Carbon fiber reinforced polymer
Carbon fiber reinforced polymer, carbon fiber reinforced plastic, or carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic, is an strong and light fiber-reinforced plastic which contains carbon fibers. The alternative spelling'fibre' is common in British Commonwealth countries. CFRPs can be expensive to produce but are used wherever high strength-to-weight ratio and stiffness are required, such as aerospace, superstructure of ships, civil engineering, sports equipment, an increasing number of consumer and technical applications; the binding polymer is a thermoset resin such as epoxy, but other thermoset or thermoplastic polymers, such as polyester, vinyl ester, or nylon, are sometimes used. The composite material may contain aramid, ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene, aluminium, or glass fibers in addition to carbon fibers; the properties of the final CFRP product can be affected by the type of additives introduced to the binding matrix. The most common additive is silica, but other additives such as rubber and carbon nanotubes can be used.
The material is referred to as graphite-reinforced polymer or graphite fiber-reinforced polymer. CFRPs are composite materials. In this case the composite consists of two parts: a reinforcement. In CFRP the reinforcement is carbon fiber; the matrix is a polymer resin, such as epoxy, to bind the reinforcements together. Because CFRP consists of two distinct elements, the material properties depend on these two elements. Reinforcement gives CFRP its rigidity. Unlike isotropic materials like steel and aluminum, CFRP has directional strength properties; the properties of CFRP depend on the layouts of the carbon fiber and the proportion of the carbon fibers relative to the polymer. The two different equations governing the net elastic modulus of composite materials using the properties of the carbon fibers and the polymer matrix can be applied to carbon fiber reinforced plastics; the following equation, E c = V m E m + V f E f is valid for composite materials with the fibers oriented in the direction of the applied load.
E c is the total composite modulus, V m and V f are the volume fractions of the matrix and fiber in the composite, E m and E f are the elastic moduli of the matrix and fibers respectively. The other extreme case of the elastic modulus of the composite with the fibers oriented transverse to the applied load can be found using the following equation: E c = − 1 The fracture toughness of carbon fiber reinforced plastics is governed by the following mechanisms: 1) debonding between the carbon fiber and polymer matrix, 2) fiber pull-out, 3) delamination between the CFRP sheets. Typical epoxy-based CFRPs exhibit no plasticity, with less than 0.5% strain to failure. Although CFRPs with epoxy have high strength and elastic modulus, the brittle fracture mechanics present unique challenges to engineers in failure detection since failure occurs catastrophically; as such, recent efforts to toughen CFRPs include modifying the existing epoxy material and finding alternative polymer matrix. One such material with high promise is PEEK, which exhibits an order of magnitude greater toughness with similar elastic modulus and tensile strength.
However, PEEK is more expensive. Despite its high initial strength-to-weight ratio, a design limitation of CFRP is its lack of a definable fatigue limit; this means, that stress cycle failure cannot be ruled out. While steel and many other structural metals and alloys do have estimable fatigue or endurance limits, the complex failure modes of composites mean that the fatigue failure properties of CFRP are difficult to predict and design for; as a result, when using CFRP for critical cyclic-loading applications, engineers may need to design in considerable strength safety margins to provide suitable component reliability over its service life. Environmental effects such as temperature and humidity can have profound effects on the polymer-based composites, including most CFRPs. While CFRPs demonstrate excellent corrosion resistance, the effect of moisture at wide ranges of temperatures can lead to degradation of the mechanical properties of CFRPs at the matrix-fiber interface. While the carbon fibers themselves are not affected by the moisture diffusing into the material, the moisture plasticizes the polymer matrix.
The epoxy matrix used for engine fan blades is designed to be impervious against jet fuel and rain water, external paint on the composites parts is applied to minimize damage from ultraviolet light. The carbon fibers can cause galvanic corrosion; the primary element of CFRP is a carbon filament.
