In motorsport the pole position is the position at the inside of the front row at the start of a racing event. This position is given to the vehicle and driver with the best qualifying time in the trials before the race. This number-one qualifying driver is referred to as the pole sitter, the fastest qualifier was not necessarily the designated pole-sitter. Different sanctioning bodies in motor sport employ different qualifying formats in designating who starts from pole position, often, a starting grid is derived either by current rank in the championship, or based on finishing position of a previous race. In contrast to contemporary motorsport, where only a participant is designated pole-sitter, prior to World War II. The term has its origins in horse racing, in which the fastest qualifying horse would be placed on the part of the course. Originally in Grand Prix racing, grid positions, including pole, were determined by lottery among the drivers, prior to the inception of the Formula 1 World Championship, the first instance of grid positions being determined by qualifying times was at the 1933 Monaco Grand Prix.
Since then, the FIA have introduced many different qualifying systems to F1, between 1996 and 2006, the FIA made 6 significant changes to the qualifying procedure, each with the intention of making the battle for pole more interesting to an F1 viewer at home. Traditionally, pole was always occupied by the fastest driver due to low-fuel qualifying, the race-fuel qualifying era between 2003 and 2009 briefly changed this. Despite the changing formats, drivers attempting pole were required between 2003 and 2009 to do qualifying laps with the fuel they would use to start the race the next day. An underfuelled slower car and driver would therefore be able to take pole ahead of a better, in this situation, pole was not always advantageous to have in the race as the under-fueled driver would have to pit for more fuel before their rivals. With the race refueling ban introduced, low-fuel qualifying returned and these decisions are no longer in play. Since the reintroduction of the rule in 2011, this applies to the quickest first session time.
Since 2014, the FIA has awarded a trophy to the driver who wins the most pole positions in the season, indicates that the driver won the World Championship in the same season. IndyCar uses four formats for qualifying, one for most oval tracks, one for Iowa Speedway, one for the Indianapolis 500, and another for road and street circuits. Oval qualifying is almost like the Indianapolis 500, with two laps, instead of four, averaged together with one attempt, although with just one session. At Iowa, each car takes one qualifying lap, and the top six cars advance to the race for the pole position. The result of the race determines positions 1–10
1999 British Grand Prix
The 1999 British Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 11 July 1999 at the Silverstone Circuit near Silverstone, England. It was the race of the 1999 Formula One season. The 60-lap race was won by McLaren driver David Coulthard after he started from third position, eddie Irvine finished second for the Ferrari team and Williams driver Ralf Schumacher came in third. Jacques Villeneuve and Alessandro Zanardi both stalled on the grid causing a race restart, while the red flags were out, Michael Schumacher crashed at Stowe corner due to brake failure, breaking his leg. This would keep him out of Formula One until the Malaysian Grand Prix, following a difficult season Damon Hill performed well to finish 5th in his home race and seemed happy enough to carry on for the rest of the season. He had led the race for a lap, which was the last time he would lead a Grand Prix. This was Toranosuke Takagis final classified Formula One race finish and he failed to finish each of his subsequent eight races.
Note, Only the top five positions are included for both sets of standings
The Ferrari F1-2000 was a Formula One racing car designed by Rory Byrne for the 2000 Formula One season. The car was a development of the F300 and F399 from the previous two seasons, using the same basic gearbox and a new engine with a wider V-angle. This new wider angle improved and lowered the centre of gravity of the car and it featured improved aerodynamics, which put it on par with that years McLaren MP4/15. Michael Schumacher drove the F1-2000 to his third World Drivers Title and it defended Ferraris constructors crown, and signified the start of the teams dominance throughout the first half of the decade
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
1979 Formula One season
The 1979 Formula One season was the 33rd season of FIA Formula One motor racing. The season included three non-championship Formula One races, Jody Scheckter of Scuderia Ferrari won the 1979 World Championship of F1 Drivers while Scuderia Ferrari won 1979 International Cup for F1 Constructors. Gilles Villeneuve made it a 1-2 for Ferrari in the championship, Alan Jones finished the season strongly for Williams, finishing third in the championship and with teammate Clay Regazzoni scoring Williams first ever Grand Prix win as a constructor. Scheckters title was Ferraris last drivers title for 21 years, before Michael Schumacher won five titles for the team between 2000 and 2004. The following drivers and constructors contested the 1979 World Championship of F1 Drivers, the dominant Lotus team signed Carlos Reutemann from Ferrari to replace Peterson. Ferrari took on Jody Scheckter to fill the gap, and the Wolf team hired James Hunt in his place, like in previous years, the opening race of the season was in Argentina at the Buenos Aires circuit located on the outskirts of the capital city.
