 he won five titles and 72 Grands Prix for the team. His titles came consecutively between 2000 and 2004, including the constructors title of 1999 consecutively being won until the end of 2004, this was the teams most successful period.
Currently, World Champions Kimi Räikkönen and Sebastian Vettel are the two race drivers. The team is known for its passionate support base known as the tifosi. The Italian Grand Prix at Monza is regarded as the home race. The Scuderia Ferrari team was founded by Enzo Ferrari on 16 November 1929 and became the team of Alfa Romeo. In 1938, Alfa Romeo management made the decision to enter racing under its own name, establishing the Alfa Corse organisation, Enzo Ferrari disagreed with this change in policy and was finally dismissed by Alfa in 1939. The terms of his leaving forbade him from motorsport under his own name, in 1939 Ferrari started work on a racecar of his own, the Tipo 815. The 815s, designed by Alberto Massimino, were thus the first Ferrari cars, World War II put a temporary end to racing, and Ferrari concentrated on an alternative use for his factory during the war years, doing machine tool work. After the war, Ferrari recruited several of his former Alfa colleagues and established a new Scuderia Ferrari, the team owns and operates a test track on the same site, the Fiorano Circuit built in 1972, which is used for testing road and race cars.
The team is named after its founder, Enzo Ferrari, Scuderia is Italian for a stable reserved for racing horses and is commonly applied to Italian motor racing teams. In 1947 Ferrari constructed the 12-cylinder,1.5 L Tipo 125, a Formula One version of the Tipo 125, the Ferrari 125 F1 was developed in 1948 and entered in several Grand Prix, at the time a World Championship had not yet been established. In 1950, the Formula One World Championship was established, and it is the only team to have competed in every season of the World Championship, from its inception to the current day. The company switched to the large-displacement naturally aspirated formula for the 275,340, after the 1951 Formula One season the Alfa team withdrew from F1, causing the authorities to adopt the Formula Two regulations due to the lack of suitable F1 cars
Cold-formed steel is the common term for products made by rolling or pressing steel into semi-finished or finished goods at relatively low temperatures. Cold-formed steel goods are created by the working of steel billet, bar, or sheet using stamping, the use of cold-formed steel construction materials has become more and more popular since its initial introduction of codified standards in 1946. In the construction industry both structural and non-structural elements are created from thin gauges of sheet steel and these building materials encompass columns, joists, floor decking, built-up sections and other components. Cold-formed steel construction materials differ from other construction materials known as hot-rolled steel. The manufacturing of cold-formed steel products occurs at room temperature using rolling or pressing, the strength of elements used for design is usually governed by buckling. The construction practices are similar to timber framing using screws to assemble stud frames.
These types of sections are cold-formed from steel sheet, plate, or flat bar in roll forming machines, the material thicknesses for such thin-walled steel members usually range from 0.0147 in. to about ¼ in. Steel plates and bars as thick as 1 in. can be cold-formed successfully into structural shapes, the use of cold-formed steel members in building construction began in the 1850s in both the United States and Great Britain. One of the first documented uses of cold-formed steel as a material is the Virginia Baptist Hospital, constructed around 1925 in Lynchburg. The walls were load bearing masonry, but the system was framed with double back-to-back cold-formed steel lipped channels. According to Chuck Greene, P. E of Nolen Frisa Associates, Greene engineered a recent renovation to the structure and said that for the most part, the joists are still performing well. A site observation during this renovation confirmed that these joists from the roaring twenties are still supporting loads, in the 1940s, Lustron Homes built and sold almost 2500 steel-framed homes, with the framing, finishes and furniture made from cold-formed steel.
