A transmission is a machine in a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power. Often the term refers simply to the gearbox that uses gears and gear trains to provide speed. In British English, the term refers to the whole drivetrain, including clutch, prop shaft, differential. In American English, the term more specifically to the gearbox alone. The most common use is in vehicles, where the transmission adapts the output of the internal combustion engine to the drive wheels. Such engines need to operate at a high rotational speed, which is inappropriate for starting, stopping. The transmission reduces the engine speed to the slower wheel speed. Transmissions are used on bicycles, fixed machines. Often, a transmission has multiple gear ratios with the ability to switch between them as speed varies and this switching may be done manually or automatically. Directional control may be provided, single-ratio transmissions exist, which simply change the speed and torque of motor output.
The output of the transmission is transmitted via the driveshaft to one or more differentials, while a differential may provide gear reduction, its primary purpose is to permit the wheels at either end of an axle to rotate at different speeds as it changes the direction of rotation. Conventional gear/belt transmissions are not the mechanism for speed/torque adaptation. Alternative mechanisms include torque converters and power transformation, automatic transmissions use a valve body to shift gears using fluid pressures in conjunction with an ecm. Early transmissions included the right-angle drives and other gearing in windmills, horse-powered devices, and steam engines, in support of pumping, most modern gearboxes are used to increase torque while reducing the speed of a prime mover output shaft. This means that the shaft of a gearbox rotates at a slower rate than the input shaft. A gearbox can be set up to do the opposite and provide an increase in speed with a reduction of torque. Some of the simplest gearboxes merely change the rotational direction of power transmission.
Many typical automobile transmissions include the ability to select one of several gear ratios, in this case, most of the gear ratios are used to slow down the output speed of the engine and increase torque
1993 European Grand Prix
The 1993 European Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 11 April 1993 at Donington Park. It was the round of the 1993 Formula One season. The race was contested over 76 laps and was won by Ayrton Senna for the McLaren team, ahead of second-placed Damon Hill and third-placed Alain Prost, both driving for the Williams team. The race was the first held under the European Grand Prix title since 1985, after plans to hold an Asian Grand Prix at the Nippon Autopolis in Japan failed to materialise, the first European Grand Prix for eight years was run as the third race of the 1993 season. Donington Park was awarded the race, having unsuccessfully bid to host the British Grand Prix, videogame company Sega sponsored the race and the logo could be seen throughout the Grand Prix and on the podium. Sega had naming rights to the Grand Prix, the Williams cars were 1–2 in qualifying with Prost on pole ahead of Hill, Senna and Andretti. At the start, it was damp and Schumacher blocked Senna, having dropped to fifth, Senna quickly passed Schumacher at the third corner.
He went after Wendlinger, passing him through the Craner Curves with Schumacher, Schumacher went through but Andretti hit Wendlinger and both were out. Senna went after Hill now and took second at McLeans Corner, now Prost was the target and the lead was taken at the penultimate corner – the Melbourne Hairpin. Going into the lap, Senna led Prost, Barrichello, Schumacher. The track began to dry and everyone pitted for dry tyres, Lehto was fifth, having started from the pit lane, but he retired with handling problems on lap 14. Berger took the place but he too retired with suspension problems six laps and it rained again and the leaders now pitted for wets. Schumacher stayed out and was leading but spun off on lap 23 because he was on the wrong tyres, the track began to dry and everyone pitted once again with Senna having a problem and losing 20 seconds. Prost now led Senna, Rubens Barrichello, Derek Warwick and it began to rain and the two Williams stopped for wets while Senna stayed out. It was the decision because it began to dry again.
The Williams stopped yet again for dries, Prost stalled in the pits in his stop and when he rejoined, he was a lap behind and down in fourth. Barrichello was now second but it rained and stopped again and he went to the pits twice and by now Hill was in second, albeit a lap down. Barrichello, had trouble with his pressure and retired
McLaren Racing Limited, competing as McLaren Honda, is a British Formula One team based at the McLaren Technology Centre, Surrey, England. McLaren is best known as a Formula One constructor but has competed in and won the Indianapolis 500. The team is the second oldest active team after Ferrari and they are one of the most successful teams in Formula One history, having won 182 races,12 drivers championships and eight constructors championships. The team is an owned subsidiary of McLaren Technology Group. Further American triumph followed, with Indianapolis 500 wins in McLaren cars for Mark Donohue in 1972, the combination of Prost and Senna was particularly dominant—together they won all but one race in 1988—but their rivalry soured and Prost left for Ferrari. Fellow English team Williams offered the most consistent challenge during this period, however, by the mid-1990s, Honda had withdrawn from Formula One, Senna had moved to Williams, and the team went three seasons without a win. Ron Dennis retired as McLaren team principal in 2009, handing the role to longtime McLaren employee Martin Whitmarsh.
