By population, Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spains capital and largest city is Madrid, other urban areas include Barcelona, Seville, Bilbao. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago, in the Middle Ages, the area was conquered by Germanic tribes and by the Moors. Spain is a democracy organised in the form of a government under a constitutional monarchy. It is a power and a major developed country with the worlds fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP. Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the span is the Phoenician word spy. Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean the land where metals are forged, two 15th-century Spanish Jewish scholars, Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. Both men wrote in two different published works that the first Jews to reach Spain were brought by ship by Phiros who was confederate with the king of Babylon when he laid siege to Jerusalem.
This man was a Grecian by birth, but who had given a kingdom in Spain. He became related by marriage to Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, Heracles renounced his throne in preference for his native Greece, leaving his kingdom to his nephew, from whom the country of España took its name. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been in use in Spain by c.350 BCE, Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by the Iberians and Celts. Early on its coastal areas were settled by Phoenicians who founded Western Europe´s most ancient cities Cadiz, Phoenician influence expanded as much of the Peninsula was eventually incorporated into the Carthaginian Empire, becoming a major theater of the Punic Wars against the expanding Roman Empire. After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came fully under Roman Rule, during the early Middle Ages it came under Germanic rule but later, much of it was conquered by Moorish invaders from North Africa. In a process took centuries, the small Christian kingdoms in the north gradually regained control of the peninsula.
The last Moorish kingdom fell in the same year Columbus reached the Americas, a global empire began which saw Spain become the strongest kingdom in Europe, the leading world power for a century and a half, and the largest overseas empire for three centuries. Continued wars and other problems led to a diminished status. The Napoleonic invasions of Spain led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire, eventually democracy was peacefully restored in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Spain joined the European Union, experiencing a renaissance and steady economic growth
Brazil, officially the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. As the worlds fifth-largest country by area and population, it is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to wildlife, a variety of ecological systems. This unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro, in 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a state governed under a constitutional monarchy. The ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, the country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup détat.
An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, Brazils current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. The federation is composed of the union of the Federal District, the 26 states, Brazils economy is the worlds ninth-largest by nominal GDP and seventh-largest by GDP as of 2015. A member of the BRICS group, Brazil until 2010 had one of the worlds fastest growing economies, with its economic reforms giving the country new international recognition. Brazils national development bank plays an important role for the economic growth. Brazil is a member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Mercosul, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States, CPLP. Brazil is a power in Latin America and a middle power in international affairs. One of the worlds major breadbaskets, Brazil has been the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years and it is likely that the word Brazil comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil commonly given the etymology red like an ember, formed from Latin brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a red dye, it was highly valued by the European cloth industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. The popular appellation eclipsed and eventually supplanted the official Portuguese name, early sailors sometimes called it the Land of Parrots. In the Guarani language, a language of Paraguay, Brazil is called Pindorama
The Ferrari F138 is a Formula One racing car designed and built by Scuderia Ferrari for use in the 2013 Formula One season. It was driven by the twice World Champion Fernando Alonso and his team-mate Felipe Massa, the chassis was named the F138 to represent the year that it would be raced,2013, and to mark the final season that Formula One would use V8 engines. Ferrari were developing their car for the 2014 season in parallel with the F138, as winter testing had suggested, the F138 immediately proved to be much more competitive than the F2012 at the start of the season. In Australia and Alonso qualified 4th and 5th, respectively, in the race, the F138 had better race pace than its rivals so they finished with Alonso taking second place and Massa 4th. Malaysia saw the taking place in wet weather and Alonso took advantage of this situation to qualify 2nd. This was the fourth time that Massa had out-qualified his team-mate. The race was started on intermediates because of wet track conditions, off the line Alonso had a good start while Massa was suffering from degradation on his intermediate tyres, due to which he lost couple of places at the start.
