Fernando Alonso Díaz audio is a Spanish Formula One racing driver and a double World Champion who is currently racing for McLaren-Honda. He is often regarded as one of the greatest Formula One drivers, born in Oviedo, the capital of the autonomous region of Asturias, Alonso started in karting from the age of 3. He won three consecutive karting championships in Spain from 1994 to 1997, and he became world karting champion in 1996 and he made his Formula One debut in the 2001 season with Minardi, and moved to the Renault team as a test driver the next year. Starting in 2003 Alonso became one of the drivers of the team. On 25 September 2005, he won the Formula One World Drivers Championship title at the age of 24 years and 58 days, after retaining the title the following year, Alonso became the youngest double Champion at the time. He joined McLaren in 2007, before returning to Renault for two seasons in 2008 and 2009, for the 2010 season, he joined Scuderia Ferrari. His strongest title challenges were in 2010 and 2012, finishing both seasons just adrift of title winner Sebastian Vettel and he left Ferrari at the end of the 2014 season, two years prior to the original expiry of his contract.
Nicknamed El Nano, a pseudonym for Fernando in Asturias, his place of birth. With his fourth-place finish in the 2013 Japanese Grand Prix, scoring his 1, 571st career point, the record has once again been broken by Sebastian Vettel at the 2015 Italian Grand Prix. As of January 2016, Alonso is the only Spanish driver to have won a Formula One Grand Prix and is the driver with the sixth highest number of Grand Prix wins, Fernando Alonso was born in Oviedo, Asturias in northern Spain. His mother worked in a department store and his father was employed as a mechanic in a factory near Oviedo. Alonso has a sister, Lorena. Alonsos father José Luis, a kart racer, wanted to pass on his passion to his children. He built a kart, originally meant for eight-year-old Lorena, but unlike her three-year-old brother, Alonso attended the Holy Guardian Angel Primary School in Oviedo until he was 14 when he attended the Institute Leopoldo Alas Clarín of San Lazaro. He dropped out in 2000 as his commitment to motor racing prevented him from further studying, Alonso lived in Oxford, England until he moved his residence to Switzerland in 2006.
Alonso owned a house in Mont-sur-Rolle, near Lake Geneva from 2006 to 2010 and it is highly common for Formula One stars to take up residence in Switzerland to reduce their tax bills. In the winter of 2010–11, Alonso moved back to Oviedo in order to be closer to friends and family, Alonso married Raquel del Rosario, lead singer of Spanish pop band El Sueño de Morfeo, on 17 November 2006. They announced their intention to divorce in December 2011, in mid-2012, Alonso started dating Russian model Dasha Kapustina
The Ferrari F138 is a Formula One racing car designed and built by Scuderia Ferrari for use in the 2013 Formula One season. It was driven by the twice World Champion Fernando Alonso and his team-mate Felipe Massa, the chassis was named the F138 to represent the year that it would be raced,2013, and to mark the final season that Formula One would use V8 engines. Ferrari were developing their car for the 2014 season in parallel with the F138, as winter testing had suggested, the F138 immediately proved to be much more competitive than the F2012 at the start of the season. In Australia and Alonso qualified 4th and 5th, respectively, in the race, the F138 had better race pace than its rivals so they finished with Alonso taking second place and Massa 4th. Malaysia saw the taking place in wet weather and Alonso took advantage of this situation to qualify 2nd. This was the fourth time that Massa had out-qualified his team-mate. The race was started on intermediates because of wet track conditions, off the line Alonso had a good start while Massa was suffering from degradation on his intermediate tyres, due to which he lost couple of places at the start.
Alonso had a contact with Vettel going into turn 2 enough to damage his front wing. The team decided to keep Alonso out thinking that the wing would hold up, at the start of lap 2 the wing gave way on the back straight and Alonso ended up retiring in the gravel. Massa had a good race pace on dry weather tyres which helped him to end up in fifth position, in China, Ferrari brought upgrades for the F138 which had varied effects. However, during sessions it appeared that the F138 had improved single lap pace. Alonso and Massa managed to qualify 3rd and 5th, Alonso went on to take his and the F138s first win of the season, while Massa finished in 6th. Ferrari were pleased with the F138s race pace and Alonso admitted to having withheld his cars full pace during the race, in Bahrain, the F138 received more improvements to the cars aero package. Alonso qualified 3rd and Massa managed 6th on the harder tyre compound, in the race, Alonso dropped down the order due to a repeated malfunction of his DRS while Massa picked up two punctures, resulting in finishes of 8th and 15th respectively.
