LaFerrari is a limited production hybrid sports car built by Ferrari. LaFerrari literally means The Ferrari in most Romance languages, in the sense that it is the definitive Ferrari, on December 3,2016, a LaFerrari auctioned off for $7 million making this car the most valuable 21st century automobile ever sold at auction. LaFerrari Concept Manta, LaFerrari Concept Tensostruttura were unveiled in Ferrari Museum Maranello, the LaFerrari is based on findings from testing of the FXX and on research being conducted by the Millechili Project at the University of Modena. Association with the Millechili Project led to speculation during development that the car would weigh under 1,000 kg, only 499 units have been built, and each cost more than 1 million US dollars. An additional 500th car was made to be sold at an auction. The vehicle was unveiled at the 2013 Geneva Auto Show, followed by Auto Shanghai 2013,2013 Tour Auto Optic 2000,2013 Supercar Chronicle, the LaFerrari Aperta is a limited version of the LaFerrari.
200 cars will be sold, the additional nine Ferrari LaFerrari are reserved for selected distribution during the 70th anniversary celebrations of Ferrari, the LaFerrari Aperta comes with a removable carbon-fibre hard top and a removable soft top. The vehicle was unveiled in 2016 Paris Auto Show, like past convertible Ferrari models, it may use the Aperta label to denote its retractable roof. According to Ferrari, all units have already sold to customers via invitation. LaFerrari is the first mild hybrid from Ferrari, providing the highest power output of any Ferrari whilst decreasing fuel consumption by 40 percent, the KERS system adds extra power to the combustion engines output level for a total of 963 PS and a combined torque of 900 N·m. Ferrari claims CO2 emissions of 330 g/km, the engines bore and stroke is 94×75.2 mm with a compression ratio of 13.5,1 and a specific power output of 94 kW per litre. It is connected to a 7-speed dual-clutch transmission and the car is rear-wheel drive, Ferrari LaFerrari has a power to weight ratio of 1.3 kg per horsepower.
The car is equipped with carbon-ceramic Brembo discs on the front and rear, with the car sitting on Pirelli P Zero Corsa tires measuring 265/30 R19 and it has a double wishbone suspension in the front and a multi-link suspension in the rear. Ferrari claims that the car has lapped its Fiorano Test Circuit in 1,19.70 which is faster than any other road-legal car Ferrari has ever produced. LaFerrari received no input from Pininfarina, making it the first Ferrari since the Bertone-styled 1973 Dino 308 GT4 not to have Pininfarina bodywork or other styling and this decision is a rare exception to the collaboration between Ferrari and Pininfarina that began in 1951. However, Ferrari has stated that two new models designed jointly with Pininfarina have yet to be unveiled and that there are no plans to end relations with Pininfarina. The cockpit stands out for its essentiality and the sportiness of the shapes, there is a steering wheel with integrated controls and gear levers directly fixed to the steering column, a solution that allows better use in all conditions.
The bridge which exists between the two seats, designed like a wing, is home to other instruments linked to the dual-clutch gearbox
Ferrari 365 GT4 2+2, 400 and 412
The Ferrari 365 GT4 2+2, Ferrari 400 and Ferrari 412 are front-engined V12 2+2 grand tourers made by Italian manufacturer Ferrari between 1972 and 1989. The three cars are related, using the same body and engine evolved over time. Following Ferrari practice, their numeric designations refer to their engines single-cylinder displacement expressed in cubic centimetres, the 365 GT4 2+2 was introduced in 1972 to replace the 365 GTC/4. It evolved into the 400, the first Ferrari available with an automatic transmission, in 1979 the 400 was replaced by the fuel injected 400 i. The improved 412 ran from 1985 to 1989, bringing to an end Ferraris longest-ever production series, however, entered as grey imports. Ferrari turned to frequent styling partner Leonardo Fioravanti at Pininfarina, whose design for the 365 GT4 2+2 was a clear departure from its fastback predecessor. It followed Fioravantis Ferrari 365 GTB/4 Daytona as the second Ferrari to feature the characteristic swage line dividing the body into upper and lower halves, various coachbuilders, such as Carrozzeria Pavesi and Straman, offered convertible conversions of the 400 series.