Alonso had a contact with Vettel going into turn 2 enough to damage his front wing. The team decided to keep Alonso out thinking that the wing would hold up, at the start of lap 2 the wing gave way on the back straight and Alonso ended up retiring in the gravel. Massa had a good race pace on dry weather tyres which helped him to end up in fifth position, in China, Ferrari brought upgrades for the F138 which had varied effects. However, during sessions it appeared that the F138 had improved single lap pace. Alonso and Massa managed to qualify 3rd and 5th, Alonso went on to take his and the F138s first win of the season, while Massa finished in 6th. Ferrari were pleased with the F138s race pace and Alonso admitted to having withheld his cars full pace during the race, in Bahrain, the F138 received more improvements to the cars aero package. Alonso qualified 3rd and Massa managed 6th on the harder tyre compound, in the race, Alonso dropped down the order due to a repeated malfunction of his DRS while Massa picked up two punctures, resulting in finishes of 8th and 15th respectively.
In Spain, both F138s seemed highly competitive during practice sessions but that did not transfer into an improved single lap pace during qualifying. Alonso qualified 5th and Massa posted the 6th best time, however, in the race, Ferrari went for a four pit-stop strategy for both cars which was the optimal strategy for a sustained pace and reasonable tyre conservation for the F138. Having passed Räikkönen and Hamilton impressively in the corner of the first lap, Alonso dominated the race. In qualifying, however, managed only the 6th best time while Massa did not compete at all due to the team not managing to repair the car on time which resulted in him having to start 23rd
Shell Oil Company
Shell Oil Company is the United States-based subsidiary of Royal Dutch Shell, a multinational oil major of Anglo-Dutch origins, which is amongst the largest oil companies in the world. Approximately 22,000 Shell employees are based in the U. S, the U. S. head office is in Houston, Texas. Shell is the leader through approximately 25,000 Shell-branded gas stations in the U. S. which serve as Shells most visible public presence. At its gas stations Shell provides diesel fuel, gasoline and LPG, Shell products include oils and car services as well as exploration and refining of petroleum products. The Shell Oil Refinery in Martinez, the first Shell refinery in the United States, supplies Shell, Shell gasolines previously included the RU2000 and SU2000 lines but they have been superseded by the V-Power line. In 1997, Shell and Texaco entered into two refining/marketing joint ventures, one combined their Midwestern and Western operations and was known as Equilon. The other, known as Motiva, combined the Eastern and Gulf Coast operations of Shell Oil and Star Enterprise, after Texaco merged with Chevron in 2001, Shell purchased Texacos shares in the joint ventures.
In the year 2016, Shell Nederland Raffinaderij BV said that it has started a new unit at the large Pernis refinery in Rotterdam. Until the mid-1980s Shells business in the United States was substantially independent, limited direct involvement from the main office in The Hague and having its stock Shell Oil traded on the New York Stock Exchange were factors.7 billion. Despite the acquisition, Shell Oil remained an independent business. This was due in part to legal reasons as Royal Dutch Shell feared that there could be onerous liability problems if a closer control of Shell Oils affairs was exercised by the parent company. One consequence of independence was that the Shell logo used in the U. S. was slightly different from that used in the rest of the world. In the 1980s Shell Oils independence began to erode as the parent company took a more hands-on approach in running the business. The logo used in the United States is the same as used elsewhere since June 1,1998. Aera Energy —joint venture with ExxonMobil operating in California, Motiva Enterprises —joint venture with Saudi Refining.
Shell Development Emeryville —research facility that operated from 1928–1966 in California, pennzoil Shell Puget Sound Refinery, Washington, was fined $291,000 from 2006 to 2010 for violations of the Clean Air Act making it the second most-fined violator in the Pacific Northwest. As of 2011, it was listed as high priority violator since 2008, in 2008, a lawsuit was filed against Shell Oil Company for alleged Clean Air Act violation. Shell Deer Park facility,20 miles east of Houston, was the nations eighth-largest oil refinery, the facility was the second largest source of air pollution in Harris County, which ranked among the lowest in the nation in several measures of air quality
A tire or tyre is a ring-shaped vehicle component that covers the wheels rim to protect it and enable better vehicle performance. Most tires, such as those for automobiles and bicycles, provide traction between the vehicle and the road providing a flexible cushion that absorbs shock. The materials of modern tires are synthetic rubber, natural rubber and wire, along with carbon black. They consist of a tread and a body, the tread provides traction while the body provides containment for a quantity of compressed air. Before rubber was developed, the first versions of tires were bands of metal fitted around wooden wheels to prevent wear and tear. Pneumatic tires are used on many types of vehicles, including cars, motorcycles, trucks, heavy equipment, and aircraft. Metal tires are used on locomotives and railcars, and solid rubber tires are still used in various non-automotive applications, such as some casters, lawnmowers. The etymology of tire is that the word is a form of attire. The spelling tyre does not appear until the 1840s when the English began shrink fitting railway car wheels with malleable iron, traditional publishers continued using tire.