In Spain, both F138s seemed highly competitive during practice sessions but that did not transfer into an improved single lap pace during qualifying. Alonso qualified 5th and Massa posted the 6th best time, however, in the race, Ferrari went for a four pit-stop strategy for both cars which was the optimal strategy for a sustained pace and reasonable tyre conservation for the F138. Having passed Räikkönen and Hamilton impressively in the corner of the first lap, Alonso dominated the race. In qualifying, however, managed only the 6th best time while Massa did not compete at all due to the team not managing to repair the car on time which resulted in him having to start 23rd
2014 United States Grand Prix
The 2014 United States Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at the Circuit of the Americas on November 2,2014. As both the Marussia and Caterham teams were under administration, they did not participate in the Grand Prix and this is the smallest field entered into a Grand Prix event since the 2005 Monaco Grand Prix. The race was won by Lewis Hamilton, Jean-Éric Vergne scored his last ever World Championship points at this race. Caterham and Marussia were each granted permission to miss the Grand Prix after both teams were afflicted with financial problems and placed into administration. With the grid limited to eighteen cars, the procedure was revised. Instead of the six slowest cars being eliminated after the first and second rounds, the third and final round of qualifying remained unchanged to determine the final top ten spots on the grid. Its aim is to drivers to reduce their speed by about 35% in an accident zone. Drivers have agreed it is a system that, however. Three practice sessions were held before the race, two 90-minute sessions on Friday and one lasting an hour on Saturday, Lewis Hamilton was fastest in all three practice sessions, with his teammate Nico Rosberg second fastest in all three sessions.
Hamilton went fastest in Q1, setting his best time on the soft tyres, who had set his best time on the medium tyres, was second fastest. Rosberg set the fastest time in Q2, Hamilton was struggling with braking, locking up multiple times on each of his laps and ended the session second fastest. Rosberg was fastest again in Q3, securing his ninth pole of the season ahead of teammate Hamilton, following the initial pitstop phase, Lewis Hamilton overtook Nico Rosberg at turn 12 on lap 24. Rosberg briefly regained the lead on Hamiltons second stop, but again relinquished the top spot during his own stop, Hamilton would go on to win the race comfortably, with Rosberg four seconds adrift in the runner-up position. Daniel Ricciardo rounded out the podium in what he would describe as the best possible result he could achieve after starting the race from 5th, the Williams drivers of Felipe Massa and Valtteri Bottas both ran a fair pace for the entire race, finishing 4th and 5th, respectively. Fernando Alonso continued to push the Ferrari to its limit, ultimately finishing in 6th place, however, he would immediately switch back to medium tyres on the next lap after running over debris.
Vettel would use a late race pitstop for a set of soft tyres to push his way through the field. Despite pitting four times, he would go on to finish in 7th place after a final lap pass of Kevin Magnussen, Jean-Éric Vergne made a furious push towards the end of the race, making contact with fellow Frenchman Romain Grosjean under heavy braking into turn 1. This promoted Pastor Maldonado to 9th, scoring his only points of the season in the Lotus, notes ^1 — Jenson Button qualified 7th but dropped five places on the starting grid due to a gearbox change to his McLaren
The Ferrari F1/87 is a Formula One racing car used by the Ferrari team during the 1987 Formula One season. The car was driven by Michele Alboreto and Gerhard Berger and replaced the Ferrari F1/86 used in 1986, barnard stated that had he been in charge of designing the car from the start, that he would have come up with a different looking car. However, as he arrived after construction had started he could not change the design without considerable expense. The F1/87 was much sleeker looking than its predecessor, the Harvey Postlethwaite designed F1/86 and it featured a six-speed gearbox and an all-new 90°1.5 litre turbocharged V6 engine called the Tipo 033 which replaced the old 120° V6 Tipo 032 which had been in use since 1981. Gerhard Berger scored two victories in the F1/87, the Japanese and Australian Grand Prix, as well as taking three pole positions, the car demonstrated flashes of its potential early in the season with Alboreto for a short time leading the San Marino Grand Prix. However, reliability issues were a major concern, from the Hungarian Grand Prix onwards, Ferrari looked to have a car that was as quick as any of their rivals.