At the end of 2013, after the teams worst season since 2004, McLaren announced in 2013 that they would be using Honda engines from 2015 onwards, replacing Mercedes-Benz. The team raced as McLaren-Honda for the first time since 1992 at the 2015 Australian Grand Prix, Bruce McLaren Motor Racing was founded in 1963 by New Zealander Bruce McLaren. Bruce was a driver for the British Formula One team Cooper with whom he had won three Grands Prix and come second in the 1960 world championship. In 1964 and 1965, McLaren were based in New Malden, during this period, Bruce drove for his team in sports car races in the United Kingdom and North America and entered the 1965 Tasman Series with Phil Hill, but did not win it. He continued to drive in Grands Prix for Cooper, but judging that teams form to be waning, Bruce made the teams Grand Prix debut at the 1966 Monaco race. His race ended after nine laps due to an oil leak. Neither car brought great success, the best result being a fourth at Monaco, for 1968, after driving McLarens sole entry for the previous two years, Bruce was joined by 1967 champion and fellow New Zealander Denny Hulme, who was already racing for McLaren in Can-Am.
That years new M7A car, Herds final design for the team, was powered by Cosworths new and soon to be ubiquitous DFV engine, Hulme won the Italian and Canadian Grands Prix in the year, helping the team to second in the constructors championship. The year 1970 started with a place each for Hulme. After his death, Teddy Mayer took over control of the team, Hulme continued with Dan Gurney. Gurney won the first two Can-Am events at Mosport and St. Jovite and placed ninth in the third, but left the team mid-season, and Gethin took over from there
Auto racing is a sport involving the racing of automobiles for competition. Almost as soon as automobiles had been invented, races of various sorts were organised, by the 1930s specialist racing cars had developed. There are now numerous different categories, each with different rules and it was won by the carriage of Isaac Watt Boulton. Internal combustion auto racing events began soon after the construction of the first successful gasoline-fueled automobiles, the first organized contest was on April 28,1887, by the chief editor of Paris publication Le Vélocipède, Monsieur Fossier. It ran 2 kilometres from Neuilly Bridge to the Bois de Boulogne, on July 22,1894, the Parisian magazine Le Petit Journal organized what is considered to be the worlds first motoring competition, from Paris to Rouen. One hundred and two competitors paid a 10-franc entrance fee, the first American automobile race is generally held to be the Thanksgiving Day Chicago Times-Herald race of November 28,1895. Press coverage of the event first aroused significant American interest in the automobile, brooklands, in Surrey, was the first purpose-built motor racing venue, opening in June 1907.
It featured a 4.43 km concrete track with high-speed banked corners, One of the oldest existing purpose-built automobile racing circuits in the United States, still in use, is the 2. 5-mile -long Indianapolis Motor Speedway in Speedway, Indiana. It is the largest capacity venue of any variety worldwide, with a top capacity of some 257. NASCAR was founded by Bill France, Sr. on February 21,1948, the first NASCAR Strictly Stock race ever was held on June 19,1949, at Daytona Beach, Florida. From 1962, sports cars temporarily took a seat to GT cars. From 1972 through 2003, NASCARs premier series was called the Winston Cup Series, the changes that resulted from RJRs involvement, as well as the reduction of the schedule from 48 to 31 races a year, established 1972 as the beginning of NASCARs modern era. The IMSA GT Series evolved into the American Le Mans Series, the European races eventually became the closely related Le Mans Series, both of which mix prototypes and GTs. The best-known variety of racing, Formula One, which hosts the famous Monaco Grand Prix.