Design standards for hot-rolled steel were adopted in 1930s, but were not applicable to cold–formed sections because of their relatively thin steel walls which were susceptible to buckling, Cold-formed steel members maintain a constant thickness around their cross-section, whereas hot-rolled shapes typically exhibit tapering or fillets. Cold-formed steel allowed for shapes which differed greatly from the classical hot-rolled shapes, the material was easily workable, it could be deformed into many possible shapes. Even a small change in the geometry created significant changes in the characteristics of the section. It was necessary to some minimum requirements and laws to control the buckling. In the United States, the first edition of the Specification for the Design of Light Gage Steel Structural Members was published by the American Iron and Steel Institute in 1946. The first Allowable Stress Design Specification was based on the research work sponsored by AISI at Cornell University under the direction of late Professor George Winter since 1939, as a result of this work, George Winter is now considered the grandfather of cold-formed steel design
Ferrari 575M Maranello
The Ferrari 575M Maranello is a two-seat, two-door, grand tourer built by Ferrari. Launched in 2002, it is essentially an updated 550 Maranello featuring minor styling changes from Pininfarina, the 575M was replaced by the 599 GTB in the first half of 2006. Two six-speed transmissions were available, a manual gearbox and, for the first time on a Ferrari V12. The model number refers to engine displacement in litres, whilst the M is an abbreviation of modificato. For 2005, the company developed a new GTC handling package and Superamerica version, configuration, 65° V12 engine Displacement,5.2 seconds 0–400 m,12.25 seconds 0-1,000 m,21. The new brakes were based on the companys Formula One technology and they used 15.7 in discs with six-piston calipers in front and 14.2 in discs with four-piston calipers in the rear. Patented Revocromico roof incorporates carbon fibre structure that is hinged on the axis with a luggage compartment lid. With the roof open the window, apart for holding the third stop light.
This roof design was used on 2001-designed Vola by Leonardo Fioravanti. The Superamerica used the tune of the V-12 engine, F133 G, rated at 533 hp and Ferrari marketed it as the worlds fastest convertible. The GTC handling package was optional, a total of 559 Superamericas were built, this number followed Enzo Ferraris philosophy that there should always be one fewer car available than what the market demanded. A special 575M was built by Zagato for Japanese Ferrari collector Yoshiyuki Hayashi, in 2003, Ferrari announced the sale of several 575M-based racing cars, known as the 575 GTC. Following the success of Prodrive in running the Ferrari 550, Ferrari wished to offer their own racing car to customers, used primarily in the FIA GT Championship, the 575 GTCs managed to take a single win in their first season, followed by another lone win in 2004. Unfortunately the 575 GTCs were not as capable as the Prodrive-built 550 GTSs, and would fall from use by the end of 2005
The Ferrari 328 GTB and GTS was the successor to the Ferrari 308 GTB and GTS. 7,400 Ferrari 328s were produced by the time the model was replaced by the new 348 in 1989, bringing the total for the 308/328 generation to nearly 20,000. The 328 is considered by some Ferrari enthusiasts to be one of the most reliable Ferraris, unlike some models, the GTB referred to the Gran Turismo Berlinetta body while the GTS was a Gran Turismo Spider. In 1985, the 328 retailed from $58, 400-$62,500 in the United States, the 328 GTS model, together with the fixed roof 328 GTB, were the final developments of the normally aspirated transverse V8 engine 2-seat series. The 328 figures in the title referred to the total cubic capacity of the engine,3.2 litres. The new model was introduced at the 1985 Frankfurt Salon alongside the Mondial 3.2 series, thus all the eight-cylinder cars in the range shared fairly unified front and rear aspects, providing a homogeneous family image. In the middle of 1988 ABS brakes were available as an option.
This in turn meant that the wheel design was changed to accommodate this feature. The original flat spoke star wheels became a design, in the style as fitted to the 3.2 Mondial models. The main European market 328 GTS models had a chassis with a factory type reference F106 MS100. Disc brakes, with independent suspension via wishbones, coil springs, there were various world market models, each having slight differences, with right and left hand drive available. As with the preceding 308 models the engine was mounted in unit with the all synchromesh five-speed manual transmission assembly, which was below, a minor problem was the oil hose from the lower part of the engine to the oil cooler. This was too short since a running engine was moving separate from the oil cooler and this hose was almost solid being under pressure and in time the oil cooler would crack. This was solved by connecting the oil hoses for the oil cooler to and from the engine up side down to make the lower hose, now connecting to the top of the oil cooler and movable.
The early part of the series was numbered in the Ferrari odd number road car chassis sequence, the Ferrari 328 uses a 3. 2-litre V8, 4-valve-per-cylinder layout. It has 270 hp and 231 lb·ft of torque and its top speed is 166 mph and reaches 60 mph in 5.5 seconds and 100 mph in 13.0 seconds. The front and rear suspension are independent, double wishbones, with springs, telescopic dampers. The steering is rack and pinion, the transmission is a 5-speed manual
A V8 engine is an eight-cylinder V configuration engine with the cylinders mounted on the crankcase in two sets of four, with all eight pistons driving a common crankshaft. Most banks are set at an angle to each other, some at a narrower angle, with 45°, 60°. In its simplest form, the V8 is basically two parallel inline-four engines sharing a common crankshaft, since the 1920s, most V8s have used the somewhat more complex crossplane crankshaft with heavy counterweights to eliminate the vibrations. This results in an engine that is smoother than a V6, most racing V8s continue to use the single plane crankshaft because it allows faster acceleration and more efficient exhaust system designs. In 1902, Léon Levavasseur took out a patent on a light and he called it the Antoinette after the young daughter of his financial backer. From 1904 he installed this engine in a number of competition speedboats, the aviation pioneer Alberto Santos-Dumont saw one of these boats in Côte dAzur and decided to try it on his 14-bis aircraft.
