Automotive design is the profession involved in the development of the appearance, and to some extent the ergonomics, of motor vehicles or more specifically road vehicles. This most commonly refers to automobiles but refers to motorcycles, buses, the functional design and development of a modern motor vehicle is typically done by a large team from many different disciplines included within automotive engineering. Automotive design in context is primarily concerned with developing the visual appearance or aesthetics of the vehicle. Automotive design is practiced by designers who usually have an art background, the task of the design team is usually split into three main aspects, exterior design, interior design, and color and trim design. Graphic design is an aspect of design, this is generally shared amongst the design team as the lead designer sees fit. Design focuses not only on the outer shape of automobile parts. The aesthetic value will need to correspond to ergonomic functionality and utility features as well, though not all the new vehicular gadgets are to be designated as factory standard items, some of them may be integral to determining the future course of any specific vehicular models.
The stylist responsible for the design of the exterior of the vehicle develops the proportions, Exterior design is first done by a series of digital or manual drawings. Progressively, drawings that are more detailed are executed and approved by appropriate layers of management, Clay and or digital models are developed from, and along with the drawings. The data from these models are used to create a full sized mock-up of the final design. With three- and five-axis CNC milling machines, the model is first designed in a computer program and carved using the machine. Even in times of high-class 3d software and virtual models on power walls, here the emphasis is on ergonomics and the comfort of the passengers. The procedure here is the same as with exterior design, the color and trim designer is responsible for the research and development of all interior and exterior colors and materials used on a vehicle. These include paints, fabric designs, grains, headliner, wood trim, contrast and pattern must be carefully combined to give the vehicle a unique interior environment experience.
Designers work closely with the exterior and interior designers, designers draw inspiration from other design disciplines such as, industrial design, home furnishing and sometimes product design. Specific research is done into global trends to design for two to three model years in the future. Trend boards are created from research in order to keep track of design influences as they relate to the automotive industry. The designer uses this information to develop themes and concepts that are further refined and tested on the vehicle models
Ross James Brawn OBE is the Formula One Managing Director of Motorsports. He is a former engineer and Formula One team principal. He had worked for a number of Formula One teams, serving as the director of the championship-winning Benetton. He took a sabbatical from the sport in 2007 but returned to F1 for the 2008 season as Team Principal of Honda. He was the owner of the Brawn GP team, which acquired the Honda team in early 2009, Mercedes bought into the team in November 2009, making Brawn Team Principal and Co-Owner with Nick Fry. In 2011 Brawn and Fry sold the shares to Mercedes Benz. In November 2013, it was announced that Brawn would step down, following speculation linking him with other teams, Brawn announced his retirement from Formula One in February 2014. Teams with Brawn in a role have won, in total,8 constructors championships and 8 drivers championships. Brawn was born in Ashton-under-Lyne, England and he became interested in engineering during his early years, often visiting Belle Vue Stadium to watch various forms of motor racing.
He moved south aged 11 as his father took a job near Reading, Berkshire and he went on to start an HNC in Mechanical Engineering, still funded by Harwell. Living in Reading he found an advertisement for Frank Williams Grand Prix, Williams were looking for a milling machinist which was one of the skills he learnt at Harwell. Brawn lives in Stoke Row, near Henley-on-Thames, in his spare time he enjoys gardening and listening to music. In 2006 Brawn received a degree of Doctor of Engineering from Brunel University for his services to motorsport. On 18 November 2011, Brawn received a honorary doctorate from Heriot-Watt University. His career in began in 1976 when he joined March Engineering in the town of Bicester as a milling machine operator. Soon afterwards he joined their Formula 3 racing team as a mechanic, Brawn was hired by Sir Frank Williams in 1978 as a machinist for the newly formed Williams team. He quickly moved up through the ranks, working in the R&D department with Frank Dernie, Brawn joined the Haas Lola team in 1985 and was part of Neil Oatleys design team at FORCE that produced both the Lola THL1 and THL2 cars used by the team.