In single-seater, the wheels are not covered, and the cars often have aerofoil wings front, in Europe and Asia, open-wheeled racing is commonly referred to as Formula, with appropriate hierarchical suffixes. In North America, the Formula terminology is not followed, the sport is usually arranged to follow an international format, a regional format, and/or a domestic, or country-specific, format. In North America, the used in the National Championship have traditionally been similar though less sophisticated than F1 cars. The series most famous race is the Indianapolis 500, the other major international single-seater racing series is GP2
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
A podium is a platform used to raise something to a short distance above its surroundings. It derives from the Greek πόδι, in architecture a building can rest on a large podium. Podia can be used to people, for instance the conductor of an orchestra stands on a podium as do many public speakers. Common parlance has shown a use of podium in American English to describe a lectern. In sports, a type of podium is used to honor the top three competitors in such as the Olympics. In the Olympics a three-level podium is used, the highest level in the center holds the gold medalist. To their right is a lower platform for the silver medalist. At the 2016 Summer Games in Rio, the Silver, in many sports, results in the top three of a competition are often referred to as podiums or podium finishes. In some individual sports, podiums is a statistic, referring to the number of top three results an athlete has achieved over the course of a season or career. The word may be used, chiefly in the United States, as a verb, to podium, meaning to attain a podium place.
Podia were first used at the 1930 British Empire Games in Hamilton and subsequently during the 1932 Summer Olympic Games in Los Angeles, the winner stands in the middle, with the second placed driver to his right and the third place driver to his left. Also present are the selected by the race organisers who will present the trophies. In many forms of motorsport, the three top-placed drivers in a stand on a podium for the trophy ceremony. The recordings are versions of the national anthems, ensuring the podium ceremony does not exceeded its allocated time. Should a driver experience problems with his car on a lap in Formula One. The drivers will generally refrain from spraying if a fatality or major accident occurs during the event. Also, in countries where alcohol sponsorship or drinking is prohibited, alcoholic beverages may be replaced by other drinks, the NASCAR Sprint Cup Series, the highest level of stock car racing in the United States, does not use a podium in post-game events or statistics.
Instead, the team celebrates in victory lane, and top-five
By using split crankpins or ignoring minor vibrations, any V angle is possible. The 180° configuration is referred to as a flat-twelve engine or a boxer although it is in reality a 180° V since the pistons can. This is not important in a car if all-out performance is the only goal. Since cost and fuel economy are usually important even in luxury and racing cars and it is often used in marine engines where great power is required, and the hull width is limited, but a longer vessel allows faster hull speed. In twin-propeller boats, two V12 engines can be enough to sit side-by-side, while three V12 engines are sometimes used in high-speed three-propeller configurations. Large, fast cruise ships can have six or more V12 engines, after World War II, the compact, more powerful, and vibration-free turboprop and turbojet engines replaced the V12 in aircraft applications. The first V-type engine was built in 1889 by Daimler, to a design by Wilhelm Maybach, by 1903 V8 engines were being produced for motor boat racing by the Société Antoinette to designs by Léon Levavasseur, building on experience gained with in-line four-cylinder engines.
In 1904, the Putney Motor Works completed a new V12 marine racing engine—the first V12 engine produced for any purpose, a single camshaft mounted in the central V operated the valves directly. As in many engines, the camshaft could be slid longitudinally to engage a second set of cams. Starting is by pumping a charge into each cylinder and switching on the trembler coils, a sliding camshaft gave direct reversing. The camshaft has fluted webs and main bearings in graduated thickness from the largest at the flywheel end, displacing 1,120 cu in, the engine weighed 950 pounds and developed 150 bhp. Little is known of the achievements in the 40-foot hull for which it was intended. One V12 Dörwald marine engine was still running in a Hong Kong junk in the late-1960s. Two more V12s appeared in the 1909-1910 motor boat racing season, the Lamb Boat & Engine Company of Clinton, Iowa built a 1,559 cu in engine for the companys 32-foot Lamb IV. It weighed in at 2,114 pounds, no weight is known for the massive 3,464 cu in F-head engine built by the Orleans Motor Company.
Output is quoted as nearly 400 bhp, by 1914, when Panhard built two 2,356 cu in engines with four-valve cylinder heads the V12 was well established in motor boat racing. In October 1913, Louis Coatalen, chief engineer of the Sunbeam Motor Car Company entered a V12 powered car in the Brooklands short, the engine displaced 9 L, with bore and stroke of 80 x 150 mm. An aluminum crankcase carried two blocks of three cylinders each along each side, with a 60 degree included angle, the cylinders were of iron, with integral cylinder heads with L-shaped combustion chambers
Honda in Formula One
Honda has participated in Formula One, as an entrant and engine supplier, for various periods since 1964. Hondas involvement in Formula One began with the 1964 season, their withdrawal in 1968 was precipitated by the death of Honda driver Jo Schlesser during the 1968 French Grand Prix and they returned in 1983 as an engine supplier, a role that ended in 1992. They returned again in 2000, providing engines for British American Racing, by the end of 2005 they had bought out the BAR team, based at Brackley, United Kingdom, and renamed their new subsidiary Honda Racing. It was announced on 5 December 2008 that Honda would be exiting Formula One with immediate effect due to the financial crisis and were looking to sell their team. On 27 February 2009 it was announced that team principal Ross Brawn had led a management buyout of the Brackley team, the team raced successfully as Brawn GP in 2009, and was subsequently sold to Daimler AG and renamed Mercedes GP for the 2010 season. On 17 May 2013, Honda announced their intention to return to the sport in the 2015 season under an agreement with McLaren to supply V6 engines.