Its early 24 hp at 1400 rpm version with only 55 kg of weight was interesting, Santos-Dumont ordered a larger and more powerful version from Levavasseur. He changed its dimensions from the original 80 mm stroke and 80 mm bore to 105 mm stroke and 110 mm bore, obtaining 50 hp with 86 kg of weight and its power-to-weight ratio was not surpassed for 25 years. Levavasseur eventually produced its own line of V8 equipped aircraft, named Antoinette I to VIII, hubert Latham piloted the V8 powered Antoinette IV and Antoinette VII in July 1909 on two failed attempts to cross the English Channel. However, in 1910, Latham used the VII with the engine to become the first in the world to reach an altitude of 3600 feet. Voisin constructed pusher biplanes with Antoinette engines, notably the one first flown successfully by Henry Farman in 1908, the V8 engine configuration became popular in France from 1904 onward, and was used in a number of aircraft engines introduced by Renault, and Buchet among others.
Some of these found their way into automobiles in small quantities. In 1905, Darracq built a car to beat the world speed record. They came up with two racing car built on a common crankcase and camshaft. The result was monstrous engine with a displacement of 1,551 cu in, victor Hemery fixed that record on 30 December 1905 with a speed of 109.65 mph. Rolls-Royce built a 3,535 cc V8 car from 1905 to 1906, in 1907 The Hewitt Motor Company built a large 5 passenger Touring Car. It was equipped with a hefty V8 engine that developed 50/60 horsepower and had a bore of 4 inches, the Hewitt was the first American Automobile to be equipped with a V8 engine. De Dion-Bouton introduced a 7,773 cc automobile V8 in 1910 and it was produced only in small quantities, but inspired a number of manufacturers to follow suit
Ferrari 250 GTO
The Ferrari 250 GTO is a GT car produced by Ferrari from 1962 to 1964 for homologation into the FIAs Group 3 Grand Touring Car category. It was powered by Ferraris Tipo 168/62 V12 engine, the 250 in its name denotes the displacement in cubic centimeters of each of its cylinders, GTO stands for Gran Turismo Omologato, Italian for Grand Touring Homologated. Just 39250 GTOs were manufactured between 1962 and 1964 and this includes 33 cars with 1962-63 bodywork, three with 1964 bodywork similar to the Ferrari 250 LM, and three 330 GTO specials with a larger engine. Four of the older 1962-1963 cars were updated in 1964 with Series II bodies, when new, the GTO cost $18,000 in the United States, with buyers personally approved by Enzo Ferrari and his dealer for North America, Luigi Chinetti. In May 2012 the 1962250 GTO made for Stirling Moss set a record selling price of $38,115,000. In October 2013, Connecticut-based collector Paul Pappalardo sold chassis number 5111GT to a buyer for a new record of around $52 million.
In 2004, Sports Car International placed the 250 GTO eighth on a list of Top Sports Cars of the 1960s, Motor Trend Classic placed the 250 GTO first on a list of the Greatest Ferraris of All Time. Popular Mechanics named it the Hottest Car of All Time, the 250 GTO was designed to compete in GT racing, where its rivals would include the Shelby Cobra, Jaguar E-Type and Aston Martin DP214. The development of the 250 GTO was headed by chief engineer Giotto Bizzarrini, although Bizzarrini is usually credited as the designer of the 250 GTO, he and most other Ferrari engineers were fired in 1962 due to a dispute with Enzo Ferrari. Further development of the 250 GTO was overseen by new engineer Mauro Forghieri, the design of the car was a collaborative effort and cannot be ascribed to a single person. The mechanical aspects of 250 GTO were relatively conservative at the time of its introduction, using engine, the chassis of the car was based on that of the 250 GT SWB, with minor differences in frame structure and geometry to reduce weight and lower the chassis.