When the Haas team left F1 at the end of the 1986 season, there he designed the Megatron powered Arrows A10 and its update, the A10B for the 1987 and 1988 seasons respectively and the Ford V8 powered Arrows A11 used in 1989
The Ferrari F2004 was a highly successful Formula One racing car designed by Rory Byrne, Ross Brawn and Aldo Costa for the 2004 Formula One season. It is one of the most dominant cars in the history of Formula One, the car brought a close to Ferraris and Michael Schumachers five-year domination of the sport, leaving the door open for Renault and Fernando Alonso. The car was based on the design principles pioneered in the F2002. The periscope exhausts were smaller and mounted closer to the centre line, the rear wing was enlarged and the rear suspension redesigned to reduce tyre wear. The engine was designed to last a weekend in accordance with the FIAs technical regulations for the season. As a result, the had to be redesigned to be more resilient. The car was as successful as the equally dominant F2002, winning 15 out of 18 races, Michael Schumacher won a single-season record of 13 races and gained a record breaking seventh World Championship, while Ferrari was a clear winner in the Constructors Championship.
After the 2004 season the car was developed further as a testbed for 2005, despite a podium finish in the 2005 Australian Grand Prix, the car was retired to make way for its successor, the F2005, at the 2005 Bahrain Grand Prix. The F2004 was used as the basis for the 2008 Powered by Ferrari A1 Grand Prix car, *10 points scored with the F2004M Ferrari F2002 Ferrari F2003-GA Ferrari F2005
2003 San Marino Grand Prix
The 2003 San Marino Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 20 April 2003 at the Autodromo Enzo e Dino Ferrari, Emilia-Romagna, with the race taking place on Easter Sunday. It was the round of the 2003 Formula One season The 62-lap race was won by Ferrari driver Michael Schumacher for the Ferrari team after starting from pole position. Kimi Räikkönen, driving for McLaren, finished second with Rubens Barrichello third in the other Ferrari, the remaining points-scoring positions were filled by Ralf Schumacher, David Coulthard, Fernando Alonso, Juan Pablo Montoya and Jenson Button. Schumachers victory for Ferrari was his and the teams first of the season and his brother Ralf raced despite the death of their mother Elisabeth before the Grand Prix. The brothers led the field at the start with Ralf leading having overtaken Michael, as a consequence of the race, Räikkönen increased his lead in the World Drivers Championship, over team-mate David Coulthard to 13 points with Schumacher climbing to third.
In the World Constructors Championship, McLaren increased their lead to 16 points with Ferrari overtaking Renault for second. Behind Räikkönen and Coulthard in the Drivers Championship, Fernando Alonso was third on 14 points in a Renault, with Giancarlo Fisichella, in the World Constructors Championship, McLaren were leading on 39 points and Renault were second on 23 points, with Ferrari on 16 points. At the preceding Brazilian Grand Prix, confusion caused by a red flag at the end of the led to Räikkönen being declared the winner. An investigation by Formula Ones governing body the FIA in the following the race proved that Fisichella had been the actual victor. The investigation discovered that Fisichella started his 56th lap when the red flag was shown, under the countback rule, the driver leading two laps before a race is stopped is declared the winner. During a meeting organised by the teams, the rule would be placed under review having highlighted potential problems. Ferrari originally planned to debut its new car the F2003-GA at Imola, issues with reliability led to the decision to race the F2002.
Ferrari stated the F2002 was still a competitive car and believed racing the F2003-GA would be risky despite testing the car at Mugello, the Qualifying session was run as a one-lap session and took place on Friday and Saturday afternoon. The cars were run one at a time, the Friday running order was determined with the Championship leading heading out first, the Saturday running order was determined by times set in Friday afternoon qualifying with the fastest heading out last and the slowest running first. The lap times from the Friday afternoon session did not determine the grid order, williams drivers Ralf Schumacher and Juan Pablo Montoya set the pace in the Friday free practice, which took place in dry and sunny conditions, with a time of 1,21.335. Montoya was less than sixth hundredths of a second behind, ahead of Jaguar driver Mark Webber, Alonso, Michael Schumacher clipped the kerb at the Variante Bassa chicane, damaging the Ferraris left rear suspension. In the Saturday afternoon qualifying session, Schumacher clinched his second position of the season with a time of 1,22.327.
He was joined on the front row by his brother Ralf Schumacher, Rubens Barrichello was third in the other Ferrari, with Montoya fourth
Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Germanys capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, other major cities include Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, in 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire.
After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic, the establishment of the national socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and the Holocaust. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in 1990, the country was reunified. In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP. As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods. Germany is a country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection. Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in 1957. It is part of the Schengen Area, and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999, Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, and the OECD.
