Ferrari N. V. is an Italian sports car manufacturer based in Maranello. Founded by Enzo Ferrari in 1939 as Auto Avio Costruzioni, the company built its first car in 1940, however the companys inception as an auto manufacturer is usually recognized in 1947, when the first Ferrari-badged car was completed. Ferrari is the worlds most powerful according to Brand Finance. In May 2012 the 1962 Ferrari 250 GTO became the most expensive car in history, Fiat S. p. A. acquired 50 percent of Ferrari in 1969 and expanded its stake to 90 percent in 1988. In October 2014 Fiat Chrysler Automobiles announced its intentions to separate Ferrari S. p. A. from FCA, through the remaining steps of the separation, FCAs interest in Ferraris business was distributed to shareholders of FCA, with 10 percent continuing to be owned by Piero Ferrari. The spin-off was completed on 3 January 2016, Ferrari road cars are generally seen as a symbol of speed and wealth. Enzo Ferrari was not initially interested in the idea of producing road cars when he formed Scuderia Ferrari in 1929, Scuderia Ferrari literally means Ferrari Stable and is usually used to mean Team Ferrari.
Ferrari bought and fielded Alfa Romeo racing cars for gentlemen drivers, in September 1939 Enzo Ferrari left Alfa Romeo under the provision that he would not use the Ferrari name in association with races or racing cars for at least four years. A few days he founded Auto Avio Costruzioni, headquartered in the facilities of the old Scuderia Ferrari, the new company ostensibly produced machine tools and aircraft accessories. In 1940 Ferrari did in fact produce a race car – the Tipo 815 and it was the first Ferrari car and debuted at the 1940 Mille Miglia, but due to World War II it saw little competition. In 1943 the Ferrari factory moved to Maranello, where it has remained ever since, the factory was bombed by the Allies and subsequently rebuilt including a works for road car production. The first Ferrari-badged car was the 1947125 S, powered by a 1.5 L V12 engine, Enzo Ferrari reluctantly built, the Scuderia Ferrari name was resurrected to denote the factory racing cars and distinguish them from those fielded by customer teams.
In 1960 the company was restructured as a corporation under the name SEFAC S. p. A. Early in 1969, Fiat took a 50 percent stake in Ferrari, new model investment further up in the Ferrari range received a boost. In 1988, Enzo Ferrari oversaw the launch of the Ferrari F40, the last new Ferrari to be launched before his death that year, in 1989 the company was renamed as Ferrari S. p. A. From 2002 to 2004, Ferrari produced the Enzo, their fastest model at the time and it was to be called the F60, continuing on from the F40 and F50, but Ferrari was so pleased with it, they called it the Enzo instead. It was initially offered to loyal and reoccurring customers, each of the 399 made had a tag of $650,000 apiece. On 15 September 2012,964 Ferrari cars (worth over $162 million attended the Ferrari Driving Days event at Silverstone Circuit, on 29 October 2014, the FCA group, resulting from the merger between manufacturers Fiat and Chrysler, announced the split of its luxury brand, Ferrari
Automotive design is the profession involved in the development of the appearance, and to some extent the ergonomics, of motor vehicles or more specifically road vehicles. This most commonly refers to automobiles but refers to motorcycles, buses, the functional design and development of a modern motor vehicle is typically done by a large team from many different disciplines included within automotive engineering. Automotive design in context is primarily concerned with developing the visual appearance or aesthetics of the vehicle. Automotive design is practiced by designers who usually have an art background, the task of the design team is usually split into three main aspects, exterior design, interior design, and color and trim design. Graphic design is an aspect of design, this is generally shared amongst the design team as the lead designer sees fit. Design focuses not only on the outer shape of automobile parts. The aesthetic value will need to correspond to ergonomic functionality and utility features as well, though not all the new vehicular gadgets are to be designated as factory standard items, some of them may be integral to determining the future course of any specific vehicular models.
The stylist responsible for the design of the exterior of the vehicle develops the proportions, Exterior design is first done by a series of digital or manual drawings. Progressively, drawings that are more detailed are executed and approved by appropriate layers of management, Clay and or digital models are developed from, and along with the drawings. The data from these models are used to create a full sized mock-up of the final design. With three- and five-axis CNC milling machines, the model is first designed in a computer program and carved using the machine. Even in times of high-class 3d software and virtual models on power walls, here the emphasis is on ergonomics and the comfort of the passengers. The procedure here is the same as with exterior design, the color and trim designer is responsible for the research and development of all interior and exterior colors and materials used on a vehicle. These include paints, fabric designs, grains, headliner, wood trim, contrast and pattern must be carefully combined to give the vehicle a unique interior environment experience.
