Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Germanys capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, other major cities include Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, in 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire.
After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic, the establishment of the national socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and the Holocaust. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in 1990, the country was reunified. In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP. As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods. Germany is a country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection. Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in 1957. It is part of the Schengen Area, and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999, Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, and the OECD.
The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz popular, derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- people, the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a mine in Schöningen where three 380, 000-year-old wooden javelins were unearthed
Piero Taruffi, was a racing driver from Italy, and the father of lady racer Prisca Taruffi. Taruffi began his career racing motorcycles. He won the 1932 500cc European Championship on a Norton and in 1937 set the land speed record at 279.503 km/h. Taruffi drove a newly introduced 2-litre, 4-cylinder Ferrari, which placed third in the 360 kilometre race Grand Prix de Bari at Bari, Italy and he finished behind Juan Manuel Fangio and Froilán González with a time of 2 hours 58 minutes 40 3/5 seconds. Taruffi and Alberto Ascari participated in the Carrera Panamericana in the mountains of Mexico in November 1951 and they placed first and third respectively over the course from Mexico City to León, Guanajuato, a 267-mile leg. Taruffi led second-placed Troy Ruttman by more than four minutes, Taruffi trimmed 15 minutes on the Mexico City-Leon leg and another 21 minutes between Leon and Durango. In the process he climbed from 12th to third overall, Taruffi won the race on 25 November, with a time of 21,57,52, over mountains and plains of the southeastern tip of Mexico.
He had a speed of 87.6 mph. Taruffi set a record for 50 miles in an auto of 22 cubic centimetre displacement in January 1952. He attempted a 100-mile record but his motor burned out after 98 miles, Taruffi was in a two-litre Ferrari for the running of the third Grand Prix de France, in Paris in May 1952. He captured first place with a time of three hours over a distance of 285 miles and his average speed was 95 mph. Taruffi placed second to Fangio in the 1953 Carrera Panamericana, with a time of 18,18,51 in a Lancia and his time was better than the previous year when he was victorious. In March 1954, Taruffi lost the Florida International Grand Prix with an hour to go and he pushed it to the pits and team mechanics began working on it with diligence. Taruffi was still out of the car when the O. S. C. A, shared by Stirling Moss and Bill Lloyd crossed the finish line. Taruffi had averaged 81.1 miles per hour before he retired, Taruffi won the 1, 080-kilometre Tour of Sicily in April 1954. His time of 10 hours 24 minutes 37 seconds established a record for an event which opened Italys sports car racing season and it was 14 years old at the time.
He averaged 64.4 miles per hour in a Lancia 3300, Taruffi and Harry Schell placed fifth overall in the 1955 Florida Grand Prix, driving a Ferrari. Taruffi claimed first place in a Ferrari, at the 1955 Tour of Sicily, with an time of 10 hours 11 minutes 19.4 seconds
John Philip Jacob Elkann is an Italian industrialist. He was the heir of his grandfather Gianni Agnelli, and chairs. He is the chairman and CEO of Exor, an investment company controlled by the Agnelli family, which controls Partner Re, Ferrari, CNH Industrial and Juventus F. C. Born in New York City, John Elkann is the first son of Alain Elkann, a journalist and writer of French Jewish and Italian Jewish background and his parents divorced in 1981 and both have remarried. Elkanns maternal grandparents were the industrialist Gianni Agnelli and the Italian socialite Marella Agnelli and his paternal great-grand-uncle was the banker Ettore Ovazza. He has a brother, and a sister, Ginevra, as well as five half-siblings from his mother’s second marriage, as Margherita Agnelli de Pahlen and his younger half-siblings are, Pierre, twins Sophie and Anna and Tatiana. Later the same year, he moved to Italy to attend the Politecnico di Torino, as a result of his international upbringing, he is fluent in four languages.