The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz popular, derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- people, the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a mine in Schöningen where three 380, 000-year-old wooden javelins were unearthed
The Ferrari F2002 was one of the most successful Formula One car designs of all time. Designed by Ross Brawn, Rory Byrne and Paolo Martinelli, it won fifteen Grands Prix, the car was much lighter than its predecessor, the F2001. Powered by a 3.0 litre V10 engine which had a low centre of gravity. The new 051 engine was not the strongest engine of 2002, bridgestone developed special tyres, suited specifically for the car. Aerodynamically, the Ferrari was well ahead of the contemporary Williams-BMW but perhaps a little down on power, using the Pomeroy Index system, Motor Sport magazine recently determined that the F2002 is the fastest Formula One car of all time. However, the Ferrari F2004 achieved better qualifying laptimes at 12 of the courses which were raced by both cars, the majority of the conceptual design work for the Ferrari F2002 was by Ferraris legendary South African chassis designer Rory Byrne and the engine design by Ferraris Paolo Martinelli. The project was overseen by the technical director Ross Brawn.
A vast army of other team personnel oversaw the running of the team, prior to the introduction of the F2002, Ferrari had used a revised version of their championship winning Ferrari F2001 for the first few races of 2002. The F2002 was not only a development of the championship-winning Ferrari F2001, the new replacement gearbox casing was made of ultra lightweight and higher strength titanium, thus reducing its weight by as much as 15% and lowering the cars centre of gravity. The new compact design allowed for great advancement in the bodywork, however such was the extent of the gearbox casing redesign that the aerodynamic work was left behind schedule and initially did not represent the same performance gains as the mechanical engineering. The latter technology was incorporated both to use the hot exhaust gases for aerodynamic effect and to raise these gases higher and out the way of the rear suspension. On previous occasion Ferraris non chimneyed top exiting exhaust outlets had caused the rear suspension, at its first race in Brazil, the F2002 was victorious, being driven by Michael Schumacher and continuing Ferraris trend since 1999 for its cars to win on their debut.
Michael Schumacher clinched second on the grid and after a first lap altercation with Juan Pablo Montoya, there was some controversy surrounding tyre allocation because the team only had one F2002 chassis at the race. Therefore, Schumachers spare car was an F2001 chassis and because the two chassis used different wheel rim designs each required separate wheels and tyres and it was thus argued that Schumacher had in-effect twice the allocation of tyres as any other driver. The controversy was managed by Ferrari agreeing to aggregate their tyre usage between the two cars, ensuring that Schumacher used the total number of tyres as all the other drivers. What followed was a season of domination, the likes of which had not been seen since McLarens 1988 season, with the F2002, Schumacher scored 9 more victories, his total of 11 wins was a record for the season, while Rubens Barrichello scored four. The only race that the car failed to win was at Monaco, Schumacher finished every race on the podium, never finishing lower than second with the F2002.
The German won the championship in record time, clinching the title at the 11th race of the season in France
A chassis consists of an internal vehicle frame that supports an artificial object in its construction and use, can provide protection for some internal parts. An example of a chassis is the underpart of a motor vehicle, if the running gear such as wheels and transmission, and sometimes even the drivers seat, are included, the assembly is described as a rolling chassis. In the case of vehicles, the rolling chassis means the frame plus the running gear like engine, drive shaft, differential. An under body, which is not necessary for integrity of the structure, is built on the chassis to complete the vehicle. For commercial vehicles, a rolling chassis consists of an assembly of all the parts of a truck to be ready for operation on the road. The design of a car chassis will be different than one for commercial vehicles because of the heavier loads. Commercial vehicle manufacturers sell chassis only and chassis, as well as chassis cab versions that can be outfitted with specialized bodies and these include motor homes, fire engines, box trucks, etc.