The car was built around a hand-welded oval tube frame, incorporating A-arm front suspension, rear live-axle with Watts linkage, disc brakes, the engine was the race-proven Tipo 168/62 Comp. 3.0 L V12 as used in the 250 Testa Rossa Le Mans winner, an all-alloy design utilizing a dry sump and six 38DCN Weber carburetors, it produced approximately 300 horsepower. The gearbox was a new 5-speed unit with Porsche-type synchromesh, Bizzarrini focused his design effort on the cars aerodynamics in an attempt to improve top speed and stability. The body design was informed by wind tunnel testing at Pisa University as well as road, the resulting all-aluminium bodywork had a long, low nose, small radiator inlet, and distinctive air intakes on the nose with removable covers. Early testing resulted in the addition of a rear spoiler, the underside of the car was covered by a belly pan and had an additional spoiler underneath formed by the fuel tank cover. The aerodynamic design of the 250 GTO was a technical innovation compared to previous Ferrari GT cars.
The bodies were constructed by Scaglietti, with the exception of early prototypes with bodies constructed in-house by Ferrari or by Pininfarina, Cars were produced in many colours, with the most famous being the bright red Rosso Cina
The Ferrari 599 is an Italian sports car produced by Ferrari. It was the brands flagship, replacing the 575M Maranello in 2006 as a 2007 model. Styled by Pininfarina under the direction of Ferraris Frank Stephenson, the 599 GTB debuted at the Geneva Motor Show in February 2006 and it is named for its total engine displacement, Gran Turismo Berlinetta nature, and the Fiorano Circuit test track used by Ferrari. The Tipo F140 C6.0 L V12 engine produces a maximum 620 PS and its 608 N·m of torque was a record for Ferraris GT cars. Most of the modifications to the engine were done to allow it to fit in the Fioranos engine bay, a traditional 6-speed manual transmission as well as Ferraris 6-speed called F1 SuperFast is offered. The Fiorano sees the debut of Ferraris new traction control system, the vast majority of the 599 GTBs have been equipped with the semi-automatic gearbox as opposed to the manual 6-speed gearbox. Only 30 examples have been produced with a manual gearbox of which 20 were destined to the United States and 10 remained in Europe.
0-100 km/h in 3.7 seconds 0-200 km/h in 11.0 seconds Top speed, the ride height has been lowered, which lowers the cars center of gravity. The package includes optimised tyres featuring a compound that offers improved grip, the cars electronics have changed. The gearboxs shifts are faster in high-performance settings, while new engine software improved accelerator response, the exhaust silencer was modified to produce more marked and thrilling sound under hard usage while still delivering just the right comfort levels at cruising speed. The exterior and interior were upgraded with more carbon fiber components, on 8 April 2010, Ferrari announced official details of the 599 GTO. Its engine produces 670 PS at 8250 rpm, with 620 N·m of torque at 6500 rpm, Ferrari claims the 599 GTO can reach 100 km/h in under 3.3 seconds and has a top speed of over 335 km/h. At 1,605 kilograms, the 599 GTO weighs almost 100 kg less than the standard GTB, production is limited to 599 cars. Of these, approximately 125 were produced for the United States market, Ferrari has given only two other models that used the GTO designation, the 1962250 GTO and the 1984288 GTO.
Unlike the previous GTOs however, the 599 GTO was not designed for homologation in any racing series, the convertible version of the 599, the SA Aperta, was introduced 2010 Paris Motor Show as a unique limited edition in honor of designers Sergio Pininfarina and Andrea Pininfarina. The SA Aperta used the performance engine from the 599 GTO. The 599XX is a car designed for use only and is not street legal. The rev limiter is raised to 9000 rpm, with the engine rated for 730 PS at 9000 rpm, weight is reduced by reducing the weight of the engine unit components, the use of composite materials, and the use of carbon-fiber body parts and brake pads
The Ferrari 550 Maranello is a front-engined V12 2-seat grand tourer built by Ferrari from 1996 to 2002. In 2000 Ferrari introduced the 550 Barchetta Pininfarina, a limited production version of the 550. The 550 was replaced by the upgraded 575M Maranello in 2002, the Berlinetta Boxer had been developed into the Testarossa, whose last evolution was the 1994 F512 M. Under the presidency of Luca Cordero di Montezemolo, who took office in 1991, after a 30 months of development, the Ferrari 550 Maranello was presented in July 1996 at the Nürburgring racing circuit in Germany. The model name referred to the 5. 5-litres total engine displacement in decilitres and to the town of Maranello, home to the Ferrari headquarters, Pininfarina executed both the exterior and interior design. Frame and main components were shared with the 2+2 Ferrari 456. In 2002 the 550 was replaced by the 575M Maranello, not a model but rather an all-around improved version of the car. In total 3,083 units of the 550 Maranello were produced, the 550 used a front-engine, rear-wheel drive transaxle layout, with the 6-speed gearbox located at the rear axle together with the limited slip differential.
