Ferrari 375 MM
See Ferrari 375 F1 for the 375 used in Formula 1 racing Ferrari 375 MM, was a race car produced by Ferrari in 1953 and 1954. It was named 375 for the displacement in the 4. 5L V12 engine. The engine was based on its Ferrari 375 F1 counterpart, but with smaller stroke, the first prototype was a Vignale Spyder and 3 next cars were Pinin Farina Berlinettas, all converted from Ferrari 340 MM. Perhaps the most known 375 MM is the Ingrid Bergman version, commissioned in 1954 by director Roberto Rossellini for his wife, the Bergman 375 MM was subsequently bought and restored by the Microsoft executive Jon Shirley and the restoration specialist Butch Dennison. It became the first postwar Ferrari to win Best of Show at the Pebble Beach Concours dElegance
By using split crankpins or ignoring minor vibrations, any V angle is possible. The 180° configuration is referred to as a flat-twelve engine or a boxer although it is in reality a 180° V since the pistons can. This is not important in a car if all-out performance is the only goal. Since cost and fuel economy are usually important even in luxury and racing cars and it is often used in marine engines where great power is required, and the hull width is limited, but a longer vessel allows faster hull speed. In twin-propeller boats, two V12 engines can be enough to sit side-by-side, while three V12 engines are sometimes used in high-speed three-propeller configurations. Large, fast cruise ships can have six or more V12 engines, after World War II, the compact, more powerful, and vibration-free turboprop and turbojet engines replaced the V12 in aircraft applications. The first V-type engine was built in 1889 by Daimler, to a design by Wilhelm Maybach, by 1903 V8 engines were being produced for motor boat racing by the Société Antoinette to designs by Léon Levavasseur, building on experience gained with in-line four-cylinder engines.
In 1904, the Putney Motor Works completed a new V12 marine racing engine—the first V12 engine produced for any purpose, a single camshaft mounted in the central V operated the valves directly. As in many engines, the camshaft could be slid longitudinally to engage a second set of cams. Starting is by pumping a charge into each cylinder and switching on the trembler coils, a sliding camshaft gave direct reversing. The camshaft has fluted webs and main bearings in graduated thickness from the largest at the flywheel end, displacing 1,120 cu in, the engine weighed 950 pounds and developed 150 bhp. Little is known of the achievements in the 40-foot hull for which it was intended. One V12 Dörwald marine engine was still running in a Hong Kong junk in the late-1960s. Two more V12s appeared in the 1909-1910 motor boat racing season, the Lamb Boat & Engine Company of Clinton, Iowa built a 1,559 cu in engine for the companys 32-foot Lamb IV. It weighed in at 2,114 pounds, no weight is known for the massive 3,464 cu in F-head engine built by the Orleans Motor Company.
Output is quoted as nearly 400 bhp, by 1914, when Panhard built two 2,356 cu in engines with four-valve cylinder heads the V12 was well established in motor boat racing. In October 1913, Louis Coatalen, chief engineer of the Sunbeam Motor Car Company entered a V12 powered car in the Brooklands short, the engine displaced 9 L, with bore and stroke of 80 x 150 mm. An aluminum crankcase carried two blocks of three cylinders each along each side, with a 60 degree included angle, the cylinders were of iron, with integral cylinder heads with L-shaped combustion chambers
The Ferrari 599 is an Italian sports car produced by Ferrari. It was the brands flagship, replacing the 575M Maranello in 2006 as a 2007 model. Styled by Pininfarina under the direction of Ferraris Frank Stephenson, the 599 GTB debuted at the Geneva Motor Show in February 2006 and it is named for its total engine displacement, Gran Turismo Berlinetta nature, and the Fiorano Circuit test track used by Ferrari. The Tipo F140 C6.0 L V12 engine produces a maximum 620 PS and its 608 N·m of torque was a record for Ferraris GT cars. Most of the modifications to the engine were done to allow it to fit in the Fioranos engine bay, a traditional 6-speed manual transmission as well as Ferraris 6-speed called F1 SuperFast is offered. The Fiorano sees the debut of Ferraris new traction control system, the vast majority of the 599 GTBs have been equipped with the semi-automatic gearbox as opposed to the manual 6-speed gearbox. Only 30 examples have been produced with a manual gearbox of which 20 were destined to the United States and 10 remained in Europe.