In particular applications, such as buses, a government agency like National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in the U. S. defines the design standards of chassis. An armoured fighting vehicles hull serves as the chassis and comprises the part of the AFV that includes the tracks, drivers seat. This describes the hull, although common usage might include the upper hull to mean the AFV without the turret. The hull serves as a basis for platforms on tanks, armoured carriers, combat engineering vehicles. In an electronic device, the chassis consists of a frame or other supporting structure on which the circuit boards. In the absence of a frame, the chassis refers to the circuit boards and components themselves. The combination of chassis and outer covering is called an enclosure. Vietnam Studies, Department of the Army, Washington, D. C.1978
Rubens Rubinho Gonçalves Barrichello is a Brazilian racing driver who competed in Formula One between 1993 and 2011. After losing his seat at the Williams F1 team, Barrichello moved to the IndyCar Series in 2012 with KV Racing Technology, Barrichello holds the record for most races in Formula One and has scored the eleventh highest points total in Formula One history. Barrichello drove for Ferrari from 2000 to 2005, as Michael Schumachers teammate and he finished third in 2001 and 2009. During his six years with Ferrari, Barrichello was involved in winning five constructors titles, at the end of 2005 Barrichello left Ferrari to sign a contract with Honda. Schumachers retirement at the end of 2006 made Barrichello the most experienced driver on the grid, in 2009, he finished third in the drivers championship for Brawn GP, as his team mate Jenson Button won the title. This meant Barrichello was involved in a sixth constructors title and he became the first driver to reach 300 Grand Prix entries and 300 starts, doing so in 2010.
He was appointed chairman of the Grand Prix Drivers Association in 2010, in 2013 he started covering F1 race weekends for Brazils TV Globo, interviewing drivers and team members on the grid and commentating during qualifying and race coverages. Barrichello has won eleven Formula One Grands Prix, the paternal side of his family comes from Veneto, Italy. Both his father and paternal grandfather are named Rubens, Rubens Barrichello was known as Rubinho, which has become his nickname. Barrichello won five karting titles in Brazil before going to Europe to race in the Formula Vauxhall Lotus series in 1990, in his first year, he won the championship, a feat he replicated the following year in the British Formula 3 Championship, beating David Coulthard. He very nearly joined Formula One, the highest category of single seater racing, instead he competed in Formula 3000 in 1992. He finished third in the championship, and joined the Jordan Formula One team for the 1993 Formula One season, during this time, and early in his Formula One career, Barrichello lived in Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, UK.
Barrichello had a rookie year. In his third race, the European Grand Prix, he started from 12th place in wet conditions but was fourth by the end of the first lap. He ran as high as second and was running third, having passed the Williams of Damon Hill and Alain Prost and his Jordans reliability in 1993 was poor, and he finished few races. Barrichello regularly outpaced his more experienced teammates, Ivan Capelli and Thierry Boutsen, in the French Grand Prix, he almost scored his first grand prix point but Michael Andretti passed Barrichello for the sixth and final point-paying position on the final lap. His only points finish of the season came at the Japanese Grand Prix with fifth place and these 2 points put him in 18th place in the standings. 1994 started well with a place in Brazil and a third place at Aida
A transmission is a machine in a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power. Often the term refers simply to the gearbox that uses gears and gear trains to provide speed. In British English, the term refers to the whole drivetrain, including clutch, prop shaft, differential. In American English, the term more specifically to the gearbox alone. The most common use is in vehicles, where the transmission adapts the output of the internal combustion engine to the drive wheels. Such engines need to operate at a high rotational speed, which is inappropriate for starting, stopping. The transmission reduces the engine speed to the slower wheel speed. Transmissions are used on bicycles, fixed machines. Often, a transmission has multiple gear ratios with the ability to switch between them as speed varies and this switching may be done manually or automatically. Directional control may be provided, single-ratio transmissions exist, which simply change the speed and torque of motor output.
The output of the transmission is transmitted via the driveshaft to one or more differentials, while a differential may provide gear reduction, its primary purpose is to permit the wheels at either end of an axle to rotate at different speeds as it changes the direction of rotation. Conventional gear/belt transmissions are not the mechanism for speed/torque adaptation. Alternative mechanisms include torque converters and power transformation, automatic transmissions use a valve body to shift gears using fluid pressures in conjunction with an ecm. Early transmissions included the right-angle drives and other gearing in windmills, horse-powered devices, and steam engines, in support of pumping, most modern gearboxes are used to increase torque while reducing the speed of a prime mover output shaft. This means that the shaft of a gearbox rotates at a slower rate than the input shaft. A gearbox can be set up to do the opposite and provide an increase in speed with a reduction of torque. Some of the simplest gearboxes merely change the rotational direction of power transmission.