The chassis tubular steel frame, to which the aluminium body panels were soldered. The Pininfarina-designed body had a coefficient of 0.33. Suspension was of the double wishbone type with coil spring and damper units on all four corners. The steering was rack and pinion with variable power assist, the vented disc brakes were 330 mm at the front and 310 mm at the rear. Magnesium alloy was used for the 18-inch wheels, electronic driver aid systems included anti-slip regulation, which could be adjusted on two levels or switched off completely, and four-way anti-lock braking system. The engine is a naturally aspirated 65° V12 with 4 valves per cylinder, dual overhead cams and it displaced 5,473.91 cc and produced 485 PS at 7,000 rpm and 568.1 N·m at 5,000 rpm. Bore and stroke measure 88 mm and 75 mm, according to the manufacturer the 550 Maranello had a top speed of 320 km/h, and could accelerate from a standstill to 100 km/h in 4.4 seconds. Ferrari introduced a version of the 550 at the Paris Motor Show in 2000.
This Barchetta Pininfarina was a roadster with no real convertible top provided. The factory did provide a top, but it was intended only for temporary use as it was cautioned against using the top above 70 mph
Goodwood Festival of Speed
In the early years of the Festival, tens of thousands attended over the weekend, it currently attracts crowds of around 100,000 on each of the three days it is now held. A record crowd of 158,000 attended in 2003, before an advance-ticket-only admission policy came into force, attendance is now capped at 150,000. The Goodwood Festival of Speed was founded in 1993 by Lord March in order to bring racing back to the Goodwood estate — a location steeped in British motor racing history. Shortly after taking over the estate in the early 1990s, Lord March wanted to bring motor racing to Goodwood Circuit. Therefore, he hosted it on his own grounds. After the first events date clash, Lord March would ensure that the event would never be allowed to clash with either Le Mans or Formula One races, in 1994, Saturday was added, making it a weekend event. In 1996, Friday was added, making it a three-day event, in 2010, the Moving Motor Show was added on the Thursday. Visitors are free to walk around several paddocks where the cars and drivers can be seen at close quarters.
The atmosphere of the Festival of Speed, when compared to the separation of fans from drivers and machines common to most top end motor sport events, the track has an elevation change of 92.7 metres, for an average gradient of 4. 9%. The record time for the hillclimb was set in 1999 when Nick Heidfeld drove a McLaren MP4/13 Formula One car up the hill in 41.6 seconds. For safety reasons Formula One cars are no longer allowed to do official timed runs, in 2006 Heikki Kovalainen completed the course in a Renault R25 F1 car and was unofficially timed below 40 seconds. In 2016, to commemorate the 40 year anniversary of James Hunt winning the F1 World Championship, from 2000 to 2004 this was a downhill race for gravity-powered cars. Starting from just below the hill-climb finish line, to a line in front of the house. It included entries from Cosworth and other top companies, with some famous riders/drivers piloting them, including Barry Sheene. Despite an official cap on the cost of cars, the costs were becoming too high.
From 2005 to present there has been an area for the rally cars at the top of the hill. Initially, in 2005, the track through the forest was widened, and the cars ran down through the forest, turned on the tarmac section just outside the wood. This meant that the cars could only run one-at-a-time, in 2006, a full forest stage was introduced, designed by Hannu Mikkola this was a complete circuit, with a separate start and finish line at the top of the wood
Ferrari 288 GTO
The Ferrari GTO is an exotic homologation of the Ferrari 308 GTB produced from 1984 through 1987, designated GT for Gran Turismo and O for Omologato. The Ferrari GTO was built to compete in the new Group B Race series, after the death of Henri Toivonen and his co-driver Sergio Cresto in the 1986 Tour de Corse, the FIA disestablished the class, leaving just the Group A Rally championship. As a result, the GTO never raced and all 272 cars built remained purely road cars, some of the GTOs styling features were first displayed on a 308 GTB design exercise by Pininfarina shown at the 1977 Geneva Salon. The 288 GTO started out as a version of the 308/328 to hold down costs and to build the car quickly. Easily noticeable differences were the GTOs bulging fender flares, larger front/rear spoilers, large flag-style outside mirrors, retained from the original 250 GTO were slanted air vents, put in the GTOs rear fenders to cool the brakes. The GTO had wider body panels than the 308s because they had to much larger Goodyear tires mounted on racing wheels.