Honda entered Formula One Grand Prix racing in 1964, just four years after producing their first road car and they began development of the RA271 in 1962 and startled the European-dominated Formula One garages with their all-Japanese factory team. More startling was the fact that Honda built their own engine and chassis, something only Ferrari, in only their second year of competition, Honda reached the coveted top step of the podium with Ginthers win in the RA272 at the 1965 Mexican Grand Prix. For the new 3. 0L rules from 1966, Honda introduced the Honda RA273, although the RA273s engine was a well-designed, ~360 bhp V12, the car was let down by a relatively heavy and unwieldy in-house chassis. Honda returned to the circle in 1967 with the new Honda RA300. This won the 1967 Italian Grand Prix in only its first Formula One race, the RA300 chassis was partly designed by Lola in the UK, and this resulted in the car being nicknamed the Hondola by the motoring press. This was the last competitive car that Honda produced for Formula One in the 1960s, the following years Honda RA301 only reached the podium twice.
The teams new Honda RA302 appeared in only a race at Rouen-Les-Essarts. The death prompted Honda to withdraw from Formula One at the end of the 1968 Formula One season, mugen-powered cars had won 4 Grands Prix by the end of the 1999 season. In 1998, Honda was seriously considering entry in Formula One as a constructor, going as far as producing an engine and hiring Harvey Postlethwaite as technical director and designer. In addition, Honda pulled engineer Kyle Petryshen from HRC to help with the design, implementation, a test car, RA099, designed by Postlethwaite and built by Dallara, was made and tested during 1999, driven by Jos Verstappen. The team impressed at test sessions, beating some more experienced and better financed teams, even if they were mostly in the midfield. At a test of car, Postlethwaite suffered a fatal heart attack
It uses electronic sensors, pneumatics and actuators to execute gear shifts on input from the driver or by a computer. The system was designed by manufacturers to provide a better driving experience through fast overtaking maneuvers on highways. Some motorcycles use a system with a conventional gearchange but without the need for manual clutch operation, in the 1930s, automakers began to market cars with some sort of device that would reduce the amount of clutching and de-clutching and shifting required in stop and go driving. Most typically, a fluid coupling or a centrifugal clutch replaced the manual clutch to allow for stop. More sophisticated systems allowed for shifting while driving using the clutch. Semi-automatic transmissions were phased out as technology advanced and automatic controls were developed to take care of changing gear ratios, lower powered cars used Semi-automatic transmissions with a dry clutch because the mechanical connection offered a more efficient powertrain compared to a fluid coupling.
Another early semi-automatic transmission was the Sinclair S. S. S, which was applied to Huwood-Hudswell diesel mines locomotives. It was applied to road vehicles. It is covered by US patent 2505842, the ability to shift gears manually, often via paddle shifters, can be found on certain automatic transmissions and continuous variable transmissions. Despite superficial similarity to other automated transmissions, semi-automatic transmissions differ significantly in internal operation and drivers feel from manumatics, many sport luxury manufacturers such as BMW offer the manumatic transmissions for their mainstream lineup and the semi-automatic gearbox for their high-performance models. The operation of semi-automatic transmissions has evolved as vehicle manufacturers experimented with different systems, in one early mass-production example, Ferrari offered their Mondial model with a clutchless manual, which Ferrari called the Valeo transmission. In this system, the stick of a traditional manual transmission was retained.
Saabs Sensonic transmission worked in a similar fashion, the Bugatti Veyron uses this approach for its seven-speed transmission. Numerous road cars have inherited the same mechanism, the central processing unit powers a hydro-mechanical unit to either engage or disengage the clutch, which is kept in close synchronization with the gear-shifting action the driver has started. In other cases, the clutch actuator may be completely electric, for the needs of parking and neutralizing the transmission, the driver must engage both paddles at once, after this has been accomplished, the car will prompt for one of the three options. The clutch is really only needed to get the car in motion, for a quicker upshift, the engine power can be cut, and the collar disengaged until the engine drops to the correct speed for the next gear. For the teeth of the collar to slide into the teeth of the rings and this needs sensors to measure not only the speed, but the positions of the teeth, and the throttle may need to be opened softer or harder.