He was appointed to the Fiat Board at the age of 21, in 2000, after graduating in Engineering from Politecnico di Torino, he joined General Electric’s Corporate Audit program. He left General Electric two years later, in 2003, he joined IFIL and worked on the turnaround of Fiat Group. Elkann was instrumental in the appointment of current FCA CEO, Sergio Marchionne, in 2010, he became chairman of Fiat S. p. A. succeeding Luca Cordero di Montezemolo, and chairman of the Giovanni Agnelli B. V. succeeding Gianluigi Gabetti. In February 2011, he was appointed chairman and CEO of EXOR and he is chairman of Partner Re, Editrice La Stampa, a board member of Ferrari and The Economist Group. In 2013 was included by Fortune in the world’s most influential managers under the age of 40, Elkann was baptized and raised Catholic. Elkann married Lavinia Borromeo a member of the prominent Italian aristocratic family the House of Borromeo and they married in a Roman Catholic ceremony in the Cappella Bianca on Isola Madre, one of the Borromean Islands of Lake Maggiore.
A son named Leone Mosé, was born on 27 August 2006, on 11 November 2007, Mrs. Elkann gave birth to the couples second boy, Oceano Noah. Their third child, a girl named Vita Talita was born on 23 January 2012 and they were all born in Turin at S. Annas Hospital. EXOR N. V. Chairman/CEO Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, Chairman Giovanni Agnelli B. V. Chairman/General Partner PartnerRe,2003 Global Influentias, With The Grace Of Grandpa The Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Group The Fiat Car Company Exor CNH Industrial Fondazione Giovanni Agnelli La Stampa
Auto racing is a sport involving the racing of automobiles for competition. Almost as soon as automobiles had been invented, races of various sorts were organised, by the 1930s specialist racing cars had developed. There are now numerous different categories, each with different rules and it was won by the carriage of Isaac Watt Boulton. Internal combustion auto racing events began soon after the construction of the first successful gasoline-fueled automobiles, the first organized contest was on April 28,1887, by the chief editor of Paris publication Le Vélocipède, Monsieur Fossier. It ran 2 kilometres from Neuilly Bridge to the Bois de Boulogne, on July 22,1894, the Parisian magazine Le Petit Journal organized what is considered to be the worlds first motoring competition, from Paris to Rouen. One hundred and two competitors paid a 10-franc entrance fee, the first American automobile race is generally held to be the Thanksgiving Day Chicago Times-Herald race of November 28,1895. Press coverage of the event first aroused significant American interest in the automobile, brooklands, in Surrey, was the first purpose-built motor racing venue, opening in June 1907.
It featured a 4.43 km concrete track with high-speed banked corners, One of the oldest existing purpose-built automobile racing circuits in the United States, still in use, is the 2. 5-mile -long Indianapolis Motor Speedway in Speedway, Indiana. It is the largest capacity venue of any variety worldwide, with a top capacity of some 257. NASCAR was founded by Bill France, Sr. on February 21,1948, the first NASCAR Strictly Stock race ever was held on June 19,1949, at Daytona Beach, Florida. From 1962, sports cars temporarily took a seat to GT cars. From 1972 through 2003, NASCARs premier series was called the Winston Cup Series, the changes that resulted from RJRs involvement, as well as the reduction of the schedule from 48 to 31 races a year, established 1972 as the beginning of NASCARs modern era. The IMSA GT Series evolved into the American Le Mans Series, the European races eventually became the closely related Le Mans Series, both of which mix prototypes and GTs. The best-known variety of racing, Formula One, which hosts the famous Monaco Grand Prix.
In single-seater, the wheels are not covered, and the cars often have aerofoil wings front, in Europe and Asia, open-wheeled racing is commonly referred to as Formula, with appropriate hierarchical suffixes. In North America, the Formula terminology is not followed, the sport is usually arranged to follow an international format, a regional format, and/or a domestic, or country-specific, format. In North America, the used in the National Championship have traditionally been similar though less sophisticated than F1 cars. The series most famous race is the Indianapolis 500, the other major international single-seater racing series is GP2
The Mille Miglia was an open-road endurance race which took place in Italy twenty-four times from 1927 to 1957. Like the older Targa Florio and the Carrera Panamericana, the MM made Gran Turismo sports cars like Alfa Romeo, BMW, Maserati, Mercedes Benz, the race brought out an estimated five million spectators. From 1953 until 1957, the Mille Miglia was a round of the World Sports Car Championship, since 1977, the Mille Miglia has been reborn as a regularity race for classic and vintage cars. Participation is limited to cars, produced no than 1957, the route is similar to that of the original race, maintaining the point of departure / arrival in Viale Venezia in Brescia. This made organisation simpler as marshals did not have to be on duty for as long a period, from 1949, cars were assigned numbers according to their start time. For example, the 1955 Moss/Jenkinson car, #722, left Brescia at 07,22, in the early days of the race, even winners needed 16 hours or more, so most competitors had to start before midnight and arrived after dusk - if at all.