The suspensions height could be set higher for use and lower for racing on tracks. Bodywork material was new and lighter for better acceleration and handing, the GTOs weight was only 2,555 pounds, compared to 3, 085-3,350 for the 308/328. Steel was used just for the doors because major body panels were made from molded fiberglass, Kevlar was used for the hood, and the roof was made from Kevlar and carbon fiber. The GTO was based on the mid-engine, rear wheel drive 308 GTB, the 288 refers to the GTOs 2.8 litre V8 engine as it used a de-bored V8 with twin IHI turbochargers and Weber-Marelli fuel injection. The 2855 cc engine capacity was dictated by the FIAs requirement for a Turbocharged engines capacity to be multiplied by 1.4 and this gave the GTO a theoretical engine capacity of 3997 cc, just under the Group B limit of 4.0 litres. Unlike the 308s 2926 cc engine, the GTOs 2855 cc engine was mounted longitudinally and this was necessary to make room for the twin turbochargers and intercoolers.
The racing transmission was mounted to the rear of the engine, moving the rear differential. The arrangement let the GTO use a more conventional race-car engine/transmission layout for such things as quick gear ratio changes for various tracks, as a result, the wheelbase was 110 mm longer at 2,450 mm. The track was widened to accommodate wider wheels and tires to provide increased cornering and braking performance. The GTO was a performer, with 0-60 mph times around 5 seconds. Ferrari claimed 0-125 mph in 15 seconds flat and a top speed of 189 mph, the engine in the 288 GTO Evoluzione originally put out as much as 650 hp. With weight of 940 kg the car had a top speed of 225 mph and these cars form the clearest visual link between the 288 GTO and the F40 soon to follow
The Ferrari 330 was a series of V12 powered automobiles produced by Ferrari in 2+2 GT Coupé, two-seat Berlinetta and race car versions between 1963 and 1968. Production ended in 1968 with the introduction of the Ferrari 365 series, all 330 models used an evolution of the 400 Superamericas 4.0 L Colombo V12 engine. It was substantially changed, with wider spacing and an alternator replacing a generator. The 1963330 America shared the outgoing 250 GTEs chassis but not its engine, being powered by the new 4.0 L Tipo 209 V12, as for the 250-series,330 refers to the approximate displacement of each single cylinder. Socialite Sandra West is buried with her blue 330 America at the Alamo Masonic Cemetery at San Antonio, about 50330 Americas were built before being replaced by the larger 330 GT 2+2. The provisional 330 America was replaced in January 1964 by the new 330 GT 2+2 and it was first shown at the Brussels Show, early that year. It was much more than a re-engined 250, with a nose and tail, quad headlights.
The wheelbase was 50 mm longer, but Koni adjustable shock absorbers improved handling, a dual-circuit Dunlop braking system was used with discs all around, though it separated brakes front to back rather than diagonally as on modern systems. When leaving the factory the 330 GT originally fitted Pirelli Cinturato 205VR15 tyres, the 1965 Series II version featured a five-speed gearbox instead of the overdrive four-speed of the prior year. Other changes included the switch back to a dual-light instead of quad-light front clip, alloy wheels,625 Series I and 455 Series II330 GT 2+2 cars had been built when the car was replaced by the 365 GT 2+2 in 1967. Production of the smaller 330 GTC and GTS models overlapped with the GT 2+2 for more than a year, the 330 GTC and 330 GTS were more like their 275 counterparts than the 330 GT 2+2. They shared the wheelbase of the 275 as well as its independent rear suspension. These models were more refined than earlier Ferraris and easier to drive and it has been stated that this was probably the first Ferrari in which you could actually enjoy a radio.
The GTC berlinetta was introduced at the Geneva Motor Show in March,1966 and it was a two-seater coupé with a Pininfarina-designed body. A1967 GTC was given one-off bodywork by Zagato at the behest of American importer Luigi Chinetti in 1974 and this car was called the Zagato Convertibile, since it was of a targa-style. The GTS spider followed at the Paris Motor Show, about 600 coupés and 100 spiders were produced before the 1968 introduction of the 365 GTC and GTS. Four 330 Le Mans Berlinettas were built in 1963, first presented in March 1963 alongside the mid-engined 250 P, they were essentially a development of the 250 GTOs and fitted with the 4-litre 330 engine, here rated at 390 hp at 7,500 rpm. Although the front is similar to the 250 GTOs, the main structure came from the 250 Lusso