Butterfly doors or vertical doors are a type of car door sometimes seen on high-performance cars. They are similar to scissor doors. While scissor doors move straight up via hinge points at the bottom of the A-pillar, butterfly doors move up and out via hinges along the A-pillar; this makes for easier entry/exit at the expense of requiring more opening space than needed for scissor doors. The McLaren F1, Alfa Romeo 33 Stradale, Saleen S7, Enzo Ferrari and its non road-going version, the FXX, Toyota Sera/EXY-10, the Mercedes-Benz SLR McLaren, among others, use butterfly doors, it was a common feature for Group C and IMSA GTP/Camel Lights prototype racers as they incorporate teardrop tops which allows the driver to get in and out of the car more than conventional and gullwing doors in a cramped pitlane environment such as the pre-1991 Le Mans circuit. Since butterfly doors have been an adopted design of closed top sportscar racers, such as the Toyota GT-One, Bentley Speed 8 and more the Peugeot 908 HDi FAP.
The Toyota Sera, made between 1990 and 1995, was a limited-release car designed for the Japanese market, the first mass produced vehicle to use this design. The Mercedes-Benz SLR McLaren Roadster was one of the few open top cars to use butterfly wing doors; this is made possible by having the doors hinged at the side of A-pillar instead of at top by the roof. The McLaren MP4-12C has a unique system where the butterfly doors do not use a top hinge meaning that the car can use frameless windows which allows for the car's convertible version to retain them. Canopy door Car door Gullwing doors List of cars with unusual door designs Scissor doors Sliding doors Suicide doors Swan doors Automotive door styles
A track day is an organised event in which non-members are allowed to drive or ride around established motor racing circuits, or alternatively on closed or disused airfields. Most race tracks around the world now provide this facility, where a road legal or track prepared car or motorcycle can be used without speed restriction by members of the public. Criteria for being eligible to participate is the holding of a driving licence for the vehicle in question or the appropriate racing license for the event can be used and the payment of a fee. There are varying formats for the proceedings, but they consist of two or three groups loosely corresponding to an individuals level of experience and/or how quick they are. One group at a time will take to the track in order that the majority on track at any given time are traveling at similar speed, there is time for a varying number of these sessions throughout the event. Participants use their own vehicles, however a growing number of tracks and organizers can provide hire vehicles if required, while quite extra facilities such as instructor guidance, tyre sales and advice and suspension sales and set-up are available.
Track days are often held in the guise of racing schools where the emphasis is on nurturing the finer skills of machine control and race craft under the tutelage of experienced former racers. Whatever the interpretation track days are all about having fun, whether motorbike or car, the emphasis is on enjoyment in a controlled and suitable environment; as the performance of vehicles increases, the track day can prove an invaluable means of improving the skills necessary to properly control these machines at or nearing their full potential in relative safety. It is a common feedback from track day enthusiasts that it helps them define the massive distinction between road and track riding/driving styles and as a result, through improved skill levels and attitudes, can have a positive effect on their road safety; as riders and drivers become more secure with their abilities and the track environment they can progress to "Open-Pit Lane" events. These events dispense with the groups format and participants have unlimited access to the circuit throughout the event.
This is controlled by an organiser by populating the event with fewer participants, albeit at a higher price, with instructor guidance facilities available. Track day marshals will use a number of different colour flags to alert drivers and riders of potential dangers and penalties throughout the day, with each colour or combination of colours meaning something different: Yellow - A yellow flag means there's some sort of danger or hazard ahead, so take extra caution and be extra vigilant, do not overtake whilst under a yellow flag. Red - A red flag means that there has been a serious incident and that the track day session has been stopped. Under a red flag, you will need to slow down and return to the pits, or as directed, without overtaking. Yellow & Red - A red and yellow striped flag means that there is some sort of debris on the track, or that grip is poor, so take extra caution. Blue - A blue flag means that another vehicle wants to overtake you, so take caution and let them pass you when safe.