Designers work closely with the exterior and interior designers, designers draw inspiration from other design disciplines such as, industrial design, home furnishing and sometimes product design. Specific research is done into global trends to design for two to three model years in the future. Trend boards are created from research in order to keep track of design influences as they relate to the automotive industry. The designer uses this information to develop themes and concepts that are further refined and tested on the vehicle models
Compared to OHV pushrod systems with the same number of valves, the reciprocating components of the OHC system are fewer and have a lower overall mass. Though the system drives the camshafts may be more complex, most engine manufacturers accept that added complexity as a trade-off for better engine performance. The fundamental reason for the OHC valvetrain is that it offers an increase in the ability to exchange induction. Another performance advantage is gained as a result of the better optimised port configurations made possible with overhead camshaft designs, with no intrusive pushrods, the overhead camshaft cylinder head design can use straighter ports of more advantageous cross-section and length. The OHC design allows for higher speeds than comparable cam-in-block designs. The higher engine speeds thus allowed increases power output for a given torque output, in earlier OHC systems, including inter-war Morrises and Wolseleys, oil leaks in the lubrication systems were an issue. Single overhead camshaft is a design in which one camshaft is placed within the cylinder head, in the SOHC design, the camshaft operates the valves directly, traditionally via a bucket tappet, or via an intermediary rocker arm. SOHC cylinder heads are less expensive to manufacture than double overhead camshaft cylinder heads.
Timing belt replacement can be easier since there are fewer camshaft drive sprockets that need to be aligned during the replacement procedure, SOHC designs offer reduced complexity compared to overhead valve designs — when used for multivalve cylinder heads, in which each cylinder has more than two valves. Exhaust and inlet manifolds were both on the side of the engine block. This did, offer excellent access to the spark plugs, in the early 1980s, Toyota and Volkswagen Group used a directly actuated, SOHC parallel valve configuration with two valves for each cylinder. The Toyota system used hydraulic tappets, the Volkswagen system used bucket tappets with shims for valve clearance adjustment. Honda used a similar system in their motorcycles, using the term Unicam for the concept. This system uses one camshaft for each bank of cylinder heads, with the cams operating directly onto the valve and indirectly, through a short rocker arm. This allows a compact, light valvetrain to operate valves in a combustion chamber.
The Unicam valve train was first used in single cylinder dirt bikes, a dual overhead camshaft valvetrain layout is characterised by two camshafts located within the cylinder head, one operating the intake valves and the other one operating the exhaust valves. This design reduces valvetrain inertia more than is the case with a SOHC engine, a DOHC design permits a wider angle between intake and exhaust valves than do SOHC engines. This can allow for a less restricted airflow at higher engine speeds, DOHC with a multivalve design allows for the optimum placement of the spark plug which, in turn, improves combustion efficiency
The Ferrari Mondial is a V8, mid-engined, grand tourer coupé and cabriolet that was produced by Italian manufacturer Ferrari between 1980 and 1993. Conceived as a practical Ferrari, the Mondial is a genuine long-distance four-seater, with sufficient rear head- and leg-room for children and it affords easy access via the long single doors, and has surprisingly good all-round visibility for a mid-engined car. The vehicle has a higher roofline and greater all-round dimensions compared to its two-seater stable mates. It is claimed that the Mondial cabriolets are the production vehicles manufactured to a four-seater, rear mid-engined. The Ferrari Mondial is a vehicle of the R-M-R configuration. It was produced in 2-door coupé and convertible forms, with all vehicles offering 2+2 passenger accommodation. Unlike its GT4 predecessor which was styled by the Italian Gruppo Bertone, the Mondial was designed by Pininfarina of Turin, pininfarinas bodywork was manufactured by Ferraris regular coachbuilder Carrozzeria Scaglietti.
