The inch is a unit of length in the imperial and United States customary systems of measurement now formally equal to 1⁄36 yard but usually understood as 1⁄12 of a foot. Derived from the Roman uncia, inch is used to translate related units in other measurement systems. The English word inch was a borrowing from Latin uncia not present in other Germanic languages. The vowel change from Latin /u/ to English /ɪ/ is known as umlaut, the consonant change from the Latin /k/ to English /tʃ/ or /ʃ/ is palatalisation. Both were features of Old English phonology, inch is cognate with ounce, whose separate pronunciation and spelling reflect its reborrowing in Middle English from Anglo-Norman unce and ounce. In many other European languages, the word for inch is the same as or derived from the word for thumb, the inch is a commonly used customary unit of length in the United States and the United Kingdom. It is used in Japan for electronic parts, especially display screens, for example, three feet two inches can be written as 3′ 2″.
Paragraph LXVII sets out the fine for wounds of various depths, one inch, one shilling, an Anglo-Saxon unit of length was the barleycorn. After 1066,1 inch was equal to 3 barleycorns, which continued to be its legal definition for several centuries, similar definitions are recorded in both English and Welsh medieval law tracts. One, dating from the first half of the 10th century, is contained in the Laws of Hywel Dda which superseded those of Dyfnwal, both definitions, as recorded in Ancient Laws and Institutes of Wales, are that three lengths of a barleycorn is the inch. However, the oldest surviving manuscripts date from the early 14th century, john Bouvier similarly recorded in his 1843 law dictionary that the barleycorn was the fundamental measure. He noted that this process would not perfectly recover the standard, before the adoption of the international yard and pound, various definitions were in use. In the United Kingdom and most countries of the British Commonwealth, the United States adopted the conversion factor 1 metre =39.37 inches by an act in 1866.
In 1930, the British Standards Institution adopted an inch of exactly 25.4 mm, the American Standards Association followed suit in 1933. By 1935, industry in 16 countries had adopted the industrial inch as it came to be known, in 1946, the Commonwealth Science Congress recommended a yard of exactly 0.9144 metres for adoption throughout the British Commonwealth. This was adopted by Canada in 1951, the United States on 1 July 1959, Australia in 1961, effective 1 January 1964, and the United Kingdom in 1963, effective on 1 January 1964. The new standards gave an inch of exactly 25.4 mm,1.7 millionths of a longer than the old imperial inch and 2 millionths of an inch shorter than the old US inch. The United States retains the 1/39. 37-metre definition for survey purposes and this is approximately 1/8-inch in a mile
Williams Grand Prix Engineering
Williams Grand Prix Engineering Limited, currently racing in Formula One as Williams Martini Racing, is a British Formula One motor racing team and constructor. It was founded and is run by team owner Sir Frank Williams, the team was formed in 1977 after Frank Williams two earlier unsuccessful F1 operations, Frank Williams Racing Cars and Wolf-Williams Racing. All of Williams F1 chassis are called FW a number, Williams first race was the 1977 Spanish Grand Prix, where the new team ran a March chassis for Patrick Nève. Williams started manufacturing its own cars the year, and Switzerlands Clay Regazzoni won Williams first race at the 1979 British Grand Prix. Williams won nine Constructors Championships between 1980 and 1997 and this stood as a record until Ferrari surpassed it in 2000. Each of these drivers, with the exception of Senna and Button, have captured one title with the team. Of those who have won the championship with Williams, only Jones, Williams have worked with many engine manufacturers, most successfully with Renault, Williams won five of their nine constructors titles with the French company.
Williams F1 has business interests beyond Formula One racing, in April 2014, Williams Hybrid Power were sold to GKN. Williams Advanced Engineering had a centre in Qatar until it was closed in 2014. Frank Williams started the current Williams team in 1977 after his previous outfit, Frank Williams Racing Cars, despite the promise of a new owner in the form of Canadian millionaire Walter Wolf, the team rebranded as Wolf-Williams Racing in 1976, the cars were not competitive. Eventually Williams left the rechristened Walter Wolf Racing and moved to Didcot to rebuild his team as Williams Grand Prix Engineering, Frank recruited young engineer Patrick Head to work for the team, creating the Williams-Head partnership. In February 2011, Williams F1 announced their intention to float via a public offering on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange. Swiss-based Bank am Bellevue AG will act as sole global co-ordinator of up to 27. 39% of existing shares, Sir Frank Williams will remain majority shareholder and team principal after the IPO.