0-100 km/h in 3.7 seconds 0-200 km/h in 11.0 seconds Top speed, the ride height has been lowered, which lowers the cars center of gravity. The package includes optimised tyres featuring a compound that offers improved grip, the cars electronics have changed. The gearboxs shifts are faster in high-performance settings, while new engine software improved accelerator response, the exhaust silencer was modified to produce more marked and thrilling sound under hard usage while still delivering just the right comfort levels at cruising speed. The exterior and interior were upgraded with more carbon fiber components, on 8 April 2010, Ferrari announced official details of the 599 GTO. Its engine produces 670 PS at 8250 rpm, with 620 N·m of torque at 6500 rpm, Ferrari claims the 599 GTO can reach 100 km/h in under 3.3 seconds and has a top speed of over 335 km/h. At 1,605 kilograms, the 599 GTO weighs almost 100 kg less than the standard GTB, production is limited to 599 cars. Of these, approximately 125 were produced for the United States market, Ferrari has given only two other models that used the GTO designation, the 1962250 GTO and the 1984288 GTO.
Unlike the previous GTOs however, the 599 GTO was not designed for homologation in any racing series, the convertible version of the 599, the SA Aperta, was introduced 2010 Paris Motor Show as a unique limited edition in honor of designers Sergio Pininfarina and Andrea Pininfarina. The SA Aperta used the performance engine from the 599 GTO. The 599XX is a car designed for use only and is not street legal. The rev limiter is raised to 9000 rpm, with the engine rated for 730 PS at 9000 rpm, weight is reduced by reducing the weight of the engine unit components, the use of composite materials, and the use of carbon-fiber body parts and brake pads
Tokyo Motor Show
The Tokyo Motor Show is a biennial auto show held in October–November at the Tokyo Big Sight, Japan for cars and commercial vehicles. In 1958, due to construction of a subway and underground parking lot near Hibiya Park, the show was shifted to the Korakuen Bicycle Racing Track. The show, as the year was marred by heavy rain, in 1959 the event moved indoor to its newly opened Harumi Showplace venue which was three times the size of its previous venue. Onward from 1973, as the decided not to host a show for the following year due to the international energy crisis. However, from 2007 onwards the event has once again returned to a schedule which combines both passenger and commercial vehicles, including motorcycles and auto parts. The first Tokyo Motor Show was held in Hibiya Park from April 20 to April 29,1954, of the 267 vehicles on display, only seventeen were passenger cars, which reflected the paucity of personal family transport in Japan at the time. Trucks and motorcycles made up most of the exhibits, the second Tokyo Motor Show was held over twelve days, beginning on May 7,1955.
Almost 785,000 visitors attended, among them HIH Prince Akihito, the highlights of the passenger cars on display were the new Datsun 110, Toyopet Crown RS and Toyopet Master RR. The 1959 show opened on October 24, notable premiers included Mitsubishis first own passenger car, the Mitsubishi 500. At the 1964 Motor Show, in September, the Nissan Fairlady 1500, daihatsu EV1 The 26th Tokyo Motor Show was held in October and November 1985. Concepts for new hybrids, plug-in hybrids, electric vehicles from Japans leading automakers are now on display at the Tokyo Motor Show. As one example, Toyota Motor Corporation introduced its 1/X concept vehicle, toyotas other plug-in hybrid concept, the Hi-CT, is a small, two-door vehicle aimed at young car buyers. General Motors, Ford and Hyundai did not attend the show, Honda will unveil the one-wheeled scooter transport, the Honda U3-X. Mitsubishi Motors Corporation introduced a Beetle-like electric vehicle with electric motors, called the i MiEV Sport. Nissan unveiled the Pivo 2, an electric vehicle with a lithium-ion battery pack.