Its structure conformed with Ferraris practice at the time, with body panels fitted onto a separate space-frame chassis constructed from tubular box or oval-shaped steel sections. While most body panels are steel pressings, the front lid and rear cover of the Mondial 8. Additional louvre grilles are located on side of the vehicle just ahead of the rear wheels. Louvres feature in the front polished aluminium grille behind which sits the main radiator, a final full-width black louvre panel closes-off the rear of the car below the rear bumper, and through which protrudes a pair of exhaust outlets on each side of the vehicle. Front and rear bumpers are from black plastic on the Mondial 8 and QV, the Mondial chassis includes several detachable sub-frames holding major mechanical assemblies, including one at the rear supporting the entire engine/transmission/rear suspension assembly. This design considerably simplifies engine removal for a rebuild or cylinder head removal compared to previous Ferrari V8 vehicles.
At the front of the vehicle, a front-hinged lid encloses space for the tyre and cooling fans, battery and cooling systems. At the rear, a full-width and trimmed luggage boot with a gas-strut-supported lid sits behind the engine bay, sizeable enough to hold several sizeable soft bags or set of golf clubs. Differences in body features between sales markets was small, with the most obvious being the prominent rectangular side turn-indicator lamps affixed front, all Mondials are fitted with a V8 engine which is essentially identical to that used in Ferraris concurrent 2-seater 308/328/348 series vehicles. Engine capacity started at 3.0 l for the Mondial 8 and QV models, increasing to 3.2 l for the Mondial 3.2, the orientation of the V8 engine block is quite different in the Mondial t compared to the earlier Mondials. Mirroring the two-seater Ferrari V8 vehicles, all 3.0 and 3.2 l engines sit across the car with their crankshaft, the 3.4 l engine in the Mondial t is rotated ninety degrees to a longitudinal orientation with respect to the car
The Dino 308 GT4 and 208 GT4 were mid-engined V8 2+2 cars built by Ferrari. The Dino 308 GT4 was introduced in 1973 and supplemented by the 208 GT4 in 1975, the cars were sold with Dino badging until May 1976, when they received Ferrari badging. The GT4 was replaced by the Mondial 8 in 1980 after a run of 2,826 308s and 840 208s. Pininfarina was upset by the decision to give cross-town rival Bertone the design, the styling featured angular lines entirely different from its curvaceous 2-seater brother, the Dino 246, and was controversial at the time. Some journalists compared it to the Bertone-designed Lancia Stratos and Lamborghini Urraco, from the cockpit the driver sees only the road. It has perfect 360 degree visibility, no spots and comfortable seating position, a real trunk, a back seat for soft luggage. Enzo Ferrari himself took a role in its design, even having a mock-up made where he could sit in the car to test different steering, pedals. The chassis was a tubular spaceframe based on the Dino 246, the suspension was fully independent, with double wishbones, anti-roll bars, coaxial telescopic shock absorbers and coil springs on both axles.
Niki Lauda helped set up the chassis, the 3.0 L V8 was mounted transversally integrally joined with the 5-speed transaxle gearbox. The engine had an alloy block and heads, 16-valves and dual overhead camshafts driven by toothed belts. The induction system used four Weber 40 DCNF carburetors, the Dino 308 GT4 was introduced at the Paris Motor Show in November 1973. The 308 GT4 finally gained the Prancing Horse badge in May 1976, which replaced the Dino badges on the hood, rear panel and this has caused major confusion over the years by owners and judges. During the energy crisis at that time many prospective owners were hesitant to buy such an expensive automobile not badged Ferrari being confused at the significance of the Dino name. Dino was Enzo Ferraris son who died in 1956, and his name was to honor his memory on the models it was placed. In an effort to improve sales until the 1976 official re-badging, Ferrari sent out factory update #265/1 on July 1,1975 with technical, some of these revisions were implemented piecemeal by dealers.