The shares are valued at between 24 and 29 euros, which values the Williams F1 team at 265 million euros. In February 2017 the shares are divided in this way, Frank Williams 52, 25%, Brad Hollinger 14, 75%, Patrick Head 9%, 20% on the market place. Williams entered a custom March 761 for the 1977 season, lone driver Patrick Nève appeared at 11 races that year, starting with the Spanish Grand Prix. The new team failed to score a point, achieving a best finish of 7th at the Italian Grand Prix, for the 1978 season, Patrick Head designed his first Williams car, the FW06. Williams signed Australian Alan Jones, who had won the Austrian Grand Prix the previous season for a devastated Shadow team following the death of their lead driver, Tom Pryce
A transmission is a machine in a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power. Often the term refers simply to the gearbox that uses gears and gear trains to provide speed. In British English, the term refers to the whole drivetrain, including clutch, prop shaft, differential. In American English, the term more specifically to the gearbox alone. The most common use is in vehicles, where the transmission adapts the output of the internal combustion engine to the drive wheels. Such engines need to operate at a high rotational speed, which is inappropriate for starting, stopping. The transmission reduces the engine speed to the slower wheel speed. Transmissions are used on bicycles, fixed machines. Often, a transmission has multiple gear ratios with the ability to switch between them as speed varies and this switching may be done manually or automatically. Directional control may be provided, single-ratio transmissions exist, which simply change the speed and torque of motor output.
The output of the transmission is transmitted via the driveshaft to one or more differentials, while a differential may provide gear reduction, its primary purpose is to permit the wheels at either end of an axle to rotate at different speeds as it changes the direction of rotation. Conventional gear/belt transmissions are not the mechanism for speed/torque adaptation. Alternative mechanisms include torque converters and power transformation, automatic transmissions use a valve body to shift gears using fluid pressures in conjunction with an ecm. Early transmissions included the right-angle drives and other gearing in windmills, horse-powered devices, and steam engines, in support of pumping, most modern gearboxes are used to increase torque while reducing the speed of a prime mover output shaft. This means that the shaft of a gearbox rotates at a slower rate than the input shaft. A gearbox can be set up to do the opposite and provide an increase in speed with a reduction of torque. Some of the simplest gearboxes merely change the rotational direction of power transmission.
Many typical automobile transmissions include the ability to select one of several gear ratios, in this case, most of the gear ratios are used to slow down the output speed of the engine and increase torque
2002 French Grand Prix
The 2002 French Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Magny-Cours on 21 July 2002. McLaren-Mercedes drivers Kimi Räikkönen and David Coulthard finished second and third respectively, giancarlo Fisichella crashed in a Saturday practice session and was recommended by the doctors to sit out the race. A last-minute attempt to have Heinz-Harald Frentzen or Enrique Bernoldi drive in his place fell through due to legal technicalities and this victory handed Michael Schumacher his 5th World Championship, equalling the record set by Argentinian Juan Manuel Fangio almost 50 years earlier. This is the earliest that a World Championship has been clinched, the FIA, ruled in favour of Schumacher and Ferrari. No fewer than four drivers received drive-through penalties during the race for crossing the white pit-lane exit line, Felipe Massa, Ralf Schumacher, Michael Schumacher, both Arrows-Cosworth cars deliberately failed to qualify for the race due to financial issues. It would prove to be the teams penultimate showing at a Grand Prix weekend, Juan Pablo Montoya clinched a fifth consecutive pole position, a run stretching back to that years Monaco Grand Prix, despite this, Montoya failed to win any of the five races.
