Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company
The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company is an American multinational tire manufacturing company founded in 1898 by Frank Seiberling and based in Akron, Ohio. Goodyear manufactures tires for automobiles, commercial trucks, light trucks, motorcycles, SUVs, race cars, farm equipment, the company was named after American Charles Goodyear, inventor of vulcanized rubber. The first Goodyear tires became popular because they were easily detachable, Goodyear is known for the Goodyear Blimp. Though Goodyear had been manufacturing airships and balloons since the early 1900s, today it is one of the most recognizable advertising icons in America. The company is the most successful tire supplier in Formula One history, with starts, wins. They pulled out of the sport after the 1998 season and it is the sole tire supplier for NASCAR series. Goodyear is a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average. The company opened a new headquarters building in Akron in 2013. The first Goodyear factory opened in Akron, Ohio, in 1898, the thirteen original employees manufactured bicycle and carriage tires, rubber horseshoe pads, and poker chips.
The company grew with the advent of the automobile, in 1901 Frank Seiberling provided Henry Ford with racing tires. In 1903, Paul Weeks Litchfield was granted a patent for the first tubeless automobile tire, by 1908 Ford was outfitting his Model T with Goodyear tires. In 1909 Goodyear manufactured its first aircraft tire, in 1911 Goodyear started experimenting with airship design. It manufactured airships and observation balloons for the United States Army Air Service during World War I, the transport and reconnaissance capabilities that Goodyear provided contributed significantly to the Allied victory. In 1916, Litchfield found land in the Phoenix area suitable for growing long-staple cotton, the 36,000 acres purchased were controlled by the Southwest Cotton Company, formed with Litchfield as president. In 1924, Litchfield, as Goodyear Vice President, forged a joint venture with the German Luftschiffbau Zeppelin Company to form the Goodyear-Zeppelin Corporation, by 1926 Goodyear was the largest rubber company in the world.
Only four years earlier it was forced to halt production of racing tires due to heavy competition. Nevertheless, the popularity of the Goodyear tire on the circuit led to a popular demand for the return of the brand. On August 5,1927, Goodyear had its public offering and was listed on the New York Stock Exchange
A transmission is a machine in a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power. Often the term refers simply to the gearbox that uses gears and gear trains to provide speed. In British English, the term refers to the whole drivetrain, including clutch, prop shaft, differential. In American English, the term more specifically to the gearbox alone. The most common use is in vehicles, where the transmission adapts the output of the internal combustion engine to the drive wheels. Such engines need to operate at a high rotational speed, which is inappropriate for starting, stopping. The transmission reduces the engine speed to the slower wheel speed. Transmissions are used on bicycles, fixed machines. Often, a transmission has multiple gear ratios with the ability to switch between them as speed varies and this switching may be done manually or automatically. Directional control may be provided, single-ratio transmissions exist, which simply change the speed and torque of motor output.
The output of the transmission is transmitted via the driveshaft to one or more differentials, while a differential may provide gear reduction, its primary purpose is to permit the wheels at either end of an axle to rotate at different speeds as it changes the direction of rotation. Conventional gear/belt transmissions are not the mechanism for speed/torque adaptation. Alternative mechanisms include torque converters and power transformation, automatic transmissions use a valve body to shift gears using fluid pressures in conjunction with an ecm. Early transmissions included the right-angle drives and other gearing in windmills, horse-powered devices, and steam engines, in support of pumping, most modern gearboxes are used to increase torque while reducing the speed of a prime mover output shaft. This means that the shaft of a gearbox rotates at a slower rate than the input shaft. A gearbox can be set up to do the opposite and provide an increase in speed with a reduction of torque. Some of the simplest gearboxes merely change the rotational direction of power transmission.