Some made all the revisions while some just made a few and this leaves many 1975 GT4s with a variety of modifications which are hard to document as correct to aficionados who may not understand the complicated series of events surrounding this model year. Some of the revisions included adding Prancing Horse badges, repainting in the Boxer two-tone scheme, air conditioning fixes and it included bumper modification and exhaust changes for North American versions. The GT4 was the only 2+2 Ferrari ever raced with factory support, there were two series of GT4, the earlier cars featured a twin distributor engine and foglamps mounted in the front valance
Dino was a marque for mid-engined, rear-drive sports cars produced by Ferrari from 1968 to 1976. Used for models with engines with fewer than 12 cylinders, it was an attempt by the company to offer a relatively low-cost sports car. The Ferrari name remained reserved for its premium V-12 and flat 12 models until 1976,246 being a 2. 4-litre 6-cylinder and 308 being a 3. 0-litre 8-cylinder. The Dino marque was created to market a lower priced, affordable sports car capable of taking on the Porsche 911, Ferraris expensive V12s well exceeded the 911 in both performance and price. Enzo did not want to diminish his exclusive brand with a cheaper car, the name Dino honours the founders late son, Alfredo Dino Ferrari, credited with designing the V6 engine used by the marque. Along with famed engineer Vittorio Jano, Dino influenced Enzo Ferraris decision to produce a line of racing cars in the 1950s, with V6, history shows that Alfredo Ferrari did not have a hand in the actual design of the V6 motor that made its way into the Dino.
Ferrari wished to race in the new 1.6 L Formula 2 category in 1967 with the Dino V6 engine, the company could not meet the homologation rules which called for 500 production vehicles using the engine to be produced. Enzo Ferrari therefore asked Fiat to co-produce a sports car using the V6, and it used a 2.0 L version of the Dino V6, allowing Ferrari to compete in the category. At the time, the thought of using a layout in a production car was quite daring. A mid-engined layout placed more of the weight over the driven wheels, and allowed for a streamlined nose. Lamborghini created a stir in 1966 with its mid-engined Miura, eventually he relented, and allowed designer Sergio Pininfarina to build a mid-engined concept for the 1965 Paris Motor Show, but demanded that it wear the Dino badge alone. The 1966 Turin car show featured a refined Dino 206S, the Turin 206S was a closer prototype to the actual production version. Response to the radically styled car was positive, so Ferrari allowed it to go into production, the Dino 246 was the first Ferrari model produced in high numbers.
The first road-going Dino as well as the first Ferrari-built road car was the 1968 Dino 206 GT, the 206 GT used a transverse-mounted 2.0 L all-aluminium 65-degree V6 engine, with 180 PS at 8,000 rpm, the same used in the Fiat Dino. The 206 GT frame featured a body, full independent suspension. 152 were built in total during 1968 and 1969, in left hand drive only, in 1969 the 206 GT was superseded by the more powerful Dino 246 GT. The 246 GT was powered by an enlarged 2.4 L V6 engine, initially available as a fixed-top GT coupé, a targa topped GTS was offered after 1971. Other notable changes from the 206 were the body, now made of steel instead of aluminium, three series of the Dino 246 GT were built, with differences in wheels, windshield wiper coverage, and engine ventilation
Governments and private organizations have developed car classification schemes that are used for innumerable purposes including regulation and categorization, among others. This article details commonly used classification schemes in use worldwide, vehicles can be categorized in numerous ways. Regulatory agencies may establish a vehicle classification system for determining a tax amount, in the United Kingdom, a vehicle is taxed according to the vehicles construction, weight, type of fuel and emissions, as well as the purpose for which it is used. Other jurisdictions may determine vehicle tax based upon environmental principles, such as the user pays principle, another standard for road vehicles of all types that is used internationally, is ISO 3833-1977. In the United States, since 2010 the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety uses a scheme it has developed that takes into account a combination of both shadow and weight. The United States Federal Highway Administration has developed a scheme used for automatically calculating road use tolls.
There are two categories depending on whether the vehicle carries passengers or commodities. Vehicles that carry commodities are further subdivided by number of axles and number of units, the United States Environmental Protection Agency has developed a classification scheme used to compare fuel economy among similar vehicles. Passenger vehicles are classified based on a total interior passenger. Trucks are classified based upon their gross vehicle weight rating, heavy duty vehicles are not included within the EPA scheme. A similar set of classes is used by the Canadian EPA, in Australia, the Federal Chamber of Automotive Industries publishes its own classifications. This is a table listing several different methods of vehicle classification. Straddling the boundary between car and motorbike, these vehicles have engines under 1.0 litre, typically only two passengers, and are sometimes unorthodox in construction. Some microcars are three-wheelers, while the majority have four wheels, microcars were popular in post-war Europe, where their appearance led them to be called Bubble cars.