Switzerlands Felber showed a shooting brake version on 400 GT basis called the Felber Croisette at the 1981 Geneva Salon de lAuto, the tubular steel chassis was based on that of the GTC/4, but the wheelbase was lengthened 200 mm to 2,700 mm. The bodies were steel, with a floor, they were manufactured by Pininfarina at its Turin plant. Suspension consisted of double wishbones, coil springs coaxial with the shock absorbers, and anti-roll bars all around, under the bonnet there was a Tipo F101 Colombo V12 that underwent many changes through the years. It was a head and block, four overhead cams. The transmission was conventionally coupled directly to the engine, as on the GTC/4, brakes were discs on all four wheels. In 1972, just a year after the launch of the GTC/4, a new 2+2 debuted at the Paris Motor Show, the name refers to the single cylinder displacement, four overhead camshafts and seat configuration. Most of the mechanicals, including the 4,390.35 cc engine, were carried over from its predecessor, the V12 used six side-draft Weber 38 DCOE 59/60 carburetors and produced 340 PS at 6200 rpm.
The gearbox was a five-speed, all-synchromesh manual with a single-plate clutch, five-spoke alloy wheels were mounted on Rudge knock-off hubs, Borrani wire wheels were still offered at extra cost. Fittingly for a grand tourer, standard equipment included leather upholstery, electric windows. The GT4 was replaced in 1976 by the identical looking Ferrari 400. At the 1976 Paris Motor Show Ferrari unveiled the replacement for the 365 GT4 2+2, the new 400 was offered in two models,400 Automatic, using a GM THM400 3-speed automatic transmission, and 400 GT, using a five-speed transmission
A valve train or valvetrain is a mechanical system that controls operation of the valves in an internal combustion engine, in which a sequence of components transmits motion throughout the assembly. A traditional reciprocating internal combustion engine uses valves to control air and fuel flow into and out of the cylinders, the valve train consists of valves, rocker arms, pushrods and camshaft. Valve train opening/closing and duration, as well as the geometry of the train, controls the amount of air. Timing for open/close/duration is controlled by the camshaft that is synchronized to the crankshaft by a chain, camless This layout uses no camshafts at all. Technologies such as solenoids are used to actuate the valves. The valve train is the system responsible for operation of the valves. Valves are usually of the type, although many others have been developed such as sleeve, slide. Poppet valves typically require small coil springs, appropriately named valve springs and they are attached to the valve stem ends, seating within spring retainers.
Depending on the used, the valves are actuated directly by a rocker arm, finger. Overhead camshaft engines use fingers or bucket tappets, upon which the cam lobes contact, rocker arms are actuated by a pushrod, and pivot on a shaft or individual ball studs in order to actuate the valves. Pushrods are long, slender metal rods seated within the engine block, at the bottom ends the pushrods are fitted with lifters, either solid or hydraulic, upon which the camshaft, located within the cylinder block, makes contact. The camshaft pushes on the lifter, which pushes on the pushrod, which pushes on the rocker arm, camshafts must actuate the valves at the appropriate time in the combustion cycle. In order to accomplish this the camshaft is linked to and kept in synchronisation with the crankshaft through the use of a chain, rubber belt. Because these mechanisms are essential to the timing of valve actuation they are named timing chains, timing belts. Typical normal-service engine valve-train components may be too lightweight for operating at high revolutions per minute, valve float will damage the valvetrain over time, and could cause the valve to be damaged as it is still partially open while the piston comes to the top of its stroke.