The Times newspaper in Britain was still using tire as late as 1905, the spelling tyre began to be commonly used in the 19th century for pneumatic tires in the UK. However, over the course of the 20th century, tyre became established as the standard British spelling, the earliest tires were bands of leather, placed on wooden wheels, used on carts and wagons. The tire would be heated in a fire, placed over the wheel and quenched, causing the metal to contract. A skilled worker, known as a wheelwright, carried out this work, the outer ring served to tie the wheel segments together for use, providing a wear-resistant surface to the perimeter of the wheel. The word tire thus emerged as a variant spelling to refer to the bands used to tie wheels. The first patent for what appears to be a standard pneumatic tire appeared in 1847 lodged by the Scottish inventor Robert William Thomson, this never went into production. The first practical pneumatic tire was made in 1888 on May Street, Belfast, by Scots-born John Boyd Dunlop and it was an effort to prevent the headaches of his 10-year-old son Johnnie, while riding his tricycle on rough pavements.
His doctor, Sir John Fagan, had prescribed cycling as an exercise for the boy, Fagan participated in designing the first pneumatic tires. In Dunlops tire patent specification dated 31 October 1888, his interest is only in its use in cycles, in September 1890, he was made aware of an earlier development but the company kept the information to itself
Bruno Senna Lalli is a Brazilian professional racing driver currently racing for Aston Martin in the FIA World Endurance Championship. He is the nephew of the late Ayrton Senna, three-time Formula One world champion, Senna raced in Formula One from 2010–12. He made his driving for Hispania Racing in 2010, raced for Renault from August 2011 as a replacement for Nick Heidfeld. Between 2014–16, he drove for Mahindra Racing in Formula E and his mother is Ayrtons older sister, Viviane. His father, Flávio Lalli, died in a crash in 1996. The colour scheme of Brunos helmet is a modified version of that used by his uncle Ayrton Senna. Born in São Paulo, he was first taught the skills of racing by his grandfather Milton da Silva at the age of five. Bruno raced go-karts against Ayrton on the farm, and Ayrton regarded his nephews potential very highly. When leaving McLaren at the end of 1993, Ayrton said, Ayrtons death while driving a Williams at the 1994 San Marino Grand Prix, brought Brunos own racing career to an abrupt halt.
Despite these setbacks including the death of his father in a accident in 1996. At Imola in 2004, however, on the 10th anniversary of his uncles death, Senna drove the car at the 2004 Brazilian Grand Prix meeting in São Paulo, at Interlagos, where Ayrton had won in 1991 and 1993. Ayrtons McLaren team mate from 1990 to 1992, Gerhard Berger is a friend of the Senna family and has advised Senna on his career. Sennas sister, meanwhile, has managed his affairs, in 2004, Bruno competed in six races of the Formula BMW UK series for Carlin Motorsport, scoring six points. His results included three podium finishes in the last seven races of the season, as he finished tenth in the final standings, in 2006 he stayed with the team and finished third in the series standings behind champion and teammate Mike Conway and Oliver Jarvis, taking five victories. He won the two races of the series at Oulton Park in the wet. He again won the first race at Donington Park and won the race at Mugello in Italy. Senna had a crash during the first race of round five of the series at Snetterton.