The Colombian driver had suffered consecutive retirements at the Monaco. In total Montoya would start seven races from pole position during the season, last fastest lap, David Coulthard David Coulthard set the fastest lap of the French Grand Prix for the 5th consecutive year. Rubens Barrichellos car was left on its jacks, while the cars started their warm-up laps. Bold text indicates who still has a chance of becoming World Champion. Note, Only the top five positions are included for both sets of standings
A tire or tyre is a ring-shaped vehicle component that covers the wheels rim to protect it and enable better vehicle performance. Most tires, such as those for automobiles and bicycles, provide traction between the vehicle and the road providing a flexible cushion that absorbs shock. The materials of modern tires are synthetic rubber, natural rubber and wire, along with carbon black. They consist of a tread and a body, the tread provides traction while the body provides containment for a quantity of compressed air. Before rubber was developed, the first versions of tires were bands of metal fitted around wooden wheels to prevent wear and tear. Pneumatic tires are used on many types of vehicles, including cars, motorcycles, trucks, heavy equipment, and aircraft. Metal tires are used on locomotives and railcars, and solid rubber tires are still used in various non-automotive applications, such as some casters, lawnmowers. The etymology of tire is that the word is a form of attire. The spelling tyre does not appear until the 1840s when the English began shrink fitting railway car wheels with malleable iron, traditional publishers continued using tire.
The Times newspaper in Britain was still using tire as late as 1905, the spelling tyre began to be commonly used in the 19th century for pneumatic tires in the UK. However, over the course of the 20th century, tyre became established as the standard British spelling, the earliest tires were bands of leather, placed on wooden wheels, used on carts and wagons. The tire would be heated in a fire, placed over the wheel and quenched, causing the metal to contract. A skilled worker, known as a wheelwright, carried out this work, the outer ring served to tie the wheel segments together for use, providing a wear-resistant surface to the perimeter of the wheel. The word tire thus emerged as a variant spelling to refer to the bands used to tie wheels. The first patent for what appears to be a standard pneumatic tire appeared in 1847 lodged by the Scottish inventor Robert William Thomson, this never went into production. The first practical pneumatic tire was made in 1888 on May Street, Belfast, by Scots-born John Boyd Dunlop and it was an effort to prevent the headaches of his 10-year-old son Johnnie, while riding his tricycle on rough pavements.
His doctor, Sir John Fagan, had prescribed cycling as an exercise for the boy, Fagan participated in designing the first pneumatic tires. In Dunlops tire patent specification dated 31 October 1888, his interest is only in its use in cycles, in September 1890, he was made aware of an earlier development but the company kept the information to itself
Rear mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout
In automotive design, a RMR or Rear Mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is one in which the rear wheels are driven by an engine placed just in front of them, behind the passenger compartment. In contrast to the rear-engined RR layout, the center of mass of the engine is in front of the rear axle and this layout is typically chosen for its low moment of inertia and relatively favorable weight distribution. The layout has a tendency toward being heavier in the rear than the front, since there is little weight over the front wheels, under acceleration, the front of the car is prone to lift and cause understeer. Most rear-engine layouts have historically used in smaller vehicles, because the weight of the engine at the rear has an adverse effect on a larger cars handling, making it tail-heavy. It is felt that the low polar inertia is crucial in selection of this layout, the mid-engined layout uses up central space, making it impractical for any but two-seater sports cars. However, some use this layout, with a small.
This makes it possible to move the right to the front of the vehicle. In modern racing cars, RMR is the configuration and is usually synonymous with mid engine. Due to its distribution and resulting favorable vehicle dynamics, this layout is heavily employed in open-wheel Formula racing cars as well as purpose-built sports racing cars. This configuration was common in very small engined 1950s microcars, because of successes in racing, the RMR platform has been popular for road-going sports cars despite the inherent challenges of design and lack of cargo space. The 1900 NW Rennzweier was one of the first race cars with mid-engine, other known historical examples include the 1923 Benz Tropfenwagen. It was based on a design named the Rumpler Tropfenwagen in 1921 made by Edmund von Rumpler. The Benz Tropfenwagen was designed by Ferdinand Porsche along with Willy Walb and it raced in 1923 and 1924 and was most successful in the Italian Grand Prix in Monza where it stood fourth. Later, Ferdinand Porsche used mid-engine design concept towards the Auto Union Grand Prix cars of the 1930s which became the first winning RMR racers and they were decades before their time, although MR Miller Specials raced a few times at Indianapolis between 1939 and 1947.