Black - A black flag means one of two things, either the marshals have spotted a problem with your vehicle, e.g. smoke or oil, or that your behaviour on track is too aggressive and you're deemed to be a danger to yourself and or other vehicles on track. If you are black flagged, you will need to return to the pits immediately. Motorcycle schools at Curlie Auto racing schools at Curlie
Enzo Ferrari (automobile)
The Enzo Ferrari is a 12 cylinder mid-engine sports car named after the company's founder, Enzo Ferrari. It was developed in 2002 using Formula One technology, such as a carbon-fibre body, F1-style electrohydraulic shift transmission, carbon fibre-reinforced silicon carbide ceramic composite disc brakes. Used are technologies not allowed in F1 such as active aerodynamics and traction control; the Enzo Ferrari generates substantial amounts of downforce, achieved by the front underbody flaps, the small adjustable rear spoiler and the rear diffuser working in conjunction, 3,363 N is generated at 200 km/h 7,602 N is attained at 299 km/h before decreasing to 5,738 N at top speed. The Enzo's F140 B V12 engine was the first of a new generation for Ferrari, it is based on the design of the V8 engine found in the Maserati Quattroporte, using the same basic design and 104 mm bore spacing. This design replaced the former architectures seen in V12 and V8 engines used in most other contemporary Ferrari models.
The 2005 F430 is the second Ferrari automobile to get a version of this new powerplant. The Enzo was designed by Ken Okuyama, the Pininfarina head of design, announced at the 2002 Paris Motor Show with a claimed limited production run of 399 units and a price of US$659,330; the company sent invitations to existing customers those who had bought the F40 and F50. All 399 cars were sold in this way. Production began in 2003. In 2004, the 400th production car was built and donated to the Vatican for charity, sold at a Sotheby's auction for US$1.1 million. Three development mules were built: M1, M2, M3; each mule utilised the body work of a 348, a model, succeeded by two generations of mid-engined V8 sports cars—the F355 and the 360 Modena—by the time the mules were built. The third mule was offered for auction alongside the 400th Enzo in June 2005, selling for €195,500; the engine the Enzo is longitudinally-mounted and the car has a rear mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout with a 43.9/56.1 front/rear weight distribution.
The powerplant is Ferrari's F140B aspirated 65° V12 engine with DOHC 4 valves per cylinder, variable valve timing and Bosch Motronic ME7 fuel injection with a displacement of 5,998.80 cc generating a power output of 660 PS at 7,800 rpm and 657 N⋅m of torque at 5,500 rpm. The redline limit is 8,200 rpm; the Enzo has a semi-automatic transmission using paddles to control an automated shifting and clutch mechanism, with LED lights on the steering wheel telling the driver when to change gears. The gearbox has a shift time of just 150 milliseconds; the transmission was a first generation "clutchless" design from the late 1990s, there have been complaints about its abrupt shifting. The Enzo has four-wheel independent suspension with push-rod actuated shock absorbers which can be adjusted from the cabin, complemented with anti-roll bars at the front and rear; the Enzo has 15-inch Brembo disc brakes. The wheels are fitted with Bridgestone Potenza Scuderia RE050A tires; the Enzo can reach 161 km/h in 6.6 seconds.
The ¼ mile time is about 11 seconds, on skidpad it has reached 1.05 g and the top speed has been recorded to be as high as 355 km/h. It is rated at 7 miles per US gallon in the city, 12 miles per US gallon on the highway and 8 miles per US gallon combined. Despite the Enzo's performance and price, the 430 Scuderia is capable of lapping the Ferrari test track just 0.1 seconds slower than the Enzo. The Porsche Carrera GT was 1.12 seconds faster in direct comparison on the only 0.98 miles long Autodromo del Levante near Bari. Evo magazine ran a 7:25.21 lap time. The Enzo in the test had a broken electronic damper, they tested it at Bedford Autodrome West circuit where it recorded a 1:21.3 laptime, 1.1 seconds slower than the Porsche Carrera GT, but faster than the Litchfield Type-25. In 2004, American magazine Sports Car International named the Enzo Ferrari number three on their list of Top Sports Cars of the 2000s. American magazine Motor Trend Classic named the Enzo as number four in their list of the ten "Greatest Ferraris of all time".