The even-faster shifting techniques like powershifting require a heavier gearbox or clutch or even a dual clutch transmission, selespeed was introduced in 1999 in the Alfa Romeo 156
The Ferrari F92A was a Formula One car designed by Jean-Claude Migeot for the Ferrari for use in the 1992 Formula One season. There were two versions of the car, the original version raced in the first eleven races of the season, with the updated F92AT version racing in the latter stages of the season. The car was driven by Jean Alesi for the entire season, the car was most famous for its double-flat bottom floor that made it difficult to drive. The car only achieved two podiums and a total of 21 points, the F92AT version was introduced at a test day in August held at the Autodromo Nazionale Monza circuit and first appeared in the championship at the Grand Prix of Belgium. The new version incorporated a seven-speed transverse gearbox, with a front suspension. It included a rigid engine mounting system and an up-to-date version of the underwing. The best results were two places by Jean Alesi. The F92AT driven late in the season by Nicola Larini carried the teams first attempt at an active suspension and this gave Larinis car a 30 kg weight disadvantage to teammate Jean Alesis version.
Unfortunately this was too much for Larini and the team to overcome with Larini only placing 12th and 11th in his only drives with the team, the F92AT was replaced for the 1993 season by the Ferrari F93A. On 16 August 2013, Codemasters announced that the F92A would be one of several Ferrari F1 cars set to feature in the edition of F12013. Jean Alesi and Ivan Capelli are the drivers of the car within the game. Capelli said in an interview that the F92A was the worst F1 car he raced in his career
Carbon fiber reinforced polymer
Carbon fiber reinforced polymer, carbon fiber reinforced plastic or carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic, is an extremely strong and light fiber-reinforced plastic which contains carbon fibers. The spelling fibre is common in British Commonwealth countries, the binding polymer is often a thermoset resin such as epoxy, but other thermoset or thermoplastic polymers, such as polyester, vinyl ester or nylon, are sometimes used. The composite may contain other fibers, such as an aramid, ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene or glass fibers, the properties of the final CFRP product can be affected by the type of additives introduced to the binding matrix. The most frequent additive is silica, but other such as rubber. The material is referred to as graphite-reinforced polymer or graphite fiber-reinforced polymer. In product advertisements, it is referred to simply as graphite fiber for short. In this case the composite consists of two parts, a matrix and a reinforcement, in CFRP the reinforcement is carbon fiber, which provides the strength.
The matrix is usually a resin, such as epoxy. Because CFRP consists of two elements, the material properties depend on these two elements. The reinforcement will give the CFRP its strength and rigidity, measured by stress, unlike isotropic materials like steel and aluminum, CFRP has directional strength properties. The properties of CFRP depend on the layouts of the carbon fiber, the following equation, E c = V m E m + V f E f is valid for composite materials with the fibers oriented in the direction of the applied load. Typical epoxy-based CFRPs exhibit virtually no plasticity, with less than 0. 5% strain to failure, although CFRPs with epoxy have high strength and elastic modulus, the brittle fracture mechanics present unique challenges to engineers in failure detection since failure occurs catastrophically. As such, recent efforts to toughen CFRPs include modifying the existing epoxy material, One such material with high promise is PEEK, which exhibits an order of magnitude greater toughness with similar elastic modulus and tensile strength.
However, PEEK is much more difficult to process and more expensive, despite its high initial strength-to-weight ratio, a design limitation of CFRP is its lack of a definable fatigue endurance limit. This means, that stress cycle failure cannot be ruled out, environmental effects such as temperature and humidity can have profound effects on the polymer-based composites, including most CFRPs. While the carbon fibers themselves are not affected by the moisture diffusing into the material, the carbon fibers can cause galvanic corrosion when CRP parts are attached to aluminum. The primary element of CFRP is a filament, this is produced from a precursor polymer such as polyacrylonitrile, rayon. Precursor compositions and mechanical processes used during spinning filament yarns may vary among manufacturers, after drawing or spinning, the polymer filament yarns are heated to drive off non-carbon atoms, producing the final carbon fiber