But Japanese automakers werent the only ones unveiling clean car concepts in Tokyo, audi arrived with its Metroproject Quattro, a plug-in hybrid with a direct-injection, turbocharged,150 horsepower gasoline engine mounted up front and a 30-kilowatt motor on its rear axle. The concept vehicle employs a battery pack that allows it to run on electric power only
The Ferrari 348 is a mid-engined, rear-wheel-drive V8-powered 2-seat sports car by Ferrari, replacing the 328 in 1989 and continuing until 1995. It was the final V8 mid-engine model developed by Enzo Ferrari before his death, the 348, badged 348 tb for the coupé and 348 ts and the 348sp versions, features a normally aspirated 3. 4-litre version of the quad-cam, four-valve-per-cylinder V8 engine. As with its predecessors, the number was derived from this configuration. The engine, which produced 300 hp, was mounted longitudinally and coupled to a manual gearbox. The T in the model name 348 tb and ts refers to the position of the gearbox. Overall,2,895 examples of the 348 tb and 4,230 of the 348 ts were produced, the F355 that replaced it returned to the styling cues of the 328 with round tail lights and rounded side air scoops. Fifty-seven Challenge models were built for owners who wanted a more track-ready car, the 348 was fitted with dual-computer engine management using twin Bosch Motronic ECUs, double-redundant anti-lock brakes, and self-diagnosing air conditioning and heating systems.
Late versions have Japanese-made starter motors and Nippondenso power generators to improve reliability, U. S. spec 348s have OBD-I engine management systems, though European variants do not come with the self-test push button installed, which is needed to activate this troubleshooting feature. This had the effect of making the doors very wide. The 348 was equipped with an oil system to prevent oil starvation at high speeds. The oil level can only be checked on the dipstick when the motor is running due to this setup. The 348 was fitted with adjustable suspension and a removable rear sub-frame to speed up the removal of the engine for maintenance. This vehicle served as a test mule for the Ferrari Enzo, between 1992 and 1993 Ferrari made 100 units of 348 Serie Speciale of its tb and ts versions. It was a limited edition made for the US market. During 1992 -1993 there were only 35 TB Serie Speciales manufactured with the remainder being the TS Serie Speciale, Ferrari indicates a 0-60 mph time of 5.3 seconds and a standing ¼ mile of 13.75 seconds.
The cars were offered with F40 style sport seats in Connolly leather, the door panels were modified and made of leather. Each car is numbered, with a 348 Serie Speciale plate on the passengers side door-post, in 1994, a further 15 units were produced, bringing the total production of this limited edition to 115. The Ferrari Challenge was initiated by Ferrari Club Nederland and designated for the Ferrari 348, using the un-modified engine, the only changes of the car were slick tyres, better brake-pads, roll-bar, smaller battery in a different position and seat belts
The Ferrari Daytona, officially designated the Ferrari 365 GTB/4, is a two-seat grand tourer produced by Ferrari from 1968 to 1973. It was introduced at the Paris Auto Salon in 1968 to replace the 275 GTB/4, the Daytona was succeeded by the mid-engined 365 GT4 Berlinetta Boxer in 1973. To this day, Ferrari itself only rarely refers to the 365 as the Daytona, unlike Lamborghinis then-new, mid-engined Miura, the Daytona was a traditional front-engined, rear-drive car. At a compression ratio of 9.3,1, it produced 357 PS, 0-60 mph acceleration was just 5.4 seconds. The five-speed manual transmission was mounted in the rear for optimal weight distribution, although a Pininfarina design, as with many previous Ferrari road cars styled by Leonardo Fioravanti, the 365 GTB/4 was radically different. Its sharp-edged styling resembled a Lamborghini more than a traditional Pininfarina Ferrari, early Daytonas featured fixed headlights behind an acrylic glass cover. A new U. S. safety regulation banning headlights behind covers resulted in retractable pop-up twin headlights in 1971, the generally accepted total number of Daytonas from the Ferrari club historians is 1,406 over the life of the model.