Berger challenged Mansell for the lead at the Hungarian Grand Prix before being forced to retire, Bergers wins gave Ferrari its first back to back wins since the late Gilles Villeneuve had won the Monaco and Spanish Grands Prix in 1981. As a result, Ferrari went into 1988 as one of the favourites for the championship, for 1988, the car was updated to conform to the new regulations and renamed the F1/87/88C. The car featured new front and rear wings and a lower engine cover due to the reduction in the fuel tank limit from 195 to 150 litres. The drivers Michele Alboreto and Gerhard Berger finished third and fifth in the championship with Ferrari finishing second to McLaren in the Constructors Championship. The F1/87/88C scored one pole position at the British Grand Prix at Silverstone and one victory at the Italian Grand Prix in Monza. Although it was one of the most powerful cars of the 1988 field at around 650 bhp, the F1/87/88Cs biggest problem was fuel consumption compared to the rival Honda engines used by McLaren.
Ferrari, unlike Honda who had built a completely new V6 engine to cope with both the reduced fuel limit of 150 litres and the lower limit of 2.5 bar, had only updated 1987s Tipo 033 V6 engine. This was clearly shown at the British GP, pole sitter Berger led for the field together with McLarens Ayrton Senna, building up a large cushion over the rest of the field before being forced to back off to conserve fuel. On the straight during qualifying, Berger had been timed at 195 mph, despite dropping turbo boost to its lowest possible setting, cutting back on engine revs and short shifting, Berger still ran out of fuel coming out of the Woodcote Chicane on the last lap. Alboreto, who had not been running at Bergers pace, had run out of fuel 3 laps from the finish. Barnard did this so as to be able to work away from the distractions of the factory, after joining the team in 1987 he had banned wine from the teams lunch table at both testing and races, a move which proved unpopular with Ferraris mostly Italian mechanics.
Consequently, his advice on the engine was ignored and the continued to struggle on fuel consumption
A chassis consists of an internal vehicle frame that supports an artificial object in its construction and use, can provide protection for some internal parts. An example of a chassis is the underpart of a motor vehicle, if the running gear such as wheels and transmission, and sometimes even the drivers seat, are included, the assembly is described as a rolling chassis. In the case of vehicles, the rolling chassis means the frame plus the running gear like engine, drive shaft, differential. An under body, which is not necessary for integrity of the structure, is built on the chassis to complete the vehicle. For commercial vehicles, a rolling chassis consists of an assembly of all the parts of a truck to be ready for operation on the road. The design of a car chassis will be different than one for commercial vehicles because of the heavier loads. Commercial vehicle manufacturers sell chassis only and chassis, as well as chassis cab versions that can be outfitted with specialized bodies and these include motor homes, fire engines, box trucks, etc.
In particular applications, such as buses, a government agency like National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in the U. S. defines the design standards of chassis. An armoured fighting vehicles hull serves as the chassis and comprises the part of the AFV that includes the tracks, drivers seat. This describes the hull, although common usage might include the upper hull to mean the AFV without the turret. The hull serves as a basis for platforms on tanks, armoured carriers, combat engineering vehicles. In an electronic device, the chassis consists of a frame or other supporting structure on which the circuit boards. In the absence of a frame, the chassis refers to the circuit boards and components themselves. The combination of chassis and outer covering is called an enclosure. Vietnam Studies, Department of the Army, Washington, D. C.1978
2014 Japanese Grand Prix
The 2014 Japanese Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 5 October at the Suzuka Circuit in Suzuka, Mie. It was the round of the 2014 Formula One season. The 44-lap race was won by Mercedes driver Lewis Hamilton, who started from second position and his teammate, Nico Rosberg, finished second and Red Bull driver Sebastian Vettel came in third. It was Hamiltons eighth victory of the season, his first at Suzuka, heavy rain from Typhoon Phanfone made the track surface wet and reduced visibility. Starting from behind the safety car, the race was stopped two laps and resumed 20 minutes later. Rosberg immediately fended off a passing manoeuvre by Hamilton heading into the first corner and his car experienced oversteer, and Hamilton reduced the time deficit between them. Hamilton challenged Rosberg for the lead over the four laps, overtook him on the 29th lap. Jules Bianchi made contact with the rear of a crane at Dunlop Curve on the 43rd lap that was tending to Adrian Sutils car. The race result was counted back two laps, and Hamilton was declared the winner, Bianchi was transported to hospital with severe head injuries, and was moved to his native France in November.