The race was established by the young Count Aymo Maggi and Franco Mazzotti, together with a group of wealthy associates, they chose a race from Brescia to Rome and back, a figure-eight shaped course of roughly 1500 km — or a thousand Roman miles. Later races followed twelve other routes of varying total lengths, the first race started on 26 March 1927 with seventy-seven starters — all Italian — of which fifty-one had reached the finishing post at Brescia by the end of the race. The first Mille Miglia covered 1,618 km, corresponding to just over 1,005 modern miles, entry was strictly restricted to unmodified production cars, and the entrance fee was set at a nominal 1 lira. The winner, Giuseppe Morandi, completed the course in just under 21 hours 5 minutes, averaging nearly 78 km/h in his 2-litre OM, tazio Nuvolari won the 1930 Mille Miglia in an Alfa Romeo 6C. Having started after his teammate and rival Achille Varzi, Nuvolari was leading the race, in the dim half-light of early dawn, Nuvolari tailed Varzi with his headlights off, thereby not being visible in the latters rear-view mirrors.
He overtook Varzi on the roads approaching the finish at Brescia, by pulling alongside. The event was dominated by local Italian drivers and marques. Caracciola had received little support from the factory due to the economic crisis at that time. He did not have mechanics to man all necessary service points. After performing a pit stop, they had to hurry across Italy, the race was briefly stopped by Italian leader Benito Mussolini after an accident in 1938 killed a number of spectators. When it resumed in 1940 during wartime, it was dubbed the Grand Prix of Brescia and this event saw the debut of the first Enzo Ferrari-owned marque AAC. The Italians continued to dominate their race after the war, now again on a single big lap through Italy, caracciola, in a comeback attempt, was fourth
Brendon Hartley is a New Zealand professional racing driver currently competing in the FIA World Endurance Championship for Porsche in LMP1-H. On November 21,2015, he was crowned alongside his teammates Mark Webber. Hartley was born in Palmerston North in a well integrated within motorsport. His father, had raced in many forms of motorsport, at the age of six, Hartley began his motor racing career in kart racing, following his brother, Nelsons footsteps. Six years later, the young New Zealander competed in his first full–scale race championship, up against many seasoned veterans, Hartley finished the season in seventh. In a car his brother used the year, he started four races. After a season in Formula Toyota New Zealand, Hartley moved to Europe, competing in the Eurocup Formula Renault 2.0 and Formula Renault 2.0 Northern European Cup. The New Zealander finished 14th and 10th in the Drivers Championship in the Eurocup and North European Cup respectively and his second year in Formula Renault saw him stay in the Eurocup, but move from the NEC to the Italian championship.
That year saw him take three wins in the Eurocup and three podiums in the Italian championship, and took title in the Eurocup. In 2007 Hartley made his Formula Three debut in the Masters of Formula 3 at Zolder event and this resulted in a test with A1 Team New Zealand and the role of the rookie driver for the series. In 2008, Hartley competed in the British Formula 3 Championship for Carlin Motorsport winning five times and he would have placed higher up, due to a greater amount of retirements compared to that of his teammates Jaime Alguersuari and Oliver Turvey. They had two each, while Hartley had six and he competed in eight races in the Formula Three Euroseries for Carlin and RC Motorsport, and achieved two finishes in the points, although he was ineligible for points. In non-championship races, Hartley finished fifth at the Masters of Formula 3, and he started 20th on the grid and recorded the fastest race lap. He stayed with Carlin for the full F3 Euroseries in 2009, in that series, Hartley competed for the defending champion Tech 1 Racing team, and ended fifteenth in the championship.