This figure includes 156 UK right-hand-drive coupés,122 factory-made spyders, all bodies except the first Pininfarina prototype were produced by Italian coachbuilder Scaglietti, which at the time already had a reputable record of working with Ferrari. Historically, and especially since the mid-1980s and early 1990s, there has mostly been a market price difference between a real berlinetta and a real spyder. Many berlinettas were turned into spyders by aftermarket mechanics, often to increase the monetary value or simply because of the owners preference for an open car. Differences in value have typically remained, even after the most skillful conversions, no Berlinettas were converted into Spyders by Scaglietti, Ferrari would not allow this, or now. The first racing version of the 365GTB/4 was prepared in 1969, Ferrari did not produce an official competition car until late in 1970. The official cars were built in three batches of five each, in 1970-1,1972 and 1973. They all featured a lightweight body making use of aluminium and fibreglass panels, the engine was unchanged from the road car in the first batch of competition cars, but tuned in the latter two batches.
The cars were not raced by the official Scuderia Ferrari team and they enjoyed particular success in the 24 Hours of Le Mans, with results including a 5th overall in 1971, followed by GT class wins in 1972,1973 and 1974. In 1972 Ferrari 365 GTB/4s took the first 5 places of the GT class, the final major success of the car was in 1979, when a 1973 car achieved a class victory in the 24 Hours of Daytona. In 1971, the Daytona gained fame when one was driven by Dan Gurney and Brock Yates in the inaugural Cannonball Baker Sea-To-Shining-Sea Memorial Trophy Dash. Showcasing the cars potential for sustained high speed travel, the pair won with an speed of 80.1 miles per hour
The Ferrari 360 is a two-seater sports car built by Ferrari from 1999 to 2005. It succeeded the Ferrari F355 and was replaced by the Ferrari F430 and it is a mid-engined, rear wheel drive V8-powered coupe. Ferrari partnered with Alcoa to produce a new all aluminium space-frame chassis that was 40% stiffer than the F355 which had utilized steel. The design was 28% lighter despite a 10% increase in overall dimensions, along with a lightweight frame the new Pininfarina body styling deviated from traditions of the previous decades sharp angles and flip-up headlights. The new V8 engine, common to all versions, utilizes a 3.6 litre capacity, flat plane crankshaft, titanium connecting rods and generates 395 bhp. Despite what looks like on paper modest gains in reality the power to weight ratio was improved on over the F355. According to Ferrari weight was reduced by 60 kg and the 0 to 100 km/h acceleration performance improved from 4.7 to 4.5 seconds, the 360 Modena press car was ludicrously quick and sounded more like Schumachers weekend wheels than a street car.
But the other cars were different, when Car and Driver tested a F360 it proved heavier and slower than its predecessor five years before. There were 8,800 Modenas and 7,565 Spiders produced worldwide, there were 4,199 built for the US market,1,810 Modenas and 2,389 Spiders. Of those numbers there were only 469 Modenas and 670 Spiders that were produced with a gated 6 speed manual transmission as opposed to the automated F1 single clutch transmission. In addition to there were the low volume factory race cars. The first up was the 360 Modena Challenge, used in a one make series, the N-GT was a 360 Challenge car evolved even further to compete more seriously in the FIA N-GT racing classes alongside other marques such as Porsche. A single 360 Barchetta was produced as a wedding present from Ferrari to former Ferrari president Luca di Montezemolo. The first model of the 360 to be shipped was the Modena, named after the town of Modena and its six-speed gearbox is available as a manual, or an F1 electrohydraulic manual.