On lap 2, he and Hitech Racings Salvador Durán clashed wheels on the Revett Straight at nearly 150 mph, Sennas car took off just before the bridge, and may have even clipped it, while cartwheeling through the air
A transmission is a machine in a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power. Often the term refers simply to the gearbox that uses gears and gear trains to provide speed. In British English, the term refers to the whole drivetrain, including clutch, prop shaft, differential. In American English, the term more specifically to the gearbox alone. The most common use is in vehicles, where the transmission adapts the output of the internal combustion engine to the drive wheels. Such engines need to operate at a high rotational speed, which is inappropriate for starting, stopping. The transmission reduces the engine speed to the slower wheel speed. Transmissions are used on bicycles, fixed machines. Often, a transmission has multiple gear ratios with the ability to switch between them as speed varies and this switching may be done manually or automatically. Directional control may be provided, single-ratio transmissions exist, which simply change the speed and torque of motor output.
The output of the transmission is transmitted via the driveshaft to one or more differentials, while a differential may provide gear reduction, its primary purpose is to permit the wheels at either end of an axle to rotate at different speeds as it changes the direction of rotation. Conventional gear/belt transmissions are not the mechanism for speed/torque adaptation. Alternative mechanisms include torque converters and power transformation, automatic transmissions use a valve body to shift gears using fluid pressures in conjunction with an ecm. Early transmissions included the right-angle drives and other gearing in windmills, horse-powered devices, and steam engines, in support of pumping, most modern gearboxes are used to increase torque while reducing the speed of a prime mover output shaft. This means that the shaft of a gearbox rotates at a slower rate than the input shaft. A gearbox can be set up to do the opposite and provide an increase in speed with a reduction of torque. Some of the simplest gearboxes merely change the rotational direction of power transmission.
Many typical automobile transmissions include the ability to select one of several gear ratios, in this case, most of the gear ratios are used to slow down the output speed of the engine and increase torque
Kinetic energy recovery system
A kinetic energy recovery system is an automotive system for recovering a moving vehicles kinetic energy under braking. The recovered energy is stored in a reservoir for use under acceleration. Xtrac and Flybrid are both licensees of Torotraks technologies, which employ a small and sophisticated ancillary gearbox incorporating a continuously variable transmission, the CPC-KERS is similar as it forms part of the driveline assembly. However, the whole mechanism including the flywheel sits entirely in the vehicle’s hub, in the CPC-KERS, a differential replaces the CVT and transfers torque between the flywheel, drive wheel and road wheel. The first of these systems to be revealed was the Flybrid and this system weighs 24 kg and has an energy capacity of 400 kJ after allowing for internal losses. A maximum power boost of 60 kW for 6.67 seconds is available, the 240 mm diameter flywheel weighs 5.0 kg and revolves at up to 64,500 rpm. Maximum torque at the flywheel is 18 Nm, and the torque at the connection is correspondingly higher for the change in speed.
The system occupies a volume of 13 litres, already in 2006, a first KERS system based on supercapacitors has been studied at EPFL in the framework of the development of the Formula S2000. A 180kJ system has developed in collaboration with other institutes. Two minor incidents were reported during testing of various KERS systems in 2008, the first occurred when the Red Bull Racing team tested their KERS battery for the first time in July, it malfunctioned and caused a fire scare that led to the teams factory being evacuated. The second was less than a week when a BMW Sauber mechanic was given a shock when he touched Christian Kliens KERS-equipped car during a test at the Jerez circuit. Formula One has stated that they support responsible solutions to the environmental challenges. Teams began testing systems in 2008, energy can either be stored as energy or as electrical energy. With the introduction of KERS in the 2009 season, only four teams used it at point in the season, Renault, BMW. Eventually, during the season, Renault and BMW stopped using the system, vodafone McLaren Mercedes became the first team to win an F1 GP using a KERS equipped car when Lewis Hamilton won the Hungarian Grand Prix on July 26,2009.