More recent microcars are often electric powered, the size of ultracompact cars will be less than minicars, but have engine greater than 50cc displacement and able to transport 1 or 2 persons. Ultracompact cars cannot use standard, because of strict safety standards for minicars. The regulation about running capacity and safety performance of cars will be published in early autumn. Today, there are smaller than ultracompact cars, called category-1 motorized vehicles which it has 50cc displacement or less
In 1932, Ferdinand Porsche designed a Grand Prix racing car for the Auto Union company. The high power of the design caused one of the wheels to experience excessive wheel spin at any speed up to 160 km/h. In 1935, Porsche commissioned the engineering firm ZF to design a limited-slip differential to improve performance, the ZF sliding pins and cams became available, and one example was the Type B-70 for early VWs, although technically this was an automatic locking differential, not a limited-slip. The main advantage of a differential is demonstrated by considering the case of a standard differential in off-roading or snow situations where one wheel begins to slip. In such a case with a differential, the slipping or non-contacting wheel will receive the majority of the power. For example, the right tire might begin to spin as soon as 70 N·m of torque is placed on it, since it is on an icy surface. Meanwhile, the tire on the surface will simply spin, absorbing all of the actual power output. The advantages of LSD in high-power, rear wheel drive automobiles were demonstrated during the United States Muscle-Car era from the mid 1960s through the early 1970s, cars of this era normally were rear wheel drive and did not feature independent suspension for the rear tires.
With a live axle, when high torque is applied through the differential and this coined the term one wheel peel. As such, Muscle-Cars with LSD or posi were at an advantage to their wheel-spinning counterparts. Automotive limited-slip differentials all contain a few basic elements, all have a gear train that, like an open differential, allows the output shafts to spin at different speeds while holding the sum of their speeds proportional to that of the input shaft. Second, all have some sort of mechanism that applies a torque that resists the motion of the output shafts. There are many used to create this resisting torque. The type of differential typically gets its name from the design of this resisting mechanism. Examples include viscous and clutch-based LSDs, the amount of limiting torque provided by these mechanisms varies by design and is discussed in the article. A limited-slip differential has a more complex torque-split and should be considered in the case when the outputs are spinning the same speed, the torque difference between the two axles is called Trq d.
Trq d is the difference in torque delivered to the left, the magnitude of Trq d comes from the slip-limiting mechanism in the differential and may be a function of input torque, or the difference in the output speeds. In the case when the vehicle is turning and neither wheel is slipping, in this case the inside wheel will receive more torque than the outside wheel, which can result in understeer
Many mid- and rear-engined vehicles use a transverse engine and transaxle, similar to a front wheel drive unit. Front-engine, rear-wheel drive vehicles tend to have the transmission up front just after the engine and this is generally done for reasons of weight distribution, and is therefore common on sports cars. Another advantage is that as the spins at engine speed it only has to endure the torque of the engine. This design was pioneered in the 1934 Škoda Popular, and in the 1950 Lancia Aurelia, since this placement of the gearbox is unsuitable for a live axle, the rear suspension is either independent, or uses a de Dion tube. Rare exceptions to this rule were the Bugatti T46 and T50 which had a three speed gearbox on a live axle and this is mounted immediately behind the front-mounted engine and contains the gearbox, along with both the centre differential, and the front differential and final drive unit. Hybrid Synergy Drive Axle Transmission Differential Powertrain Drivetrain Transfer case
Pininfarina S. p. A. is an Italian car design firm and coachbuilder in Cambiano, Italy. It was founded by Battista Pinin Farina in 1930. On December 14,2015, Mahindra Group, Pininfarina is employed by a wide variety of automobile manufactures to design vehicles. Since the 1980s Pininfarina has designed high-speed trains, trams, rolling stocks, automated light rail cars, people movers, airplanes, with the 1986 creation of Pininfarina Extra they have consulted on industrial design, interior design and graphic design. Pininfarina was run by Battistas son Sergio Pininfarina until 2001, his grandson Andrea Pininfarina until his death in 2008, after Andreas death his younger brother Paolo Pininfarina was appointed as CEO. At its height in 2006 the Pininfarina Group employed 2,768 with subsidiary company offices throughout Europe, as well as in Morocco, as of 2012 with the end of series automotive production, employment has shrunk to 821. Pininfarina is registered and publicly traded on the Borsa Italiana, on December 14,2015, Mahindra Group, announced a deal to acquire Pininfarina S. p. A. in a deal worth about 168 million euros.