He remained there until his death on 17 July 2015, when he was mourned by the sport community. The victory allowed Hamilton to increase his lead in the World Drivers Championship to ten points over Rosberg, Mercedes extended their advantage over Red Bull in the Constructors Championship, and Williams remained ahead of Ferrari in the battle for third place with four races left in the season. The 2014 Japanese Grand Prix was the 15th of 19 scheduled rounds of the 2014 Formula One season, and it was held on 5 October at the Suzuka Circuit in Suzuka, Mie. The Grand Prix was contested by teams of two drivers each. The teams were Red Bull, Ferrari, Lotus, McLaren, Force India, Toro Rosso, Marussia, Suzuka Circuit is 5.807 kilometres long and consists of 18 turns. The events official name was the 2014 Formula 1 Japanese Grand Prix, tyre supplier Pirelli brought four types of tyre to the race, two dry compounds and two wet-weather compounds. The medium tyres were identified by a stripe on their side-walls.
The drag reduction system had one activation zone for the race, on the straight linking the final, before the race Mercedes driver Lewis Hamilton led the Drivers Championship with 241 points, ahead of teammate Nico Rosberg in second and Daniel Ricciardo in third place. Fernando Alonso was fourth with 133 points, nine ahead of Sebastian Vettel in fifth, Mercedes were leading the Constructors Championship with 479 points, and Red Bull were second with 305 points
Michele Alboreto was an Italian racing driver. He is famous for finishing runner up to Alain Prost in the 1985 Formula One World Championship, Alboreto competed in Formula One from 1981 until 1994, racing for a number of teams, most notably his five seasons driving for Ferrari. The Italians career in began in 1976, racing a car he. The car, achieved little success and two years Alboreto moved up to Formula Three. Wins in the Italian Formula Three championship and a European Formula Three Championship crown in 1980 paved the way for the Italians entrance into Formula One with the Tyrrell team. Two wins, the first in the round of the 1982 season in Las Vegas. Alboreto took three wins for the Italian team and challenged Alain Prost for the 1985 Championship, eventually losing out by 20 points, further seasons with Footwork, Scuderia Italia and Minardi followed during the tail end of his F1 career. In 1995, Alboreto moved on to sportscars and a year the American IndyCar series and he took his final major victories, the 1997 Le Mans 24 Hours and 2001 Sebring 12 Hours, with German manufacturers Porsche and Audi respectively.
In 2001, a month after his Sebring victory, he was killed testing an Audi R8 at the Lausitzring in Germany, Michele Alboreto started his career in 1976 racing in Formula Monza with a car he and his friends built, known as the CMR. The car itself proved to be uncompetitive and in 1978 Alboreto, now in a more competitive March, Two years Alboreto moved up to Formula Three, racing in a Euroracing-entered March-Toyota in both the European and Italian series. In his début Formula Three season, Alboreto finished 6th and 2nd respectively in the two championships, scoring three wins in the Italian series, an appearance in the British Championship was made that year. Alboretos European title earned him a move into Formula Two, a series for Formula One. He scored Minardis only F2 victory, at Misano, during the 1981 season where he finished eighth in the championship. He shared the Group 5 category Lancia Beta Montecarlo with Walter Röhrl or Eddie Cheever on four occasions during the 1980 season, Alboreto again ran a partial schedule in 1981 even though he was running Formula Two and Formula One.