The 718 followed similarly in 1958, but it was not until the late 1950s that RMR reappeared in Grand Prix races in the form of the Cooper-Climax, soon followed by cars from BRM and Lotus. Ferrari and Porsche soon made Grand Prix RMR attempts with less initial success, the mid-engined layout was brought back to Indianapolis in 1961 by the Cooper Car Company with Jack Brabham running as high as third and finishing ninth. Cooper did not return, but from 1963 on British built mid-engined cars from constructors like Brabham and Lola competed regularly and in 1965 Lotus won Indy with their Type 38. The first rear mid-engined road car was the 1962 Bonnet / Matra Djet, nearly 1700 were built until 1967
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa. South Africa is the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and it is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Old World or the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different Bantu languages, the remaining population consists of Africas largest communities of European and multiracial ancestry. South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a variety of cultures, languages. Its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the recognition of 11 official languages. The country is one of the few in Africa never to have had a coup détat, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. During the 20th century, the black majority sought to recover its rights from the dominant white minority, with this struggle playing a role in the countrys recent history. The National Party imposed apartheid in 1948, institutionalising previous racial segregation, since 1994, all ethnic and linguistic groups have held political representation in the countrys democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces.
South Africa is often referred to as the Rainbow Nation to describe the multicultural diversity. The World Bank classifies South Africa as an economy. Its economy is the second-largest in Africa, and the 34th-largest in the world, in terms of purchasing power parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa. However and inequality remain widespread, with about a quarter of the population unemployed, South Africa has been identified as a middle power in international affairs, and maintains significant regional influence. The name South Africa is derived from the geographic location at the southern tip of Africa. Upon formation the country was named the Union of South Africa in English, since 1961 the long form name in English has been the Republic of South Africa. In Dutch the country was named Republiek van Zuid-Afrika, replaced in 1983 by the Afrikaans Republiek van Suid-Afrika, since 1994 the Republic has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages. Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning south, is a name for South Africa.
South Africa contains some of the oldest archaeological and human fossil sites in the world, extensive fossil remains have been recovered from a series of caves in Gauteng Province. The area is a UNESCO World Heritage site and has termed the Cradle of Humankind
In 1932, Ferdinand Porsche designed a Grand Prix racing car for the Auto Union company. The high power of the design caused one of the wheels to experience excessive wheel spin at any speed up to 160 km/h. In 1935, Porsche commissioned the engineering firm ZF to design a limited-slip differential to improve performance, the ZF sliding pins and cams became available, and one example was the Type B-70 for early VWs, although technically this was an automatic locking differential, not a limited-slip. The main advantage of a differential is demonstrated by considering the case of a standard differential in off-roading or snow situations where one wheel begins to slip. In such a case with a differential, the slipping or non-contacting wheel will receive the majority of the power. For example, the right tire might begin to spin as soon as 70 N·m of torque is placed on it, since it is on an icy surface. Meanwhile, the tire on the surface will simply spin, absorbing all of the actual power output. The advantages of LSD in high-power, rear wheel drive automobiles were demonstrated during the United States Muscle-Car era from the mid 1960s through the early 1970s, cars of this era normally were rear wheel drive and did not feature independent suspension for the rear tires.
With a live axle, when high torque is applied through the differential and this coined the term one wheel peel. As such, Muscle-Cars with LSD or posi were at an advantage to their wheel-spinning counterparts. Automotive limited-slip differentials all contain a few basic elements, all have a gear train that, like an open differential, allows the output shafts to spin at different speeds while holding the sum of their speeds proportional to that of the input shaft. Second, all have some sort of mechanism that applies a torque that resists the motion of the output shafts. There are many used to create this resisting torque. The type of differential typically gets its name from the design of this resisting mechanism. Examples include viscous and clutch-based LSDs, the amount of limiting torque provided by these mechanisms varies by design and is discussed in the article. A limited-slip differential has a more complex torque-split and should be considered in the case when the outputs are spinning the same speed, the torque difference between the two axles is called Trq d.