Upgrading to high pressure valve springs could allow higher valvetrain speeds, high-output and engines used in competition feature camshafts and valvetrain components that are designed to withstand higher RPM ranges. These changes include additional modifications such as larger-sized valves combined with freer breathing intake, automakers offer factory-approved performance parts to increase engine output, and numerous aftermarket parts vendors specialize in valvetrain modifications for various engine applications
Ferrari flat-12 engine
The Ferrari flat-12 engine family is a series of 180° V12 DOHC petrol engines produced by Ferrari from 1973 to 1996. Design and development of the new engine was overseen by Ferrari engineers Giuliano de Angelis, the engine was the first flat-12 cylinder configuration fitted in a Ferrari road car and had factory type reference F102A. It had two valves per cylinder and twin overhead camshafts per bank, although these were now belt driven and it was fitted with two banks of two triple-choke Weber 40IF3C carburettors and an electronic ignition system. The block and cylinder heads were constructed from light alloy and featured wet sump lubrication, in 1976 Ferrari launched a revised version of the BB, the 512 BB, with a flat-12 engine enlarged to 4943cc. Named F102B, it featured a dry sump system to help the car scavenge oil. In 1981 the 512 BBi replaced the outgoing model’s four triple-choke carburettors with a Bosch K-Jetronic mechanical fuel injection, the new engine got factory type reference F110A but otherwise it was mechanically identical to its predecessor.
It maintained the same capacity of 4943cc of the 512 BBi model. It was fitted with a Marelli Microplex MED120 electronic ignition system, export versions for United States and Japan had catalytic converter and KE-Jetronic fuel injection. European versions got those features in 1986 and the engine was known as F113B. The 1991512 TR had a version of the engine used in the Testarossa, maintaining the same cubic capacity of 4.9 L. For the 1994 F512M the engine was upgraded with a lightened crankshaft, titanium alloy connecting rods, new pistons. The flat-12 production ceased with the F512M, being replaced by the front-engined 550 Maranello who featured the new 65° V12 F133 engine
Water cooling is a method of heat removal from components and industrial equipment. As opposed to air cooling, water is used as the heat conductor, the main mechanism for water cooling is convective heat transfer. Cooling water is the water removing heat from a machine or system, cooling water may be recycled through a recirculating system or used in a single pass once-through cooling system. Recirculating systems may be if they rely upon cooling towers or cooling ponds to remove heat or closed if heat removal is accomplished with negligible evaporative loss of cooling water. Environmental regulations emphasize the reduced concentrations of waste products in non-contact cooling water, the advantages of using water cooling over air cooling include waters higher specific heat capacity and thermal conductivity. This allows water to heat over greater distances with much less volumetric flow. The water jacket around an engine is very effective at deadening mechanical noises. Water accelerates corrosion of parts and is a favorable medium for biological growth.
Dissolved minerals in water supplies are concentrated by evaporation to leave deposits called scale. Cooling water often requires addition of chemicals to minimize corrosion and insulating deposits of scale, an open water cooling system makes use of evaporative cooling, lowering the temperature of the remaining water. This method was common in internal combustion engines, until scale buildup was observed from dissolved salts. Modern open cooling systems continuously waste a fraction of recirculating water as blowdown to remove dissolved solids at low enough to prevent scale formation. Some open systems use inexpensive tap water, but this requires higher rates than deionized or distilled water. Purified water systems still require blowdown to remove accumulation of byproducts of chemical treatment to prevent corrosion, modern automotive cooling systems are slightly pressurized, often to 15 psi. This raises the boiling-point of the coolant and reduces evaporation, the use of water cooling carries the risk of damage from freezing.
Automotive and many other engine cooling applications require the use of a water, antifreeze inhibits corrosion from dissimilar metals and can increase the boiling point, allowing a wider range of water cooling temperatures. Its distinctive odor alerts operators to cooling system leaks and problems that would go unnoticed in a cooling system. The heated coolant mixture can be used to warm the air conditioning system inside the car by means of the heater core, other less common chemical additives are products to reduce surface tension
The Ferrari 550 Maranello is a front-engined V12 2-seat grand tourer built by Ferrari from 1996 to 2002. In 2000 Ferrari introduced the 550 Barchetta Pininfarina, a limited production version of the 550. The 550 was replaced by the upgraded 575M Maranello in 2002, the Berlinetta Boxer had been developed into the Testarossa, whose last evolution was the 1994 F512 M. Under the presidency of Luca Cordero di Montezemolo, who took office in 1991, after a 30 months of development, the Ferrari 550 Maranello was presented in July 1996 at the Nürburgring racing circuit in Germany. The model name referred to the 5. 5-litres total engine displacement in decilitres and to the town of Maranello, home to the Ferrari headquarters, Pininfarina executed both the exterior and interior design. Frame and main components were shared with the 2+2 Ferrari 456. In 2002 the 550 was replaced by the 575M Maranello, not a model but rather an all-around improved version of the car. In total 3,083 units of the 550 Maranello were produced, the 550 used a front-engine, rear-wheel drive transaxle layout, with the 6-speed gearbox located at the rear axle together with the limited slip differential.