This season included his first participation in the 24 Hours of Le Mans and he earned an eighth-place finish overall, second in class, and was the highest finishing Lancia. He followed this with his first win in the championship, at the Six Hours of Watkins Glen with co-driver Riccardo Patrese, Alboreto finished the year 52nd in the Drivers Championship, the highest ranked Lancia driver. When Lancia chose to move to a new class of competition with the Lancia LC1 as the championship concentrated solely on endurance races in 1982, a small schedule for the championship, as well as an emphasis on European circuits allowed him to compete in every race that year. Although the LC1 suffered from mechanical problems on its debut, teo Fabi joined the duo for the 1000 km of the Nürburgring, where they once again earned a victory
Automotive design is the profession involved in the development of the appearance, and to some extent the ergonomics, of motor vehicles or more specifically road vehicles. This most commonly refers to automobiles but refers to motorcycles, buses, the functional design and development of a modern motor vehicle is typically done by a large team from many different disciplines included within automotive engineering. Automotive design in context is primarily concerned with developing the visual appearance or aesthetics of the vehicle. Automotive design is practiced by designers who usually have an art background, the task of the design team is usually split into three main aspects, exterior design, interior design, and color and trim design. Graphic design is an aspect of design, this is generally shared amongst the design team as the lead designer sees fit. Design focuses not only on the outer shape of automobile parts. The aesthetic value will need to correspond to ergonomic functionality and utility features as well, though not all the new vehicular gadgets are to be designated as factory standard items, some of them may be integral to determining the future course of any specific vehicular models.
The stylist responsible for the design of the exterior of the vehicle develops the proportions, Exterior design is first done by a series of digital or manual drawings. Progressively, drawings that are more detailed are executed and approved by appropriate layers of management, Clay and or digital models are developed from, and along with the drawings. The data from these models are used to create a full sized mock-up of the final design. With three- and five-axis CNC milling machines, the model is first designed in a computer program and carved using the machine. Even in times of high-class 3d software and virtual models on power walls, here the emphasis is on ergonomics and the comfort of the passengers. The procedure here is the same as with exterior design, the color and trim designer is responsible for the research and development of all interior and exterior colors and materials used on a vehicle. These include paints, fabric designs, grains, headliner, wood trim, contrast and pattern must be carefully combined to give the vehicle a unique interior environment experience.
Designers work closely with the exterior and interior designers, designers draw inspiration from other design disciplines such as, industrial design, home furnishing and sometimes product design. Specific research is done into global trends to design for two to three model years in the future. Trend boards are created from research in order to keep track of design influences as they relate to the automotive industry. The designer uses this information to develop themes and concepts that are further refined and tested on the vehicle models
2014 Monaco Grand Prix
Mercedes driver Nico Rosberg won the race ahead of his teammate Lewis Hamilton. Rosberg was discovered to have done the same while chasing down Hamilton at the end of the Bahrain Grand Prix and it was the first time in the season that the super-soft compound was used at a race weekend. After the first runs in Q3, Rosberg had provisional pole position by 0.059 seconds from Hamilton, during his second and final quick lap, the German ran deep at Turn 5 and had to abort his lap, before reversing back onto the race track. The yellow flags that were out as a result of the incident forced Hamilton to slow, ruining his final qualifying lap. Red Bull Racings Daniel Ricciardo was the best of the other drivers, after the qualifying session had concluded, Nico Rosberg was investigated by the stewards under suspicion of deliberately spoiling Hamiltons lap. The stewards examined video evidence as well as data from the team. Pastor Maldonado stalled on the grid before the lap. On lap one, Sergio Pérez ran wide at Mirabeau and was hit by Jenson Button when he rejoined the racing line, Pérez spun and had to retire after colliding with – and damaging the cars of – Adrian Sutil and Romain Grosjean.
This brought out the safety car, during this period Vettel suffered a problem with his turbo and had to retire following the restart. Everyone pitted under the safety car except Felipe Massa, kimi Räikkönen had to pit a second time after he was hit at Mirabeau by Max Chilton, who had been unlapping himself, and sustained a puncture, which resulted in him dropping to the back of the field. Jean-Éric Vergne was given a penalty for an unsafe release into the path of the McLaren of Kevin Magnussen. Rosberg and Hamilton once again pulled away with Ricciardo third and Alonso fourth, Massa made his only pit stop after 40 laps. Vergne suffered a failure on lap 50 and retired for the fourth time in six races in 2014. Valtteri Bottas was caught by Esteban Gutiérrez, Räikkönen and Massa – who was on fresh tyres – before Bottas engine failed on lap 55. Gutiérrez hit the guardrail at La Rascasse on lap 59, damaging the suspension of his Sauber and causing him to retire while running in eighth. The penalty was applied to Bianchis total race time post-race as he did not pit again in the remaining laps, both Räikkönen and Magnussen managed to reverse out of the barrier but lost a lot of time, thus promoting Bianchi to eighth and Grosjean to ninth.