Trq d is the difference in torque delivered to the left, the magnitude of Trq d comes from the slip-limiting mechanism in the differential and may be a function of input torque, or the difference in the output speeds. In the case when the vehicle is turning and neither wheel is slipping, in this case the inside wheel will receive more torque than the outside wheel, which can result in understeer
Formula One car
The regulations governing the cars are unique to the championship. The Formula One regulations specify that cars must be constructed by the teams themselves, though the design. The modern-day Formula One cars are constructed from composites of carbon fibre, the minimum weight permissible is 702 kg including the driver but not fuel. Cars are weighed with dry-weather tyres fitted, prior to the 2014 F1 season, cars often weighed in under this limit so teams added ballast in order to add weight to the car. The advantage of using ballast is that it can be placed anywhere in the car to provide ideal weight distribution and this can help lower the cars centre of gravity to improve stability and allows the team to fine-tune the weight distribution of the car to suit individual circuits. The 2009 season limited engines to 18,000 rpm in order to improve engine reliability, the FIA has continually enforced material and design restrictions to limit power. Even with the restrictions, the V10s in the 2005 season were reputed to develop 980 hp, the lesser funded teams had the option of keeping the current V10 for another season, but with a rev limiter to keep them competitive with the most powerful V8 engines.
The only team to take this option was the Toro Rosso team, the engines consume around 450 l of air per second. Race fuel consumption rate is normally around 75 l/100 km travelled, All cars have the engine located between the driver and the rear axle. In the 2004 championship, engines were required to last a full race weekend, for the 2005 championship, they were required to last two full race weekends and if a team changes an engine between the two races, they incur a penalty of 10 grid positions. In 2007, this rule was altered slightly and an engine only had to last for Saturday and Sunday running and this was to promote Friday running. In the 2008 season, engines were required to last two race weekends, the same regulation as the 2006 season. However, for the 2009 season, each driver is allowed to use a maximum of 8 engines over the season and this method of limiting engine costs increases the importance of tactics, since the teams have to choose which races to have a new or an already-used engine.
As of the 2014 season, all F1 cars have been equipped with turbocharged 1. 6-litre V6 engines, turbochargers have been banned since 1988. This change may give an improvement of up to 29% fuel efficiency, the benefit is that air is not traveling through as much pipework, in turn reducing turbo lag and increases efficiency of the car. In addition, it means that the air moving through the compressor is much cooler as it is away from the hot turbine section. Formula One cars use semi-automatic sequential gearboxes, with stating that 8 forward gears and 1 reverse gear must be used. The gearbox is constructed of titanium, as heat dissipation is a critical issue
A chassis consists of an internal vehicle frame that supports an artificial object in its construction and use, can provide protection for some internal parts. An example of a chassis is the underpart of a motor vehicle, if the running gear such as wheels and transmission, and sometimes even the drivers seat, are included, the assembly is described as a rolling chassis. In the case of vehicles, the rolling chassis means the frame plus the running gear like engine, drive shaft, differential. An under body, which is not necessary for integrity of the structure, is built on the chassis to complete the vehicle. For commercial vehicles, a rolling chassis consists of an assembly of all the parts of a truck to be ready for operation on the road. The design of a car chassis will be different than one for commercial vehicles because of the heavier loads. Commercial vehicle manufacturers sell chassis only and chassis, as well as chassis cab versions that can be outfitted with specialized bodies and these include motor homes, fire engines, box trucks, etc.
In particular applications, such as buses, a government agency like National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in the U. S. defines the design standards of chassis. An armoured fighting vehicles hull serves as the chassis and comprises the part of the AFV that includes the tracks, drivers seat. This describes the hull, although common usage might include the upper hull to mean the AFV without the turret. The hull serves as a basis for platforms on tanks, armoured carriers, combat engineering vehicles. In an electronic device, the chassis consists of a frame or other supporting structure on which the circuit boards. In the absence of a frame, the chassis refers to the circuit boards and components themselves. The combination of chassis and outer covering is called an enclosure. Vietnam Studies, Department of the Army, Washington, D. C.1978
Rubens Rubinho Gonçalves Barrichello is a Brazilian racing driver who competed in Formula One between 1993 and 2011. After losing his seat at the Williams F1 team, Barrichello moved to the IndyCar Series in 2012 with KV Racing Technology, Barrichello holds the record for most races in Formula One and has scored the eleventh highest points total in Formula One history. Barrichello drove for Ferrari from 2000 to 2005, as Michael Schumachers teammate and he finished third in 2001 and 2009. During his six years with Ferrari, Barrichello was involved in winning five constructors titles, at the end of 2005 Barrichello left Ferrari to sign a contract with Honda. Schumachers retirement at the end of 2006 made Barrichello the most experienced driver on the grid, in 2009, he finished third in the drivers championship for Brawn GP, as his team mate Jenson Button won the title. This meant Barrichello was involved in a sixth constructors title and he became the first driver to reach 300 Grand Prix entries and 300 starts, doing so in 2010.