Many typical automobile transmissions include the ability to select one of several gear ratios, in this case, most of the gear ratios are used to slow down the output speed of the engine and increase torque
A tire or tyre is a ring-shaped vehicle component that covers the wheels rim to protect it and enable better vehicle performance. Most tires, such as those for automobiles and bicycles, provide traction between the vehicle and the road providing a flexible cushion that absorbs shock. The materials of modern tires are synthetic rubber, natural rubber and wire, along with carbon black. They consist of a tread and a body, the tread provides traction while the body provides containment for a quantity of compressed air. Before rubber was developed, the first versions of tires were bands of metal fitted around wooden wheels to prevent wear and tear. Pneumatic tires are used on many types of vehicles, including cars, motorcycles, trucks, heavy equipment, and aircraft. Metal tires are used on locomotives and railcars, and solid rubber tires are still used in various non-automotive applications, such as some casters, lawnmowers. The etymology of tire is that the word is a form of attire. The spelling tyre does not appear until the 1840s when the English began shrink fitting railway car wheels with malleable iron, traditional publishers continued using tire.
The Times newspaper in Britain was still using tire as late as 1905, the spelling tyre began to be commonly used in the 19th century for pneumatic tires in the UK. However, over the course of the 20th century, tyre became established as the standard British spelling, the earliest tires were bands of leather, placed on wooden wheels, used on carts and wagons. The tire would be heated in a fire, placed over the wheel and quenched, causing the metal to contract. A skilled worker, known as a wheelwright, carried out this work, the outer ring served to tie the wheel segments together for use, providing a wear-resistant surface to the perimeter of the wheel. The word tire thus emerged as a variant spelling to refer to the bands used to tie wheels. The first patent for what appears to be a standard pneumatic tire appeared in 1847 lodged by the Scottish inventor Robert William Thomson, this never went into production. The first practical pneumatic tire was made in 1888 on May Street, Belfast, by Scots-born John Boyd Dunlop and it was an effort to prevent the headaches of his 10-year-old son Johnnie, while riding his tricycle on rough pavements.
His doctor, Sir John Fagan, had prescribed cycling as an exercise for the boy, Fagan participated in designing the first pneumatic tires. In Dunlops tire patent specification dated 31 October 1888, his interest is only in its use in cycles, in September 1890, he was made aware of an earlier development but the company kept the information to itself
The geometry of honeycomb structures can vary widely but the common feature of all such structures is an array of hollow cells formed between thin vertical walls. The cells are columnar and hexagonal in shape. A honeycomb shaped structure provides a material with minimal density and relative high out-of-plane compression properties, man-made honeycomb structural materials are commonly made by layering a honeycomb material between two thin layers that provide strength in tension. Honeycomb materials are used where flat or slightly curved surfaces are needed. They can be found in other fields, from packaging materials in the form of paper-based honeycomb cardboard, to sporting goods like skis. Natural honeycomb structures include beehives, honeycomb weathering in rocks, man-made honeycomb structures include sandwich-structured composites with honeycomb cores. The strength of laminated or sandwich panels depends on the size of the panel, facing material used, Honeycomb composites are used widely in many industries, from aerospace industries and furniture to packaging and logistics.
The material takes its name from its resemblance to a bees honeycomb – a hexagonal sheet structure. The hexagonal comb of the bee has been admired and wondered about from ancient times. The first man-made honeycomb is said to have been manufactured by Daedalus from gold by lost wax casting more than 3000 years ago, Marcus Varro reports that the Greek geometricians Euclid and Zenodorus found that the hexagon shape makes most efficient use of space and building materials. The interior ribbing and hidden chambers in the dome of the Pantheon in Rome is an example of a honeycomb structure. The first paper honeycomb structures might have made by the Chinese 2000 years ago for ornaments. Paper honeycombs and the production process has been invented in Halle/Saale in Germany by Hans Heilbrun in 1901 for decorative applications. First honeycomb structures from corrugated metal sheets had been proposed for bee keeping in 1890, for the same purpose, as foundation sheets to harvest more honey, a honeycomb moulding process using a paper paste glue mixture had been patented in 1878.
The three basic techniques for production that are still used today—expansion and moulding—were already developed by 1901 for non-sandwich applications. Hugo Junkers first explored the idea of a core within a laminate structure. He proposed and patented the first honeycomb cores for aircraft application in 1915, the problem of bonding a continuous skin to cellular cores led Junkers to the open corrugated structure, which could be riveted or welded together. The first use of structures for structural applications had been independently proposed for building application