However, the Enzo Ferrari was described as one of the "Fifty Ugliest Cars of the Past 50 Years", as Bloomberg Businessweek cited its superfluous curves and angles as too flashy the V-shaped hood, scooped-out doors, bulbous windshield. Before being unveiled at the Paris Motor Show, the show car was flown from Italy to the U. S. to be filmed in Charlie's Angels: Full Throttle. It was driven on a beach by actress Demi Moore. After filming was complete, the Enzo was flown to France to be at the Motor Show; the Enzo Ferrari is briefly featured in the 2007 American film Redline. The Enzo Ferrari is featured in the cover art for the WWE wrestling stable Evolution. Ferrari decided to use some of the technology developed for the Enzo in a small-scale program to get more feedback from certain customers for use in future car design as well as their racing program; the core of this program is the Ferrari FXX. It was loosely based on the Enzo's design with a tuned 6.3-litre version of the Enzo's engine generating a power output of 800 PS.
The gearbox is specially developed
Maranello is a town and comune in the region of Emilia-Romagna in Northern Italy, 18 km from Modena, with a population of 17,165 as of 2013. It is known worldwide as the home of Scuderia Ferrari Formula One racing team. Maranello was home to coachbuilding firm Carrozzeria Scaglietti, owned by Ferrari. Maranello has been the location for the Ferrari factory since the early 1940s, meanwhile World War II Enzo Ferrari transferred facilities by uptown Modena, ending an Alfa Romeo subsidiary long period. Ferrari's factory in Maranello was shared with Auto Avio Costruzioni, a machine tool manufacturing business started by Enzo to tide the company over while Alfa Romeo's ban on Enzo Ferrari making cars bearing the Ferrari name was in force. In Maranello is located Museo Ferrari public museum, collecting sports and racing cars and trophies, its new library opened in November 2011, was designed by Arata Isozaki and Andrea Maffei. Maranello is the starting point of the annual Italian Marathon. Maranello's new town library was designed jointly by Andrea Isozaki.
The library opened in 2012. The parish church of San Biagio was rebuilt in 1903. Enzo Ferrari, car driver and founder of Ferrari Umberto Masetti, World Champion Grand Prix motorcycle racer. Michael Schumacher, F1 racer and honorary citizen of Maranello Ozieri, since 1986 Ittireddu, since 1986 Bultei, since 1986 Burgos, since 1986 Termini Imerese, since 1986 Official website
Variable valve timing
In internal combustion engines, variable valve timing is the process of altering the timing of a valve lift event, is used to improve performance, fuel economy or emissions. It is being used in combination with variable valve lift systems. There are many ways in which this can be achieved, ranging from mechanical devices to electro-hydraulic and camless systems. Strict emissions regulations are causing many automotive manufacturers to use VVT systems. Two-stroke engines use a power valve system to get similar results to VVT; the valves within an internal combustion engine are used to control the flow of the intake and exhaust gases into and out of the combustion chamber. The timing and lift of these valve events has a significant impact on engine performance. Without variable valve timing or variable valve lift, the valve timing is the same for all engine speeds and conditions, therefore compromises are necessary. An engine equipped with a variable valve timing actuation system is freed from this constraint, allowing performance to be improved over the engine operating range.