Many typical automobile transmissions include the ability to select one of several gear ratios, in this case, most of the gear ratios are used to slow down the output speed of the engine and increase torque
Scuderia Ferrari S. p. A. competing as Scuderia Ferrari is the official name of the racing division of luxury Italian auto manufacturer and competes in Formula One racing. It is the oldest surviving and most successful Formula One team, the team was founded by Enzo Ferrari, initially to race cars produced by Alfa Romeo, though by 1947 Ferrari had begun building its own cars. As a constructor, Ferrari has a record 16 Constructors Championships, Alberto Ascari, Juan Manuel Fangio, Mike Hawthorn, Phil Hill, John Surtees, Niki Lauda, Jody Scheckter, Michael Schumacher and Kimi Räikkönen have won a record 15 Drivers Championships for the team. Since Räikkönens title in 2007 the team narrowly lost out on the 2008 drivers title with Felipe Massa, Schumacher is the teams most successful driver. Joining the team in 1996 and departing in 2006 he won five titles and 72 Grands Prix for the team. His titles came consecutively between 2000 and 2004, including the constructors title of 1999 consecutively being won until the end of 2004, this was the teams most successful period.
Currently, World Champions Kimi Räikkönen and Sebastian Vettel are the two race drivers. The team is known for its passionate support base known as the tifosi. The Italian Grand Prix at Monza is regarded as the home race. The Scuderia Ferrari team was founded by Enzo Ferrari on 16 November 1929 and became the team of Alfa Romeo. In 1938, Alfa Romeo management made the decision to enter racing under its own name, establishing the Alfa Corse organisation, Enzo Ferrari disagreed with this change in policy and was finally dismissed by Alfa in 1939. The terms of his leaving forbade him from motorsport under his own name, in 1939 Ferrari started work on a racecar of his own, the Tipo 815. The 815s, designed by Alberto Massimino, were thus the first Ferrari cars, World War II put a temporary end to racing, and Ferrari concentrated on an alternative use for his factory during the war years, doing machine tool work. After the war, Ferrari recruited several of his former Alfa colleagues and established a new Scuderia Ferrari, the team owns and operates a test track on the same site, the Fiorano Circuit built in 1972, which is used for testing road and race cars.
The team is named after its founder, Enzo Ferrari, Scuderia is Italian for a stable reserved for racing horses and is commonly applied to Italian motor racing teams. In 1947 Ferrari constructed the 12-cylinder,1.5 L Tipo 125, a Formula One version of the Tipo 125, the Ferrari 125 F1 was developed in 1948 and entered in several Grand Prix, at the time a World Championship had not yet been established. In 1950, the Formula One World Championship was established, and it is the only team to have competed in every season of the World Championship, from its inception to the current day. The company switched to the large-displacement naturally aspirated formula for the 275,340, after the 1951 Formula One season the Alfa team withdrew from F1, causing the authorities to adopt the Formula Two regulations due to the lack of suitable F1 cars
Auto racing is a sport involving the racing of automobiles for competition. Almost as soon as automobiles had been invented, races of various sorts were organised, by the 1930s specialist racing cars had developed. There are now numerous different categories, each with different rules and it was won by the carriage of Isaac Watt Boulton. Internal combustion auto racing events began soon after the construction of the first successful gasoline-fueled automobiles, the first organized contest was on April 28,1887, by the chief editor of Paris publication Le Vélocipède, Monsieur Fossier. It ran 2 kilometres from Neuilly Bridge to the Bois de Boulogne, on July 22,1894, the Parisian magazine Le Petit Journal organized what is considered to be the worlds first motoring competition, from Paris to Rouen. One hundred and two competitors paid a 10-franc entrance fee, the first American automobile race is generally held to be the Thanksgiving Day Chicago Times-Herald race of November 28,1895. Press coverage of the event first aroused significant American interest in the automobile, brooklands, in Surrey, was the first purpose-built motor racing venue, opening in June 1907.
It featured a 4.43 km concrete track with high-speed banked corners, One of the oldest existing purpose-built automobile racing circuits in the United States, still in use, is the 2. 5-mile -long Indianapolis Motor Speedway in Speedway, Indiana. It is the largest capacity venue of any variety worldwide, with a top capacity of some 257. NASCAR was founded by Bill France, Sr. on February 21,1948, the first NASCAR Strictly Stock race ever was held on June 19,1949, at Daytona Beach, Florida. From 1962, sports cars temporarily took a seat to GT cars. From 1972 through 2003, NASCARs premier series was called the Winston Cup Series, the changes that resulted from RJRs involvement, as well as the reduction of the schedule from 48 to 31 races a year, established 1972 as the beginning of NASCARs modern era. The IMSA GT Series evolved into the American Le Mans Series, the European races eventually became the closely related Le Mans Series, both of which mix prototypes and GTs. The best-known variety of racing, Formula One, which hosts the famous Monaco Grand Prix.