That first year the firm employed eighteen and built 50 automobile bodies, on May 22,1930 papers were filed to become a corporation, Società anonima Carrozzeria Pinin Farina headquartered in Turin, Italy, at 107 Corso Trapani. During the 1930s, the company built bodies for Lancia, Alfa Romeo, Isotta-Fraschini, Hispano Suiza, Fiat and this development happened in the mid-1930s when others saw the frameless construction as the end of the independent coachbilder. In 1939, World War II ended automobile production, but the company had 400 employees building 150 bodies a month, the war effort against the Allies brought work making ambulances and searchlight carriages. The Pininfarina factory was destroyed by Allied bombers ending the firms operations, after the war, Italy was banned from the 1946 Paris Motor Show. The Paris show was attended by 809,000 visitors, lines of people stretched from the gate all the way to the Seine. The managers of the Grand Palais said of the display, the devil Pininfarina, but to the press, at the end of 1945 the Cisitalia 202 Coupé was designed.
An elegantly proportioned design with a low hood, it is the car that usually is given credit for establishing Pininfarinas reputation, the Pininfarina design was honored in the Museum of Modern Arts landmark presentation Eight Automobiles in 1951. A total of 170 Coupés where produced by Pininfarina, the publicity of the Museum of Modern Art exhibit brought Pininfarina to the attention of Nash-Kelvinator managers. The subsequent cooperation with Nash Motors resulted in production of Pininfarina designs. In 1952, Mr. Farina visited the U. S, the Nash-Healey sports car body was, completely designed and assembled in limited numbers from 1952 to 1954 at Pininfarinas Turin facilities. Nash heavily advertised its link to the famous Italian designer, much as Studebaker promoted its longtime association with Raymond Loewy, there were 99 Broughams built in 1959 and 101 in 1960. A similar arrangement was repeated in the late 1980s when Pininfarina designed the Cadillac Allanté at the San Giusto Canavese factory, the car bodies were assembled and painted in Italy before being flown from the Turin International Airport to Detroit for final vehicle assembly
A sports car is a small, usually two seater, two door automobile designed for spirited performance and nimble handling. According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, the first known use of the term was in 1928, Sports cars may be spartan or luxurious, but high maneuverability and minimum weight are requisite. The basis for the car is traced to the early 20th century touring cars and roadsters. These raced in rallies, such as the Herkomer Cup, Prinz-Heinrich-Fahrt. These would shortly be joined by the French DFP and the Rolls-Royce Silver Ghost. In 1921, Ballot premiered its 2LS, with a remarkable 75 hp DOHC two liter, designed by Ernest Henry, capable of 150 km/h, at most, one hundred were built in four years and this was followed by the SOHC 2LT and 2LTS. The same year, Benz built a supercharged 28/95PS four for the Coppa Florio, duerkopps Zoller-blown two liter in 1924, as well. There was a clear cleavage by 1925, by the end of the 1920s, AC produced a 2-liter six, the 3. Benz introduced the powerful SS and SSK, and Alfa Romeo, hispano-Suizas Alfonso XIII is considered the first sportcar developed between 1911 and 1914.
Two companies would offer really reliable sports cars, Austin with the Seven, the drive train and engine layout significantly influences the handling characteristics of an automobile, and is crucially important in the design of a sports car. The front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is common to cars of any era and has survived longer in sports cars than in mainstream automobiles. Examples include the Caterham 7, Mazda MX-5, and the Chevrolet Corvette, more specifically, many such sports cars have a FMR layout, with the centre of mass of the engine between the front axle and the firewall. In search of improved handling and weight distribution, other layouts are sometimes used, the RMR layout is commonly found only in sports cars—the motor is centre-mounted in the chassis, and powers only the rear wheels. Some high-performance sports car manufacturers, such as Ferrari and Lamborghini have preferred this layout, Porsche is one of the few remaining manufacturers using the rear-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout.
The motors distributed weight across the wheels, in a Porsche 911, provides excellent traction, Porsche has continuously refined the design and in recent years added electronic driving aids to counteract these inherent design shortcomings. The front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout layout which is the most common in sport compacts and hot hatches, its conservative handling effect, particularly understeer, and the fact that many drivers believe rear wheel drive is a more desirable layout for a sports car count against it. The Fiat Barchetta, Saab Sonett, and Berkeley cars are cars with this layout. Before the 1980s few sports cars used four-wheel drive, which had added a lot of weight