Räikkönen had to pit a third time for a new front wing, by lap 73, Ricciardo was right behind Hamilton, but having cleared his eye, Hamilton was able to hold on to his position and claimed second at the finish, while Ricciardo finished third. Rosberg won his second consecutive Monaco Grand Prix and took back the championship lead, outside the podium finishers, Alonso in fourth was the only other car to finish on the lead lap
Turbochargers were originally known as turbosuperchargers when all forced induction devices were classified as superchargers. Nowadays the term supercharger is usually applied only to mechanically driven forced induction devices, compared to a mechanically driven supercharger, turbochargers tend to be more efficient, but less responsive. Twincharger refers to an engine with both a supercharger and a turbocharger, turbochargers are commonly used on truck, train and construction equipment engines. They are most often used with Otto cycle and Diesel cycle internal combustion engines and they have been found useful in automotive fuel cells. Forced induction dates from the late 19th century, when Gottlieb Daimler patented the technique of using a pump to force air into an internal combustion engine in 1885. During World War I French engineer Auguste Rateau fitted turbochargers to Renault engines powering various French fighters with some success, in 1918, General Electric engineer Sanford Alexander Moss attached a turbocharger to a V12 Liberty aircraft engine.
Turbochargers were first used in aircraft engines such as the Napier Lioness in the 1920s. Ships and locomotives equipped with turbocharged diesel engines began appearing in the 1920s, turbochargers were used in aviation, most widely used by the United States. During World War II, notable examples of U. S. aircraft with turbochargers include the B-17 Flying Fortress, B-24 Liberator, P-38 Lightning, and P-47 Thunderbolt. Turbochargers are widely used in car and commercial vehicles because they allow smaller-capacity engines to have improved fuel economy, reduced emissions, higher power, in contrast to turbochargers, superchargers are mechanically driven by the engine. Belts, chains and gears are common methods of powering a supercharger, for example, on the single-stage single-speed supercharged Rolls-Royce Merlin engine, the supercharger uses about 150 horsepower. Yet the benefits outweigh the costs, for the 150 hp to drive the supercharger the engine generates an additional 400-horsepower, a net gain of 250 hp.
This is where the principal disadvantage of a supercharger becomes apparent, another disadvantage of some superchargers is lower adiabatic efficiency as compared to turbochargers. Adiabatic efficiency is a measure of an ability to compress air without adding excess heat to that air. Even under ideal conditions, the compression process always results in elevated temperature, however. Roots superchargers impart significantly more heat to the air than turbochargers, for a given volume and pressure of air, the turbocharged air is cooler, and as a result denser, containing more oxygen molecules, and therefore more potential power than the supercharged air. In practical application the disparity between the two can be dramatic, with turbochargers often producing 15% to 30% more power based solely on the differences in adiabatic efficiency. By comparison, a turbocharger does not place a direct mechanical load on the engine, although turbochargers place exhaust back pressure on engines, in contrast to supercharging, the primary disadvantage of turbocharging is what is referred to as lag or spool time
Carbon fiber reinforced polymer
Carbon fiber reinforced polymer, carbon fiber reinforced plastic or carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic, is an extremely strong and light fiber-reinforced plastic which contains carbon fibers. The spelling fibre is common in British Commonwealth countries, the binding polymer is often a thermoset resin such as epoxy, but other thermoset or thermoplastic polymers, such as polyester, vinyl ester or nylon, are sometimes used. The composite may contain other fibers, such as an aramid, ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene or glass fibers, the properties of the final CFRP product can be affected by the type of additives introduced to the binding matrix. The most frequent additive is silica, but other such as rubber. The material is referred to as graphite-reinforced polymer or graphite fiber-reinforced polymer. In product advertisements, it is referred to simply as graphite fiber for short. In this case the composite consists of two parts, a matrix and a reinforcement, in CFRP the reinforcement is carbon fiber, which provides the strength.