Their second KERS equipped car finished fifth, at the following race, Lewis Hamilton became the first driver to take pole position with a KERS car, his team mate, Heikki Kovalainen qualifying second. This was the first instance of an all KERS front row, on August 30,2009, Kimi Räikkönen won the Belgian Grand Prix with his KERS equipped Ferrari. It was the first time that KERS contributed directly to a victory, with second placed Giancarlo Fisichella claiming Actually
Circuito de Jerez
Circuito de Jerez, formerly known as Circuito Permanente de Jerez, is a 4.428 km racing circuit located close to the city of Jerez de la Frontera, deep within the sherry-producing south of Spain. The project was led by the Spanish engineer Manuel Medina Lara, the circuit opened on 8 December 1985. During 1986 the circuit hosted the first international event in Spain in March. The circuits relatively remote location hindered significant spectator turnout, although up to 125,000 can be accommodated, because of this, F1 moved to Barcelona following the 1991 race. Jerez hosted the 1997 European Grand Prix, which was the decider between Michael Schumacher and Jacques Villeneuve, who collided during the race. This incident resulted in the track being banned from hosting a Grand Prix. It has never hosted another Grand Prix, but remains one of the most popular venues for winter testing, during 2005, the track was resurfaced. It was expected that the Champ Car World Series would race there in 2008 until the series was cancelled early in the year after merging with the IndyCar Series.
On 2 May 2013, it was announced that the corner would be renamed after Spanish MotoGP world champion Jorge Lorenzo
Rear mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout
In automotive design, a RMR or Rear Mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is one in which the rear wheels are driven by an engine placed just in front of them, behind the passenger compartment. In contrast to the rear-engined RR layout, the center of mass of the engine is in front of the rear axle and this layout is typically chosen for its low moment of inertia and relatively favorable weight distribution. The layout has a tendency toward being heavier in the rear than the front, since there is little weight over the front wheels, under acceleration, the front of the car is prone to lift and cause understeer. Most rear-engine layouts have historically used in smaller vehicles, because the weight of the engine at the rear has an adverse effect on a larger cars handling, making it tail-heavy. It is felt that the low polar inertia is crucial in selection of this layout, the mid-engined layout uses up central space, making it impractical for any but two-seater sports cars. However, some use this layout, with a small.
This makes it possible to move the right to the front of the vehicle. In modern racing cars, RMR is the configuration and is usually synonymous with mid engine. Due to its distribution and resulting favorable vehicle dynamics, this layout is heavily employed in open-wheel Formula racing cars as well as purpose-built sports racing cars. This configuration was common in very small engined 1950s microcars, because of successes in racing, the RMR platform has been popular for road-going sports cars despite the inherent challenges of design and lack of cargo space. The 1900 NW Rennzweier was one of the first race cars with mid-engine, other known historical examples include the 1923 Benz Tropfenwagen. It was based on a design named the Rumpler Tropfenwagen in 1921 made by Edmund von Rumpler. The Benz Tropfenwagen was designed by Ferdinand Porsche along with Willy Walb and it raced in 1923 and 1924 and was most successful in the Italian Grand Prix in Monza where it stood fourth. Later, Ferdinand Porsche used mid-engine design concept towards the Auto Union Grand Prix cars of the 1930s which became the first winning RMR racers and they were decades before their time, although MR Miller Specials raced a few times at Indianapolis between 1939 and 1947.
The 718 followed similarly in 1958, but it was not until the late 1950s that RMR reappeared in Grand Prix races in the form of the Cooper-Climax, soon followed by cars from BRM and Lotus. Ferrari and Porsche soon made Grand Prix RMR attempts with less initial success, the mid-engined layout was brought back to Indianapolis in 1961 by the Cooper Car Company with Jack Brabham running as high as third and finishing ninth. Cooper did not return, but from 1963 on British built mid-engined cars from constructors like Brabham and Lola competed regularly and in 1965 Lotus won Indy with their Type 38. The first rear mid-engined road car was the 1962 Bonnet / Matra Djet, nearly 1700 were built until 1967
Felipe Massa is a Brazilian Formula One racing driver who currently drives for Williams. Massa started his career in go-karting from the age of eight continuing in national and regional championships for seven years and he moved into Formula Chevrolet and claimed the championship. He moved in Italian Formula Renault in 2000 and won the title along with the European championship, Massa went into Euro Formula 3000 taking the championship. Massa started his Formula One career with Sauber before joining Scuderia Ferrari as a test driver for 2003, Massa won three races in 2007, finishing 4th in the Drivers Championship. He finished second in the 2008 Drivers World Championship after a title battle with Lewis Hamilton. At the 2009 Hungarian Grand Prix, Massa was injured by a suspension spring off the Brawn GP car of Rubens Barrichello, Massa was forced to miss the rest of the season but returned in 2010. Massa suffered a dip in form in 2011 scoring no podiums, Massa contributed to Ferraris Constructors Championships in 2007 and 2008 and was under contract to race for the team until the end of the 2013 season.