Piston engines use valves which are driven by camshafts. The cams exhaust cycle; the timing of the valve opening and closing, relative to the position of the crankshaft, is important. The camshaft is driven by the crankshaft through gears or chains. An engine requires large amounts of air. However, the intake valves may close before enough air has entered each combustion chamber, reducing performance. On the other hand, if the camshaft keeps the valves open for longer periods of time, as with a racing cam, problems start to occur at the lower engine speeds. Opening the intake valve while the exhaust valve is still open may cause unburnt fuel to exit the engine, leading to lower engine performance and increased emissions. Early variable valve timing systems used discrete adjustment. For example, one timing would be used below another used above 3500 rpm. More advanced "continuous variable valve timing" systems offer continuous adjustment of the valve timing. Therefore, the timing can be optimized to suit all conditions.
The simplest form of VVT is cam-phasing, whereby the phase angle of the camshaft is rotated forwards or backwards relative to the crankshaft. Thus the valves close earlier or later. Achieving variable duration on a VVT system requires a more complex system, such as multiple cam profiles or oscillating cams. Late intake valve closing The first variation of continuous variable valve timing involves holding the intake valve open longer than a traditional engine; this results in the piston pushing air out of the cylinder and back into the intake manifold during the compression stroke. The air, expelled fills the manifold with higher pressure, on subsequent intake strokes the air, taken in is at a higher pressure. Late intake valve closing has been shown to reduce pumping losses by 40% during partial load conditions, to decrease nitric oxide emissions by 24%. Peak engine torque showed only a 1% decline, hydrocarbon emissions were unchanged. Early intake valve closing Another way to decrease the pumping losses associated with low engine speed, high vacuum conditions is by closing the intake valve earlier than normal.
This involves closing the intake valve midway through the intake stroke. Air/fuel demands are so low at low-load conditions and the work required to fill the cylinder is high, so Early intake valve closing reduces pumping losses. Studies have shown early intake valve closing reduces pumping losses by 40%, increases fuel economy by 7%, it reduced nitric oxide emissions by 24% at partial load conditions. A possible downside to early intake valve closing is that it lowers the temperature of the combustion chamber, which can increase hydrocarbon emissions. Early intake valve opening Early intake valve opening is another variation that has significant potential to reduce emissions. In a traditional engine, a process called valve overlap is used to aid in controlling the cylinder temperature. By opening the intake valve early, some of the inert/combusted exhaust gas will back flow out of the cylinder, via the intake valve, where it cools momentarily in the intake manifold; this inert gas fills the cylinder in the subsequent intake stroke, which aids in controlling the temperature of the cylinder and nitric oxide emissions.
It improves volumetric efficiency, because there is less exhaust gas to be expelled on the exhaust stroke. Early/late exhaust valve closing Early and late exhaust valve closing can this time can be manipulated reduce emissions. Traditionally, the exhaust valve opens, exhaust gas is pushed out of the cylinder and into the exhaust manifold by the piston as it travels upward. By manipulating the timing of the exhaust valve, engineers can control how much exhaust gas is left in the cylinder. By holding the exhaust valve open longer, the cylinder is emptied more and ready to be filled with a bigger air/fuel charge on the intake stroke. By closing the valve early, more exhaust gas remains in the cylinder which increases fuel efficiency; this allows for more efficient operation under all conditions. The main factor preventing this technology from wide use in production automobiles is the ability to produce a cost effective means of controlling the valve timing under the conditions internal to an engine.
An engine operating at 3000 revolutions per minute will rotate the camshaft 25 times per second
A V12 engine is a V engine with 12 cylinders mounted on the crankcase in two banks of six cylinders each but not always at a 60° angle to each other, with all 12 pistons driving a common crankshaft. Since each cylinder bank is a straight-six, by itself in both primary and secondary balance, a V12 inherits perfect primary and secondary balance no matter which V angle is used, therefore it needs no balance shafts. A four-stroke 12 cylinder engine has an firing order if cylinders fire every 60° of crankshaft rotation, so a V12 with cylinder banks at a multiples of 60° will have firing intervals without using split crankpins. By using split crankpins or ignoring minor vibrations, any V angle is possible; the 180° configuration is referred to as a "flat-twelve engine" or a "boxer" although it is in reality a 180° V since the pistons can and do use shared crankpins. It may be written as "V-12", although this is less common; these engines deliver power pulses more than engines with six or eight cylinders, the power pulses have triple overlap which eliminates gaps between power pulses and allows for greater refinement and smoothness in a luxury car engine, at the expense of much greater cost and friction losses.