In single-seater, the wheels are not covered, and the cars often have aerofoil wings front, in Europe and Asia, open-wheeled racing is commonly referred to as Formula, with appropriate hierarchical suffixes. In North America, the Formula terminology is not followed, the sport is usually arranged to follow an international format, a regional format, and/or a domestic, or country-specific, format. In North America, the used in the National Championship have traditionally been similar though less sophisticated than F1 cars. The series most famous race is the Indianapolis 500, the other major international single-seater racing series is GP2
He was killed in an accident while leading the 1994 San Marino Grand Prix for Williams. Senna began his career in karting, moved up to open-wheel racing in 1981. He made his Formula One debut with Toleman-Hart in 1984 before moving to Lotus-Renault the following year, in 1988, he joined Frenchman Alain Prost at McLaren-Honda. Between them, they won all but one of the 16 Grands Prix that year, Prost claimed the championship in 1989, and Senna his second and third championships in 1990 and 1991. In 1992, the Williams-Renault combination began to dominate Formula One, Senna nonetheless managed to finish the 1993 season as runner-up, winning five races and negotiating a move to Williams in 1994. Senna has often voted as the best and most influential Formula One driver of all time in various motorsport polls. He was recognised for his speed over one lap and from 1989 until 2006 held the record for most pole positions. He was acclaimed for his wet weather performances, such as the 1984 Monaco Grand Prix, the 1985 Portuguese Grand Prix, and he holds a record six victories at the Monaco Grand Prix, and is the fifth-most successful driver of all time in terms of race wins.
Senna courted controversy throughout his career, particularly during his turbulent rivalry with Prost, in the Japanese Grands Prix of 1989 and 1990, each of which decided the championship of that year, collisions between Senna and Prost determined the eventual winner. Senna was born in the Pro-Matre Maternity Hospital of Santana, a neighbourhood of São Paulo, the middle child of wealthy Brazilian landowner and factory owner Milton da Silva and his wife Neide Senna da Silva, he had an older sister, Viviane and a younger brother, Leonardo. The house where Senna spent the first four years of his life belonged to Neides father, Senna was highly athletic, excelling in gymnastics and other sports, and developed an interest in cars and motor racing at the age of four. He suffered from poor coordination and had trouble climbing stairways by the age of three. An electroencephalogram found that Senna was not suffering from any problems and his parents gave Senna the nickname Beco. At the age of seven, Senna first learned to drive a Jeep around his familys farm, Senna attended Colegio Rio Branco in the São Paulo neighbourhood of Jardins and graduated in 1977 with a grade 5 in physics along with other grades in mathematics and English.
He enrolled in a college that specialised in business administration, his grades amounted up to 68%. Sennas first kart was built by his father using a small 1-HP lawnmower engine, Senna started racing at Interlagos and entered a karting competition at the age of 13. He started his first race on pole position, facing rivals who were some older than him, despite this. His father supported his son and Lucio Pascal Gascon soon managed the developing talent, Senna went on to win the South American Kart Championship in 1977
The B190 was raced by Benetton in the 1990 Formula One season. Benetton began sponsoring Formula One teams in 1983 with its sponsorship of Tyrrell, in both the 1984 and 1985 seasons, they sponsored the factory Alfa Romeo team. At the end of 1985 Benetton stepped up its involvement in Formula One after acquiring the Toleman, the B190 was the teams first naturally aspirated car to feature the air box located above the drivers head. Its predecessors, the B188 and B189, featured twin air intakes located an either side of the cockpit on top of the side pods and this was a carry over from the design of the turbocharged B187 from 1987. All of the cars were designed by Byrne, the B190, which replaced the highly successful B189, utilized the Ford HBA4 V8 engine. As Fords official team in F1, Benetton were given the latest engine while customer teams had to make do with the older Ford DFR which Benetton had first used in 1988, the Ford HBA4 V8 engine produced approximately 650 bhp in 1990. This compared to 690 bhp for the Honda V10,680 bhp for the Ferrari V12 and 660 bhp for the Renault V10, what the HBA4 lacked in power to the multi-cylinder engines was generally made up by being smaller and lighter than its main competitors.