The 360 Modena went into production in 1999 and remained in production until 2005 when it was replaced by the F430, the Modena was followed two years by the 360 Spider, Ferraris 20th road-going convertible which at launch overtook sales of the Modena. Other than weight, the Spiders specifications matched those of the Modena almost exactly, the Challenge Stradale was a addition to the line-up, the finale model before replacement. It was essentially a lightened, factory tuned version of the Modena with many of the Modenas optional extras becoming standard, carbon seats, racing exhaust, carbon engine bay, and so on. Famously at the time Ferrari claimed it dropped up to 110 kg over the stock Modena helping to improve its handling
The Ferrari 330 was a series of V12 powered automobiles produced by Ferrari in 2+2 GT Coupé, two-seat Berlinetta and race car versions between 1963 and 1968. Production ended in 1968 with the introduction of the Ferrari 365 series, all 330 models used an evolution of the 400 Superamericas 4.0 L Colombo V12 engine. It was substantially changed, with wider spacing and an alternator replacing a generator. The 1963330 America shared the outgoing 250 GTEs chassis but not its engine, being powered by the new 4.0 L Tipo 209 V12, as for the 250-series,330 refers to the approximate displacement of each single cylinder. Socialite Sandra West is buried with her blue 330 America at the Alamo Masonic Cemetery at San Antonio, about 50330 Americas were built before being replaced by the larger 330 GT 2+2. The provisional 330 America was replaced in January 1964 by the new 330 GT 2+2 and it was first shown at the Brussels Show, early that year. It was much more than a re-engined 250, with a nose and tail, quad headlights.
The wheelbase was 50 mm longer, but Koni adjustable shock absorbers improved handling, a dual-circuit Dunlop braking system was used with discs all around, though it separated brakes front to back rather than diagonally as on modern systems. When leaving the factory the 330 GT originally fitted Pirelli Cinturato 205VR15 tyres, the 1965 Series II version featured a five-speed gearbox instead of the overdrive four-speed of the prior year. Other changes included the switch back to a dual-light instead of quad-light front clip, alloy wheels,625 Series I and 455 Series II330 GT 2+2 cars had been built when the car was replaced by the 365 GT 2+2 in 1967. Production of the smaller 330 GTC and GTS models overlapped with the GT 2+2 for more than a year, the 330 GTC and 330 GTS were more like their 275 counterparts than the 330 GT 2+2. They shared the wheelbase of the 275 as well as its independent rear suspension. These models were more refined than earlier Ferraris and easier to drive and it has been stated that this was probably the first Ferrari in which you could actually enjoy a radio.
The GTC berlinetta was introduced at the Geneva Motor Show in March,1966 and it was a two-seater coupé with a Pininfarina-designed body. A1967 GTC was given one-off bodywork by Zagato at the behest of American importer Luigi Chinetti in 1974 and this car was called the Zagato Convertibile, since it was of a targa-style. The GTS spider followed at the Paris Motor Show, about 600 coupés and 100 spiders were produced before the 1968 introduction of the 365 GTC and GTS. Four 330 Le Mans Berlinettas were built in 1963, first presented in March 1963 alongside the mid-engined 250 P, they were essentially a development of the 250 GTOs and fitted with the 4-litre 330 engine, here rated at 390 hp at 7,500 rpm. Although the front is similar to the 250 GTOs, the main structure came from the 250 Lusso
The Ferrari 250 is a sports car built by Ferrari from 1953 to 1964. The companys most successful line, the 250 series included several variants. It was replaced by the 275 and the 330, most 250 road cars share the same two wheelbases,2,400 mm for short wheelbase and 2,600 mm for long wheelbase. Most convertibles used the SWB type, nearly all 250s share the same Colombo Tipo 125 V12 engine. At 2,953 cc, it was notable for its weight and impressive output of up to 300 PS in the Testa Rossa. The V12 weighed hundreds of less than its chief competitors — for example. Ferrari uses the displacement of a cylinder as the model designation. The light V12 propelled the small Ferrari 250 racing cars to numerous victories, typical of Ferrari, the Colombo V12 made its debut on the race track, with the racing 250s preceding the street cars by three years. The first 250 was the experimental 250 S berlinetta prototype entered in the 1952 Mille Miglia for Giovanni Bracco, the car was entered at Le Mans and in the Carrera Panamericana.