On 10 September 2013, he confirmed he would be leaving Ferrari at the end of the 2013 season, Massa replaced Pastor Maldonado alongside Valtteri Bottas at Williams from 2014. On 1 September 2016, Massa announced that he would retire from Formula One at the end of the season, however, he returned for the 2017 season when Valtteri Bottas joined Mercedes. Born in São Paulo, Massa is a Brazilian whose grandfather emigrated from Cerignola, Massa began karting when he was 8 years old, finishing fourth in his first season. He continued in national and international championships for 7 years, and in 1998 moved into Formula Chevrolet, during the following season, he won 3 of the 10 races and claimed the championship. In 2000, he moved to Europe to compete in the Italian Formula Renault series and he could have moved to Formula Three, but instead chose the Euro Formula 3000, where he won 6 of the 8 races and the championship. He was offered a Formula 1 test with the Sauber team and he drove for Alfa Romeo in the European Touring Car Championship as a guest driver.
In his rookie year in Formula 1, Massa was paired with 1999 International Formula 3000 champion Nick Heidfeld and he proved he was a competitive driver, but made several mistakes, including spinning off the track several times. Nevertheless, Massa scored 4 championship points in his first season and he suffered a one race suspension late in the season, forcing him to miss the United States Grand Prix. Heinz-Harald Frentzen, Saubers former driver, drove for Massa in his place, Massa returned to the drivers seat for the Japanese Grand Prix, but Sauber confirmed that Frentzen would partner Heidfeld in 2003, leaving Massa without a race seat. Instead, he spent a year with Saubers engine suppliers, Sauber re-signed Massa for the 2004 season. In 2004, he scored 12 of Saubers 34 points, his best result being a place at the Belgian Grand Prix
Automotive design is the profession involved in the development of the appearance, and to some extent the ergonomics, of motor vehicles or more specifically road vehicles. This most commonly refers to automobiles but refers to motorcycles, buses, the functional design and development of a modern motor vehicle is typically done by a large team from many different disciplines included within automotive engineering. Automotive design in context is primarily concerned with developing the visual appearance or aesthetics of the vehicle. Automotive design is practiced by designers who usually have an art background, the task of the design team is usually split into three main aspects, exterior design, interior design, and color and trim design. Graphic design is an aspect of design, this is generally shared amongst the design team as the lead designer sees fit. Design focuses not only on the outer shape of automobile parts. The aesthetic value will need to correspond to ergonomic functionality and utility features as well, though not all the new vehicular gadgets are to be designated as factory standard items, some of them may be integral to determining the future course of any specific vehicular models.
The stylist responsible for the design of the exterior of the vehicle develops the proportions, Exterior design is first done by a series of digital or manual drawings. Progressively, drawings that are more detailed are executed and approved by appropriate layers of management, Clay and or digital models are developed from, and along with the drawings. The data from these models are used to create a full sized mock-up of the final design. With three- and five-axis CNC milling machines, the model is first designed in a computer program and carved using the machine. Even in times of high-class 3d software and virtual models on power walls, here the emphasis is on ergonomics and the comfort of the passengers. The procedure here is the same as with exterior design, the color and trim designer is responsible for the research and development of all interior and exterior colors and materials used on a vehicle. These include paints, fabric designs, grains, headliner, wood trim, contrast and pattern must be carefully combined to give the vehicle a unique interior environment experience.
Designers work closely with the exterior and interior designers, designers draw inspiration from other design disciplines such as, industrial design, home furnishing and sometimes product design. Specific research is done into global trends to design for two to three model years in the future. Trend boards are created from research in order to keep track of design influences as they relate to the automotive industry. The designer uses this information to develop themes and concepts that are further refined and tested on the vehicle models