After placing third in the Spanish Grand Prix, the popular, chain smoking Italian Nannini was seriously injured in a crash near his home in Siena. The crash severed his right forearm, putting an end to a promising Formula One career. On Piquets recommendation he was replaced by Brazilian driver Roberto Moreno for the last two Grand Prix races, Piquet won the final two races of the season, including a 1–2 finish for Piquet and Moreno at the controversial Japanese Grand Prix. During the seasons last race in Adelaide, Piquet won after holding off former Williams teammate Nigel Mansell who was racing in a Ferrari. During the race morning warm up in Australia, Piquets B190 was the fastest car on the 900 metre long Brabham Straight at 287 km/h, the B190 was updated for the first two races of the 1991 season and was dubbed the B190B. This updated model was replaced for the 1991 San Marino Grand Prix by the first nose-up car for the team. As of 2012, the body for Formula One racing events. *4 points scored in 1990 using Benetton B189B*32.5 points scored in 1991 using Benetton B191
Kevlar is the registered trademark for a para-aramid synthetic fiber, related to other aramids such as Nomex and Technora. Developed by Stephanie Kwolek at DuPont in 1965, this material was first commercially used in the early 1970s as a replacement for steel in racing tires. Typically it is spun into ropes or fabric sheets that can be used as such or as an ingredient in composite material components and it is used to make modern drumheads that withstand high impact. When used as a material, it is suitable for mooring lines. A similar fiber called Twaron with roughly the same structure was developed by Akzo in the 1970s, commercial production started in 1986. Poly-paraphenylene terephthalamide – branded Kevlar – was invented by Polish-American chemist Stephanie Kwolek while working for DuPont, in 1964, her group began searching for a new lightweight strong fiber to use for light but strong tires. The polymers she had been working with at the time, poly-p-phenylene-terephthalate and polybenzamide, formed liquid crystal while in solution, the solution was cloudy, opalescent upon being stirred, and of low viscosity and usually was thrown away.
However, Kwolek persuaded the technician, Charles Smullen, who ran the spinneret, to test her solution and her supervisor and her laboratory director understood the significance of her accidental discovery and a new field of polymer chemistry quickly arose. By 1971, modern Kevlar was introduced, Kwolek was not very involved in developing the applications of Kevlar. Kevlar is synthesized in solution from the monomers 1, 4-phenylene-diamine, the result has liquid-crystalline behavior, and mechanical drawing orients the polymer chains in the fibers direction. Hexamethylphosphoramide was the solvent initially used for the polymerization, but for safety reasons, DuPont replaced it by a solution of N-methyl-pyrrolidone, as this process had been patented by Akzo in the production of Twaron, a patent war ensued. Kevlar production is expensive because of the difficulties arising from using concentrated sulfuric acid, needed to keep the water-insoluble polymer in solution during its synthesis and spinning.
Several grades of Kevlar are available, Kevlar K-29 – in industrial applications, such as cables, asbestos replacement, brake linings, Kevlar K49 – high modulus used in cable and rope products. When Kevlar is spun, the fiber has a tensile strength of about 3,620 MPa. The polymer owes its high strength to the many inter-chain bonds and these inter-molecular hydrogen bonds form between the carbonyl groups and NH centers. Additional strength is derived from aromatic stacking interactions between adjacent strands, the presence of salts and certain other impurities, especially calcium, could interfere with the strand interactions and care is taken to avoid inclusion in its production. Kevlars structure consists of relatively rigid molecules tend to form mostly planar sheet-like structures rather like silk protein. Kevlar maintains its strength and resilience down to temperatures, in fact
Alain Marie Pascal Prost, OBE, Chevalier de la Légion dhonneur is a French former racing driver. A four-time Formula One Drivers Champion, only Sebastian Vettel, Juan Manuel Fangio, from 1987 until 2001 Prost held the record for most Grand Prix victories. Schumacher surpassed Prosts total of 51 victories at the 2001 Belgian Grand Prix, in 1999, Prost received the World Sports Awards of the Century in the motor sport category. Prost discovered karting at the age of 14 during a family holiday and he progressed through motor sports junior ranks, winning the French and European Formula Three championships, before joining the McLaren Formula One team in 1980 at the age of 24. During the 1980s and early 1990s, Prost formed a fierce rivalry mainly with Ayrton Senna, but Nelson Piquet and Nigel Mansell. In 1986, at the last race of the season, he beat Mansell and Piquet of Williams to the title after Mansell retired late on in the race, and Piquet was pulled in for a late precautionary pit stop. Senna joined Prost at McLaren in 1988 and the two had a series of clashes, including a collision at the 1989 Japanese Grand Prix that gave Prost his third Drivers Championship.