The 250 S used a 2,250 mm wheelbase with a Tuboscocca tubular trellis frame, suspension was by double wishbones at the front, with double longitudinal semi-elliptic springs locating the live axle at the rear. The car had the drum brakes and worm-and-sector steering typical of the period, the dry-sump 3.0 L engine used three Weber 36DCF carburettors and was mated directly to a five-speed manual transmission. Following the success of the 250 S in the Mille Miglia, Pinin Farina created coupé bodywork which had a small grille, compact tail and panoramic rear window, and the new car was launched as the 250 MM at the 1953 Geneva Motor Show. Carrozzeria Vignales open barchetta version was a design whose recessed headlights. The 250 MMs wheelbase was longer than the 250 S at 2,400 mm, the V12 engines dry sump was omitted from the production car, and the transmission was reduced by one gear. Power was increased to 240 PS, the four-cylinder 625 TF and 735 S replaced the V12-powered 250 MM in 1953. The 250 MMs race debut was at the 1953 Giro di Sicilia with privateer Paulo Marzotto, a Carrozzeria Morelli-bodied 250 MM barchetta driven by Clemente Biondetti came fourth in the 1954 Mille Miglia.
The 1954250 Monza was and unusual hybrid of the light four-cylinder 750 Monza, the model used the 250 engine in the short-wheelbase chassis from the 750 Monza. The first two used the Pininfarina barchetta shape of the 750 Monza and a one-off 500 Mondial, two more 250 Monzas were built by Carrozzeria Scaglietti, an early use of the now-familiar coachbuilder
Ferrari 575M Maranello
The Ferrari 575M Maranello is a two-seat, two-door, grand tourer built by Ferrari. Launched in 2002, it is essentially an updated 550 Maranello featuring minor styling changes from Pininfarina, the 575M was replaced by the 599 GTB in the first half of 2006. Two six-speed transmissions were available, a manual gearbox and, for the first time on a Ferrari V12. The model number refers to engine displacement in litres, whilst the M is an abbreviation of modificato. For 2005, the company developed a new GTC handling package and Superamerica version, configuration, 65° V12 engine Displacement,5.2 seconds 0–400 m,12.25 seconds 0-1,000 m,21. The new brakes were based on the companys Formula One technology and they used 15.7 in discs with six-piston calipers in front and 14.2 in discs with four-piston calipers in the rear. Patented Revocromico roof incorporates carbon fibre structure that is hinged on the axis with a luggage compartment lid. With the roof open the window, apart for holding the third stop light.
This roof design was used on 2001-designed Vola by Leonardo Fioravanti. The Superamerica used the tune of the V-12 engine, F133 G, rated at 533 hp and Ferrari marketed it as the worlds fastest convertible. The GTC handling package was optional, a total of 559 Superamericas were built, this number followed Enzo Ferraris philosophy that there should always be one fewer car available than what the market demanded. A special 575M was built by Zagato for Japanese Ferrari collector Yoshiyuki Hayashi, in 2003, Ferrari announced the sale of several 575M-based racing cars, known as the 575 GTC. Following the success of Prodrive in running the Ferrari 550, Ferrari wished to offer their own racing car to customers, used primarily in the FIA GT Championship, the 575 GTCs managed to take a single win in their first season, followed by another lone win in 2004. Unfortunately the 575 GTCs were not as capable as the Prodrive-built 550 GTSs, and would fall from use by the end of 2005