The chassis tubular steel frame, to which the aluminium body panels were soldered. The Pininfarina-designed body had a coefficient of 0.33. Suspension was of the double wishbone type with coil spring and damper units on all four corners. The steering was rack and pinion with variable power assist, the vented disc brakes were 330 mm at the front and 310 mm at the rear. Magnesium alloy was used for the 18-inch wheels, electronic driver aid systems included anti-slip regulation, which could be adjusted on two levels or switched off completely, and four-way anti-lock braking system. The engine is a naturally aspirated 65° V12 with 4 valves per cylinder, dual overhead cams and it displaced 5,473.91 cc and produced 485 PS at 7,000 rpm and 568.1 N·m at 5,000 rpm. Bore and stroke measure 88 mm and 75 mm, according to the manufacturer the 550 Maranello had a top speed of 320 km/h, and could accelerate from a standstill to 100 km/h in 4.4 seconds. Ferrari introduced a version of the 550 at the Paris Motor Show in 2000.
This Barchetta Pininfarina was a roadster with no real convertible top provided. The factory did provide a top, but it was intended only for temporary use as it was cautioned against using the top above 70 mph
Ferrari F140 engine
The F140 engine family is a series of 65° DOHC V12 petrol engines produced by Ferrari since 2002, and used in both Ferrari and Maserati cars. This engine was derived from the already extant Ferrari/Maserati V8, in the Ferrari Enzo, it had set the record for the most powerful naturally aspirated engine in a road car. This engine is used in Maserati Birdcage 75th. In 2013 the F140 FC V12 engine used in the Ferrari F12berlinetta was awarded Best Performance Engine, how the Ferrari Enzo works Ferrari World
Aluminium alloys are alloys in which aluminium is the predominant metal. The typical alloying elements are copper, manganese, tin, there are two principal classifications, namely casting alloys and wrought alloys, both of which are further subdivided into the categories heat-treatable and non-heat-treatable. About 85% of aluminium is used for products, for example rolled plate, foils. Cast aluminium alloys yield cost-effective products due to the low melting point, the most important cast aluminium alloy system is Al–Si, where the high levels of silicon contribute to give good casting characteristics. Aluminium alloys are used in engineering structures and components where light weight or corrosion resistance is required. Alloys composed mostly of aluminium have been important in aerospace manufacturing since the introduction of metal-skinned aircraft. Aluminium-magnesium alloys are both lighter than aluminium alloys and much less flammable than alloys that contain a very high percentage of magnesium.
Aluminium alloy surfaces will develop a white, protective layer of aluminium oxide if left unprotected by anodizing and/or correct painting procedures, referred to as dissimilar-metal corrosion, this process can occur as exfoliation or as intergranular corrosion. Aluminium alloys can be heat treated. This causes internal element separation, and the metal corrodes from the inside out, Aluminium alloy compositions are registered with The Aluminum Association. Aluminium alloys with a range of properties are used in engineering structures. Alloy systems are classified by a system or by names indicating their main alloying constituents. Selecting the right alloy for a given application entails considerations of its strength, ductility, workability, weldability. A brief historical overview of alloys and manufacturing technologies is given in Ref. Aluminium alloys are used extensively in aircraft due to their high strength-to-weight ratio. On the other hand, pure aluminium metal is too soft for such uses.