A year at the venue they collided again, but this time Prost, driving for Ferrari. Before the end of a winless 1991 season Prost was fired by Ferrari for his criticism of the team. After a sabbatical in 1992, Prost joined the Williams team, with a competitive car, Prost won the 1993 championship and retired from Formula One driving at the end of the year. In 1997, Prost took over the French Ligier team, running it as Prost Grand Prix until it went bankrupt in 2002. From 2003 to 2012 he competed in the Andros Trophy, which is an ice racing championship, taking 38 race victories, Prost employed a smooth, relaxed style behind the wheel, deliberately modeling himself on personal heroes like Jackie Stewart and Jim Clark. He was nicknamed The Professor for his approach to competition. Though it was not a name he particularly cared for, he would that it was an appropriate summation of his approach to his racing. Skilled at setting up his car for race conditions, Prost would often conserve his brakes and tyres early in a race, Prost had one younger brother called Daniel, who died of cancer in September 1986.
Although short, standing at 1.67 m Prost was an active, athletic child, in doing so he broke his nose several times. He considered careers as a gym instructor or a professional footballer before he discovered kart racing at the age of 14 while on a family holiday and this new sport quickly became his career of choice. They have two sons and Sacha Prost, Prost has a daughter, Victoria
Top Gear (1977 TV series)
Top Gear began life in April 1977, as a half hour motoring programme on the BBC in the United Kingdom. The original format ran for twenty four years up to December 2001, a revamped format of the show began nearly one year later, in October 2002. The original Top Gear started as a television series produced by BBC Midlands, based at the Pebble Mill Studios, Birmingham. The thirty minute programmes had a format, and were transmitted at first to viewers in the Midlands region only. Top Gear and its title were conceived by executive producer Derek Smith, the programme covered motoring related issues, such as new car road tests, fuel economy, the police, insurance, second hand cars and holiday touring. The first programme was broadcast on 22 April 1977, on BBC1 Midlands at 10 and it was presented by Angela Rippon and Tom Coyne, who was front man of the local evening news programme, Midlands Today. In the first edition, Angela Rippon drove from Shepherds Bush in London, to the Pebble Mill studios in Birmingham, other items covered in the first programme were speed traps, fuel economy, strange new road signs and an interview with the transport minister.
There were nine programmes in that initial series, the BBC network took Top Gear and it became a weekly thirty minute BBC Two programme on 13 July 1978. Derek Smith remained as producer, as did Angela Rippon as presenter along with co presenter Barrie Gill. Other items in that series covered drink driving, traffic jams and corrosion, tachographs in lorries, the Le Mans 24 Hour race, for the second network series, again of ten programmes, Angela Rippon continued as main presenter. Reporters included Mike Dornan, Judith Jackson and Barrie Gill, subjects covered included child car safety, tyres, CB radio, weighing lorries and junior grass track racing. Each week Noel Edmonds tested new cars, while Alec Jones, in one of the programmes, Noel Edmonds drove his Ford GT40 car round Silverstone. In 1980, Noel Edmonds took over from Angela Rippon as presenter for two series, from 1980 on, a variety of reporters were regularly used in addition to the three main co presenters Sue Baker, Frank Page, and Chris Goffey.
Other reporters included Gill Pyrah and Julia Bradbury, in 1981, William Woollard, formerly of BBC1s science series Tomorrows World became the programmes main presenter. Phil Franklin and Brian Strachan joined the team at this time. The Top Gear team was responsible for a number of other special programmes including coverage of the bi-annual British Motor Show, London Motorfair. Its coverage of rallying was the sport not controlled by BBC Sport in London for many years. There continued to be two series a year through the 1980s of between seven and nine programmes each, in 1986, after Phil Franklin and executive producer Dennis Adams left the programme Tom Ross took over
A V10 engine is a V engine with 10 cylinders in two banks of five. It is longer than a V8 engine but shorter than an engine or V12 engine. The V10 is essentially the result of mating two even-firing straight-5 engines together, the straight-5 engine shows first and second order rocking motion. Here it should be assumed that the crankshaft with low second-order vibration is used, by mating the straight-5 banks at 90 degrees and using five throws, the balance shafts balance each other and become null. Using an 18° split journal crankshaft the firing order can be even. A 36° degree bank angle and a 108° flying arm crankshaft would allow even firing without a balance shaft and smaller counterweights, but would be impractical. Until recently, the V10 configuration was not a configuration for road cars. For Audi in their Audi R85 and it discontinued in that application after 2003. However,2003 saw the introduction of the Dodge Ram SRT-10, the Viper engine has been tweaked through the years, and for the fifth-generation Viper produces 640 hp in a standard state of tune from its 8.4 liter displacement.