In a racing car engine, the rotating parts of a V12 can be made much lighter than a V8 of similar displacement with a crossplane crankshaft because there is no need to use heavy counterweights on the crankshaft and less need for the inertial mass in a flywheel to smooth out the power delivery, each piston can be smaller and with a shorter stroke. Exhaust system tuning is much more difficult on a crossplane V8 than a V12, so racing cars with V8 engines use a complicated "bundle of snakes" exhaust system, or a flat-plane crankshaft which causes severe engine vibration and noise; this is not important in a race car. Since cost and fuel economy are important in luxury and racing cars, the V12 has been phased out in favor of engines with fewer cylinders. Engines are designed around cylinder units of a certain designed size and speed; these are used as the working base of an engine of 6 cylinders. If more power is needed, it is easier to add more cylinders to increase displacement, without having to design a newer, larger cylinder and head for each engine size.
Thus locomotive and marine engines like the EMD 567 come in V6 to V24 versions, all sharing the same 567 cubic inch cylinder displacement and cylinder heads. Engines are limited by the size of the cylinder bore and stroke. While one can increase the size of an engine by increasing the bore and/or stroke of the cylinder, a too-large bore hurts efficient combustion, makes for a heavy reciprocating piston mass, which limits maximum engine speed and thus power output. In a similar vein, increasing the stroke means the piston speed must be increased to match the same revolutions per minute, this limits the maximum size of an engine in a given weight/size range; these factors make it more feasible to build an engine of 12 cylinders and 40 liters displacement than an engine of 6 cylinders and the same size, which would have pistons too large and a stroke too long to meet the same RPM and power requirements. In a large displacement, high-power engine, a 60° V12 fits into a longer and narrower space than a V8 and most other V configurations, a problem in modern cars, but less so in heavy trucks, a problem in large stationary engines.
The V12 is common in locomotive and tank engines, where high power is required, but the width of the engine is constrained by tight railway clearances or street widths, while the length of the vehicle is more flexible. It is used in marine engines where great power is required, the hull width is limited, but a longer vessel allows faster hull speed. In twin-propeller boats, two V12 engines can be narrow enough to sit side-by-side, while three V12 engines are sometimes used in high-speed three-propeller configurations. Large, fast cruise ships can have six or more V12 engines. In historic piston-engine fighter and bomber aircraft, the long, narrow V12 configuration used in high-performance aircraft made them more streamlined than other engines the short, wide radial engine. During World War II the power of fighter engines was stepped up to extreme levels using multi-speed superchargers and ultra-high octane gasoline, so the extreme smoothness of the V12 prevented the powerful engines from tearing apart the light airframes of fighters.
After World War II, the compact, more powerful, vibration-free turboprop and turbojet engines replaced the V12 in aircraft applications. The first V-type engine was built in 1889 to a design by Wilhelm Maybach. By 1903 V8 engines were being produced for motor boat racing by the Société Antoinette to designs by Léon Levavasseur, building on experience gained with in-line four-cylinder engines. In 1904, the Putney Motor Works completed a new V12 marine racing engine—the first V12 engine produced for any purpose. Known as the "Craig-Dörwald" engine after Putney's founding partners, the engine mounted pairs of L-head cylinders at a 90 degree included angle on an aluminium crankcase, using the same cylinder pairs that powered the company's standard two-cylinder car. A single camshaft mounted in the central V operated the valves directly; as in many marine engines, the camshaft could be slid longitudinally to engage a second set of cams, giving valve timing that reversed the engine's rotation to achieve astern propulsion.