He was appointed chairman of the Grand Prix Drivers Association in 2010, in 2013 he started covering F1 race weekends for Brazils TV Globo, interviewing drivers and team members on the grid and commentating during qualifying and race coverages. Barrichello has won eleven Formula One Grands Prix, the paternal side of his family comes from Veneto, Italy. Both his father and paternal grandfather are named Rubens, Rubens Barrichello was known as Rubinho, which has become his nickname. Barrichello won five karting titles in Brazil before going to Europe to race in the Formula Vauxhall Lotus series in 1990, in his first year, he won the championship, a feat he replicated the following year in the British Formula 3 Championship, beating David Coulthard. He very nearly joined Formula One, the highest category of single seater racing, instead he competed in Formula 3000 in 1992. He finished third in the championship, and joined the Jordan Formula One team for the 1993 Formula One season, during this time, and early in his Formula One career, Barrichello lived in Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, UK.
Barrichello had a rookie year. In his third race, the European Grand Prix, he started from 12th place in wet conditions but was fourth by the end of the first lap. He ran as high as second and was running third, having passed the Williams of Damon Hill and Alain Prost and his Jordans reliability in 1993 was poor, and he finished few races. Barrichello regularly outpaced his more experienced teammates, Ivan Capelli and Thierry Boutsen, in the French Grand Prix, he almost scored his first grand prix point but Michael Andretti passed Barrichello for the sixth and final point-paying position on the final lap. His only points finish of the season came at the Japanese Grand Prix with fifth place and these 2 points put him in 18th place in the standings. 1994 started well with a place in Brazil and a third place at Aida
A V10 engine is a V engine with 10 cylinders in two banks of five. It is longer than a V8 engine but shorter than an engine or V12 engine. The V10 is essentially the result of mating two even-firing straight-5 engines together, the straight-5 engine shows first and second order rocking motion. Here it should be assumed that the crankshaft with low second-order vibration is used, by mating the straight-5 banks at 90 degrees and using five throws, the balance shafts balance each other and become null. Using an 18° split journal crankshaft the firing order can be even. A 36° degree bank angle and a 108° flying arm crankshaft would allow even firing without a balance shaft and smaller counterweights, but would be impractical. Until recently, the V10 configuration was not a configuration for road cars. For Audi in their Audi R85 and it discontinued in that application after 2003. However,2003 saw the introduction of the Dodge Ram SRT-10, the Viper engine has been tweaked through the years, and for the fifth-generation Viper produces 640 hp in a standard state of tune from its 8.4 liter displacement.
The previous generation engine is used by Bristol, in tuned form, in their two-seat Fighter coupe, ford developed a heavy-duty V10 version of their Triton engine to replace the 460 big block in truck applications. It was introduced in the E-Series/Econoline full-size van, the F-Series Super Duty and Excursion SUV furthered the engines popularity. The Triton 6.8 V10 is still in production today, european marques were slower to adopt the V10 configuration. However, high-revving V10 power-plants were incorporated into supercars from Lamborghini, BMW and Audi unveiled ten-cylinder versions of their mid-range saloons. Audi here profited from their Lamborghini ownership, which allowed them to source the Gallardos V10 for their own cars, Volkswagen developed a turbodiesel V10, their Volkswagen Phaeton was the first production sedan to have a V10. A list of post-war V10-engined production cars, The most widespread use of the V10 has been in Formula One racing, alfa Romeo made the first modern Formula One V10 in 1986, although it was never used in a Formula One car.
Later the configuration was introduced by Honda and Renault before the 1989 season, the introduction of the 3.5 liter rule after turbos were outlawed following 1988 made the V10 seem the best compromise between the lower weight of a V8 and the higher power of a V12. V10 engines became commonplace after the reduction from 3.5 to 3 liters in 1995, Renault had a more flat 110° angle in 2002 and 2003, but reverted to a more conventional 72° following the change in rules which dictated that an engine must last two race weekends. The Audi R15 LMP1 Uses a TDI V10 Diesel Engine which made its debut in 200912 Hours of Sebring and this car completed the most laps ever in Le Mans 24 history