Four other cars were collected and the race was red-flagged, and aside from Piquets injury, the race restarted after the mess was cleared, and this time Depailler set off into the lead with Jean-Pierre Jariers Tyrrell and Watson following him. But soon Laffite was up to second, and a few he took the lead from Depailler. The Ligiers drove away, whereas Jarier struggled and dropped down the order with engine troubles, Laffite went on and won comfortably, but teammate Depailler suffered a misfire and dropped to fourth, leaving Reutemann second and Watson third. The drivers stayed in South America for the round which was held in Brazil, returning to the 5-mile Interlagos circuit in São Paulo. The Ligiers were in top form again, Laffite taking pole comfortably with Depailler alongside, Andretti however soon retired with a misfire, and so Reutemann was back in third. There was a break between the Brazilian and South African GPs. Jabouille led at the start with Villeneuve and Scheckter following, when the race restarted, most drivers were on wets, but Scheckter and a few others opted for slicks.
Villeneuve led at the restart and built up a gap, but the track dried and it was Villeneuve who won the race with Scheckter close behind, and Jarier taking the final spot on the podium. Five weeks after the South African race, the field went to the United States to compete at the gruelling Long Beach street circuit near Los Angeles, qualifying saw Villeneuve taking his first career pole position with Reutemann alongside him on the front row ahead of Scheckter. Before the race started, Reutemann suffered a failure and had to start from the pits. After a string of failed attempts to start the race due to different reasons, the race started with Villeneuve leading Depailler and Scheckter. As Villeneuve set about building a gap and Depailler battled for second, towards the end, Jarier began to drop back rapidly with a vibration, so Depailler finally got third but not for long as Alan Joness Williams was past him
Internal combustion engine
An internal combustion engine is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. In an internal combustion engine the expansion of the high-temperature and high-pressure gases produced by combustion applies direct force to some component of the engine, the force is applied typically to pistons, turbine blades, rotor or a nozzle. This force moves the component over a distance, transforming chemical energy into mechanical energy. The first commercially successful internal combustion engine was created by Étienne Lenoir around 1859, firearms are a form of internal combustion engine. Working fluids can be air, hot water, pressurized water or even liquid sodium, ICEs are usually powered by energy-dense fuels such as gasoline or diesel, liquids derived from fossil fuels. While there are many applications, most ICEs are used in mobile applications and are the dominant power supply for vehicles such as cars, aircraft.
Typically an ICE is fed with fossil fuels like natural gas or petroleum products such as gasoline, there is a growing usage of renewable fuels like biodiesel for compression ignition engines and bioethanol or methanol for spark ignition engines. Hydrogen is sometimes used, and can be made from fossil fuels or renewable energy. Various scientists and engineers contributed to the development of internal combustion engines, in 1791, John Barber developed a turbine. In 1794 Thomas Mead patented a gas engine, in 1794 Robert Street patented an internal combustion engine, which was the first to use liquid fuel, and built an engine around that time. In 1798, John Stevens built the first American internal combustion engine, in 1807, Swiss engineer François Isaac de Rivaz built an internal combustion engine ignited by electric spark. In 1823, Samuel Brown patented the first internal combustion engine to be applied industrially, in 1860, Belgian Jean Joseph Etienne Lenoir produced a gas-fired internal combustion engine.