He has been confirmed at Tech 1 for a season of Formula Renault 3.5 in 2010. During the series summer break it was announced that Hartley had been dropped from the Red Bull Junior Team and his seat was taken by British Formula 3 championship leader Jean-Éric Vergne. Despite the loss of his Red Bull backing, Hartley made his GP2 Series début at Monza in September and he scored a point in the season finale at Yas Marina to place 27th in the championship. For 2011, Hartley returned to Formula Renault 3.5 and he finished in fifth place in his first race with the team, and 19th in the overall championship
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic, is a federal republic in the southern half of South America. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the second largest in Latin America, and the largest Spanish-speaking one. The country is subdivided into provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires. The provinces and the capital have their own constitutions, but exist under a federal system, Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. The earliest recorded presence in the area of modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century, Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural.
The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest developed nation in the world by the early 20th century, Argentina retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs, and is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America. Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America and is a member of the G-15 and it is the country with the second highest Human Development Index in Latin America with a rating of very high. Because of its stability, market size and growing high-tech sector, the description of the country by the word Argentina has to be found on a Venice map in 1536. In English the name Argentina probably comes from the Spanish language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, Argentina means in Italian of silver, silver coloured, probably borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine of silver > silver coloured already mentioned in the 12th century. The French word argentine is the form of argentin and derives of argent silver with the suffix -in.
The Italian naming Argentina for the country implies Argentina Terra land of silver or Argentina costa coast of silver, in Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is often used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said lArgentina. The name Argentina was probably first given by the Venitian and Genoese navigators, in Spanish and Portuguese, the words for silver are respectively plata and prata and of silver is said plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin. The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina, a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region, the 1826 constitution included the first use of the name Argentine Republic in legal documents. The name Argentine Confederation was used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the name as Argentine Republic
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
Pascal Wehrlein is a German Formula One driver who is currently racing for Sauber. Holding dual nationality of Germany and Mauritius, he races under the German flag in Formula One and he had previously raced in the DTM, winning the title with the Mercedes-Benz team HWA AG in 2015. In 2014 Wehrlein became the youngest driver to win a DTM race at the age of 19, in February 2016 he began driving full-time for Manor, scoring his first championship point at the Austrian Grand Prix. 2010 saw his debut in the ADAC Formel Masters championship with ADAC Berlin-Brandenburg e. V, Wehrlein finished sixth in the championship with a win at Sachsenring and three other podiums. He remained in the series with the team for the next year, Wehrlein scored seven wins at Oschersleben, Zolder, Nürburgring and Lausitz on his way to the championship title. In 2012, Wehrlein stepped up to the Formula 3 Euro Series and he finished 2nd in the championship to Daniel Juncadella. Wehrlein made his debut in the Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters in 2013 at the age of 18, in a career spanning three seasons Wehrlein managed to be one of the leading drivers in the field despite his youthful age.
In his debut season he achieved 3 points finishing 22nd in the championship and he achieved his first of two fastest laps in his career. In 2014 he switched teams to HWA where he became the youngest driver in the history to claim pole position. Besides his stand out victory at Lausitz, Wehrleins second best result of the season was a finish at Norisring. In 2015 DTM returned to running two races per weekend, resulting in 18 rounds in the 2015 championship. Due to the inconsistency of most teams and drivers Wehrlein won the title easily having scored in all rounds except for three and he achieved 5 podiums, one fastest lap and two wins. He is the first driver to win the championship having not claimed a pole position throughout his championship season while being the youngest ever DTM champion, in September 2014, it was announced that Wehrlein would act as a reserve driver for the Mercedes F1 Team. He took part in testing in Barcelona, driving for both Force India and Mercedes. In February 2016, it was announced that Wehrlein would make his F1 debut with Manor Racing and it is understood that Manor would receive access to Mercedes wind tunnel in exchange for hiring Wehrlein.
Wehrlein scored his and Manors only point of the season at the Austrian Grand Prix with a tenth-place finish, on 16 January 2017, Wehrlein signed with Sauber. He was forced to miss the first test in Barcelona due to an injury he sustained while competing in the Race of Champions and he was replaced by Antonio Giovinazzi before returning for the second test at the same circuit. Despite being fit to take part in the Australian Grand Prix, on 3 April 2017, Sauber F1 announced Wehrlein will again be replaced by Giovinazzi for the 2017 Chinese Grand Prix