The previous generation engine is used by Bristol, in tuned form, in their two-seat Fighter coupe, ford developed a heavy-duty V10 version of their Triton engine to replace the 460 big block in truck applications. It was introduced in the E-Series/Econoline full-size van, the F-Series Super Duty and Excursion SUV furthered the engines popularity. The Triton 6.8 V10 is still in production today, european marques were slower to adopt the V10 configuration. However, high-revving V10 power-plants were incorporated into supercars from Lamborghini, BMW and Audi unveiled ten-cylinder versions of their mid-range saloons. Audi here profited from their Lamborghini ownership, which allowed them to source the Gallardos V10 for their own cars, Volkswagen developed a turbodiesel V10, their Volkswagen Phaeton was the first production sedan to have a V10. A list of post-war V10-engined production cars, The most widespread use of the V10 has been in Formula One racing, alfa Romeo made the first modern Formula One V10 in 1986, although it was never used in a Formula One car.
Later the configuration was introduced by Honda and Renault before the 1989 season, the introduction of the 3.5 liter rule after turbos were outlawed following 1988 made the V10 seem the best compromise between the lower weight of a V8 and the higher power of a V12. V10 engines became commonplace after the reduction from 3.5 to 3 liters in 1995, Renault had a more flat 110° angle in 2002 and 2003, but reverted to a more conventional 72° following the change in rules which dictated that an engine must last two race weekends. The Audi R15 LMP1 Uses a TDI V10 Diesel Engine which made its debut in 200912 Hours of Sebring and this car completed the most laps ever in Le Mans 24 history
Automotive design is the profession involved in the development of the appearance, and to some extent the ergonomics, of motor vehicles or more specifically road vehicles. This most commonly refers to automobiles but refers to motorcycles, buses, the functional design and development of a modern motor vehicle is typically done by a large team from many different disciplines included within automotive engineering. Automotive design in context is primarily concerned with developing the visual appearance or aesthetics of the vehicle. Automotive design is practiced by designers who usually have an art background, the task of the design team is usually split into three main aspects, exterior design, interior design, and color and trim design. Graphic design is an aspect of design, this is generally shared amongst the design team as the lead designer sees fit. Design focuses not only on the outer shape of automobile parts. The aesthetic value will need to correspond to ergonomic functionality and utility features as well, though not all the new vehicular gadgets are to be designated as factory standard items, some of them may be integral to determining the future course of any specific vehicular models.
The stylist responsible for the design of the exterior of the vehicle develops the proportions, Exterior design is first done by a series of digital or manual drawings. Progressively, drawings that are more detailed are executed and approved by appropriate layers of management, Clay and or digital models are developed from, and along with the drawings. The data from these models are used to create a full sized mock-up of the final design. With three- and five-axis CNC milling machines, the model is first designed in a computer program and carved using the machine. Even in times of high-class 3d software and virtual models on power walls, here the emphasis is on ergonomics and the comfort of the passengers. The procedure here is the same as with exterior design, the color and trim designer is responsible for the research and development of all interior and exterior colors and materials used on a vehicle. These include paints, fabric designs, grains, headliner, wood trim, contrast and pattern must be carefully combined to give the vehicle a unique interior environment experience.
Designers work closely with the exterior and interior designers, designers draw inspiration from other design disciplines such as, industrial design, home furnishing and sometimes product design. Specific research is done into global trends to design for two to three model years in the future. Trend boards are created from research in order to keep track of design influences as they relate to the automotive industry. The designer uses this information to develop themes and concepts that are further refined and tested on the vehicle models