In 1864, Nikolaus Otto patented the first atmospheric gas engine, in 1872, American George Brayton invented the first commercial liquid-fuelled internal combustion engine. In 1876, Nikolaus Otto, working with Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach, patented the compressed charge, in 1879, Karl Benz patented a reliable two-stroke gas engine. In 1892, Rudolf Diesel developed the first compressed charge, compression ignition engine, in 1926, Robert Goddard launched the first liquid-fueled rocket. In 1939, the Heinkel He 178 became the worlds first jet aircraft, at one time, the word engine meant any piece of machinery — a sense that persists in expressions such as siege engine. A motor is any machine that produces mechanical power, electric motors are not referred to as Engines, combustion engines are often referred to as motors. In boating an internal combustion engine that is installed in the hull is referred to as an engine, reciprocating piston engines are by far the most common power source for land and water vehicles, including automobiles, ships and to a lesser extent, locomotives
Autocourse is a series of annuals covering motor racing, and Formula One in particular. The annuals cover a period of the sports history, from 1951 to the present day. The first edition of Autocourse appeared in 1951, as a review of motorsport. Its aims were to provide the most complete data obtainable with interesting and authentic information, settle arguments and provide countless hours of interesting study, the first Autocourse in annual form was published in 1959 as a paperback. The first hardback annual was 1961/62, starting in 1966, the annuals editor has chosen the Top Ten F1 drivers of each season. In 1991, the Formula One Review was changed into a team-by-team format, in 2000, Autocourse celebrated its 50th anniversary. In 2005, Bryn Williams took on the publishing of the annual with Crash Media Group, in late 2009, CMG confirmed a deal to sell on the title to Icon Publishing. The front cover features a photograph of that years F1 championship-winning driver in his car. In 1976, a drawing by Michael Turner was used, in 1994 and 1995, three photos were used on the front cover.
The interior title page features the runner-up, or another photograph of note. This has been written by the newly crowned champion since 1963 and is accompanied by their signature and this is a page or so of material which summarises the year in motor racing from the editors point of view. Since 1988, the editor has been Alan Henry, his predecessor was Maurice Hamilton. For the 50th anniversary edition in 2000, the publisher, Richard Poulter, the annual states that these top ten F1 drivers are chosen by the editor, taking into account their racing performances and the equipment at their disposal. This has been a feature of Autocourse since 1966, drivers who do not complete the whole season are not usually eligible to be included in the list, although exceptions have been made. The 2008 edition included obituaries for Phil Hill, Ove Andersson, Paul Newman and Jean-Marie Balestre, among a few others. As Autocourse is published before the end of the year, persons who died at the end of the year are listed in next publication, there are usually some in-depth articles on various F1 topics, e. g. rule changes.
These are usually written by well-known motor racing journalists, for example Nigel Roebuck and this is the main section of the annual. Before 1991, this consisted of an analysis of the season as a whole, followed by technical reviews of each team
Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Germanys capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, other major cities include Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, in 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire.
After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic, the establishment of the national socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and the Holocaust. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in 1990, the country was reunified. In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP. As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods. Germany is a country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection. Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in 1957. It is part of the Schengen Area, and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999, Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, and the OECD.
The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz popular, derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- people, the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a mine in Schöningen where three 380, 000-year-old wooden javelins were unearthed
The Ferrari F300 was a Formula One car designed by Rory Byrne for Scuderia Ferrari Marlboro to use in the 1998 season. It was powered by a 3.0 V10 engine and designed around a track as mandated by the FIA in a series of regulation changes for that season. The Ferrari F300 was a competitive and reliable car, however it was aerodynamically inferior to the McLaren MP4/13. Despite this, Michael Schumacher battled his way to place in the world championship behind Mika Häkkinen. Ferrari finished as runners-up in the Constructors Championship, the car was an excellent base for the dominance which Ferrari would achieve in the following seasons. Having stalled the car on the grid in the finale at Suzuka definitely made sure the title was lost, even a podium would have been in vain as Häkkinen won that race. Häkkinen finished with 100 points compared with 86 for Schumacher, eddie Irvine finished fourth in the championship, being the second-placed finisher in both 1-2s Ferrari scored in France and Italy.