Aluminium alloys typically have an elastic modulus of about 70 GPa, for a given load, a component or unit made of an aluminium alloy will experience a greater deformation in the elastic regime than a steel part of identical size and shape. Though there are aluminium alloys with somewhat-higher tensile strengths than the commonly used kinds of steel, with completely new metal products, the design choices are often governed by the choice of manufacturing technology. Extrusions are particularly important in regard, owing to the ease with which aluminium alloys, particularly the Al–Mg–Si series
A petrol engine is an internal combustion engine with spark-ignition, designed to run on petrol and similar volatile fuels. In most petrol engines, the fuel and air are usually pre-mixed before compression, the process differs from a diesel engine in the method of mixing the fuel and air, and in using spark plugs to initiate the combustion process. In a diesel engine, only air is compressed, and the fuel is injected into very hot air at the end of the compression stroke, and self-ignites. The first practical petrol engine was built in 1876 in Germany by Nikolaus August Otto, although there had been attempts by Étienne Lenoir, Siegfried Marcus, Julius Hock. The first petrol engine was prototyped in 1882 in Italy by Enrico Bernardi. British engineer Edward Butler constructed the first petrol combustion engine. Butler invented the spark plug, ignition magneto, coil ignition and spray jet carburetor, with both air and fuel in a closed cylinder, compressing the mixture too much poses the danger of auto-ignition — or behaving like a diesel engine.
Spark plugs are typically set statically or at idle at a minimum of 10 degrees or so of crankshaft rotation before the piston reaches T. D, higher octane petrol burns slower, therefore it has a lower propensity to auto-ignite and its rate of expansion is lower. Thus, engines designed to run high-octane fuel exclusively can achieve higher compression ratios, Petrol engines run at higher rotation speeds than diesels, partially due to their lighter pistons, connecting rods and crankshaft and due to petrol burning more quickly than diesel. However the lower compression ratios of petrol engines give petrol engines lower efficiency than diesel engines, Bedford OB bus Bedford M series lorry GE 57-ton gas-electric boxcab locomotive Petrol engines may run on the four-stroke cycle or the two-stroke cycle. For details of working cycles see, Four-stroke cycle Two-stroke cycle Wankel engine Common cylinder arrangements are from 1 to 6 cylinders in-line or from 2 to 16 cylinders in V-formation. Flat engines – like a V design flattened out – are common in airplanes and motorcycles and were a hallmark of Volkswagen automobiles into the 1990s.
Flat 6s are still used in many modern Porsches, as well as Subarus, less common, but notable in vehicles designed for high speeds is the W formation, similar to having 2 V engines side by side. Alternatives include rotary and radial engines the latter typically have 7 or 9 cylinders in a single ring, Petrol engines may be air-cooled, with fins, or liquid-cooled, by a water jacket and radiator. The coolant was formerly water, but is now usually a mixture of water and either ethylene glycol or propylene glycol, the cooling system is usually slightly pressurized to further raise the boiling point of the coolant. Petrol engines use spark ignition and high current for the spark may be provided by a magneto or an ignition coil. In modern car engines the ignition timing is managed by an electronic Engine Control Unit, the most common way of engine rating is what is known as the brake power, measured at the flywheel, and given in kilowatts or horsepower. This is the mechanical power output of the engine in a usable
N. Technology is an Italian auto racing team, founded by Mauro Sipsz and Monica Bregoli. N. Technology were set up to manage the worldwide sporting activities of the Fiat Group, in 1994 the name was changed to Nordauto Engineering and in 2001 to N. Technology. This included designing and running the Alfa Romeo 156 for use in touring cars, the team continued to run in the World Touring Car Championship, with Fabrizio Giovanardi finishing third in 2005. In 2006 they went it alone without support from Alfa Romeo, james Thompson finished third for the team in 2007. The team ran a Honda Accord Euro R for Thompson in 2008, N. Technology ran Fiats entry in the inaugural season of the Intercontinental Rally Challenge, with driver Giandomenico Basso winning the championship with a Fiat Punto Abarth S2000 in 2006. N. Technology created the International Formula Master series, which began in 2007, Technology built and ran a Porsche Panamera for touring car specialist, Fabrizio Giovanardi. In 2009, N. Technologys parent company, MSC Organization Ltd, the team stated that it had deals in place with potential partners should its application be successful.
The list of entrants for the 2010 Formula One World Championship season did not include N. Technology when it was posted on June 12