The matrix is usually a resin, such as epoxy. Because CFRP consists of two elements, the material properties depend on these two elements. The reinforcement will give the CFRP its strength and rigidity, measured by stress, unlike isotropic materials like steel and aluminum, CFRP has directional strength properties. The properties of CFRP depend on the layouts of the carbon fiber, the following equation, E c = V m E m + V f E f is valid for composite materials with the fibers oriented in the direction of the applied load. Typical epoxy-based CFRPs exhibit virtually no plasticity, with less than 0. 5% strain to failure, although CFRPs with epoxy have high strength and elastic modulus, the brittle fracture mechanics present unique challenges to engineers in failure detection since failure occurs catastrophically. As such, recent efforts to toughen CFRPs include modifying the existing epoxy material, One such material with high promise is PEEK, which exhibits an order of magnitude greater toughness with similar elastic modulus and tensile strength.
However, PEEK is much more difficult to process and more expensive, despite its high initial strength-to-weight ratio, a design limitation of CFRP is its lack of a definable fatigue endurance limit. This means, that stress cycle failure cannot be ruled out, environmental effects such as temperature and humidity can have profound effects on the polymer-based composites, including most CFRPs. While the carbon fibers themselves are not affected by the moisture diffusing into the material, the carbon fibers can cause galvanic corrosion when CRP parts are attached to aluminum. The primary element of CFRP is a filament, this is produced from a precursor polymer such as polyacrylonitrile, rayon. Precursor compositions and mechanical processes used during spinning filament yarns may vary among manufacturers, after drawing or spinning, the polymer filament yarns are heated to drive off non-carbon atoms, producing the final carbon fiber
An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. The reverse of this is the conversion of energy into electrical energy and is done by an electric generator. In normal motoring mode, most electric motors operate through the interaction between an electric motors magnetic field and winding currents to generate force within the motor, small motors may be found in electric watches. General-purpose motors with highly standardized dimensions and characteristics provide convenient mechanical power for industrial use, the largest of electric motors are used for ship propulsion, pipeline compression and pumped-storage applications with ratings reaching 100 megawatts. Electric motors may be classified by electric power source type, internal construction, type of motion output, perhaps the first electric motors were simple electrostatic devices created by the Scottish monk Andrew Gordon in the 1740s. The theoretical principle behind production of force by the interactions of an electric current.
The conversion of energy into mechanical energy by electromagnetic means was demonstrated by the British scientist Michael Faraday in 1821. A free-hanging wire was dipped into a pool of mercury, on which a permanent magnet was placed, when a current was passed through the wire, the wire rotated around the magnet, showing that the current gave rise to a close circular magnetic field around the wire. This motor is often demonstrated in experiments, brine substituting for toxic mercury. Though Barlows wheel was a refinement to this Faraday demonstration. In 1827, Hungarian physicist Ányos Jedlik started experimenting with electromagnetic coils, after Jedlik solved the technical problems of the continuous rotation with the invention of the commutator, he called his early devices electromagnetic self-rotors. Although they were used only for instructional purposes, in 1828 Jedlik demonstrated the first device to contain the three components of practical DC motors, the stator and commutator. The device employed no permanent magnets, as the fields of both the stationary and revolving components were produced solely by the currents flowing through their windings.
His motor set a record which was improved only four years in September 1838 by Jacobi himself. His second motor was powerful enough to drive a boat with 14 people across a wide river and it was not until 1839/40 that other developers worldwide managed to build motors of similar and also of higher performance. The first commutator DC electric motor capable of turning machinery was invented by the British scientist William Sturgeon in 1832, following Sturgeons work, a commutator-type direct-current electric motor made with the intention of commercial use was built by the American inventor Thomas Davenport, which he patented in 1837. The motors ran at up to 600 revolutions per minute, and powered machine tools, due to the high cost of primary battery power, the motors were commercially unsuccessful and Davenport went bankrupt. Several inventors followed Sturgeon in the development of DC motors but all encountered the same battery power cost issues, no electricity distribution had been developed at the time