Schumacher won six races but Irvine once again did not record a single win, fourth was his highest championship finish to that date though and he collected many podium finishes over the course of the campaign. As with all Formula 1 cars, the F300 was heavily and consistently revised during the 1998 season, at the Argentine Grand Prix, a wider front tyre from Goodyear was introduced which significantly improved the handling of the car. X-wings were introduced at the San Marino Grand Prix, but were banned due to safety reasons. A longer wheelbase version of the car was introduced for the German and Belgian Grands Prix, AUTOCOURSE 1998-99, Alan, Hazleton Publishing Ltd
A podium is a platform used to raise something to a short distance above its surroundings. It derives from the Greek πόδι, in architecture a building can rest on a large podium. Podia can be used to people, for instance the conductor of an orchestra stands on a podium as do many public speakers. Common parlance has shown a use of podium in American English to describe a lectern. In sports, a type of podium is used to honor the top three competitors in such as the Olympics. In the Olympics a three-level podium is used, the highest level in the center holds the gold medalist. To their right is a lower platform for the silver medalist. At the 2016 Summer Games in Rio, the Silver, in many sports, results in the top three of a competition are often referred to as podiums or podium finishes. In some individual sports, podiums is a statistic, referring to the number of top three results an athlete has achieved over the course of a season or career. The word may be used, chiefly in the United States, as a verb, to podium, meaning to attain a podium place.
Podia were first used at the 1930 British Empire Games in Hamilton and subsequently during the 1932 Summer Olympic Games in Los Angeles, the winner stands in the middle, with the second placed driver to his right and the third place driver to his left. Also present are the selected by the race organisers who will present the trophies. In many forms of motorsport, the three top-placed drivers in a stand on a podium for the trophy ceremony. The recordings are versions of the national anthems, ensuring the podium ceremony does not exceeded its allocated time. Should a driver experience problems with his car on a lap in Formula One. The drivers will generally refrain from spraying if a fatality or major accident occurs during the event. Also, in countries where alcohol sponsorship or drinking is prohibited, alcoholic beverages may be replaced by other drinks, the NASCAR Sprint Cup Series, the highest level of stock car racing in the United States, does not use a podium in post-game events or statistics.
Instead, the team celebrates in victory lane, and top-five
1999 Malaysian Grand Prix
The 1999 Malaysian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 17 October 1999 at the Sepang International Circuit near Sepang, Malaysia. It was the race of the 1999 Formula One season. The 56-lap race was won by Eddie Irvine driving a Ferrari car from a second position start and this was the first Malaysian Grand Prix since a Formula Holden event in 1995, but the first time at Formula One world championship level. Michael Schumacher returned to Formula One having recovered from his broken leg, on lap four Schumacher slowed and allowed Irvine to pass him and proceeded to block Coulthard and the others. But on the next lap Coulthard forced his way past the Ferrari and he was challenging for the lead when his car broke down. Back in second place, Schumacher slowed down again to allow Irvine to get an advantage, needing to stay ahead of Häkkinen during the pit stops, Michael accelerated the pace in order to build a lead. Realising this, McLaren took a risk and they gave Häkkinen half a tank of fuel and hoped it would be enough to get him out of the pits ahead of Schumacher.
Schumacher blocked Häkkinen again and the gap to Irvine went up to around 20secs, Irvine did not have a big enough advantage to stay ahead at his second stop but Ferrari was sure that Häkkinen would have to stop again. He did, emerging in fourth place behind Herbert, Schumacher slowed again to allow Irvine to take the lead. Häkkinen could do no more than force his way past Herbert to take third place and it was Herberts final point-scoring finish of his career. Immediately after the race the two Ferraris were disqualified due to an infringement on their bargeboards and this meant that Mika Häkkinen and McLaren were effectively handed their respective championships by default. However, Ferrari appealed against the FIAs decision in court and both drivers were subsequently reinstated, in the constructors championship, Ferrari passed McLaren for the lead with a gap of four points. Bold text indicates who still has a chance of becoming World Champion. Note, Only the top five positions are included for both sets of standings, first race, Malaysian Grand Prix, Sepang International Circuit.
Statistics, 25th Fastest lap for Bridgestone, jarno Trulli suffered an engine failure on the formation lap. Last points, Stewart Grand Prix, Johnny Herbert This was the race in a row in which a driver scored his last Grand Prix victory. Heinz-Harald Frentzen took his last win two races prior while Johnny Herbert took his last win at the preceding race