The Ferrari 488 is a mid-engined sports car produced by the Italian sports car manufacturer Ferrari, introduced in 2015 to replace the previous 458. It is powered by a 3. 9-litre twin-turbocharged V8, smaller in displacement, the 488 GTB was named The Supercar of the Year 2015 by car magazine Top Gear. The 488 GTB is powered by a 3902cc all-aluminium dry sump unit of the Ferrari F154 engine family, the engine produces 670 PS at 8,000 rpm and 760 N·m of torque at 3,000 rpm. This results in a power output of 126.3 kW per litre and specific torque output of 194.8 N·m per litre. The only available transmission for the 488 is an automated manual dual-clutch 7-speed F1 gearbox manufactured for Ferrari by Getrag, improved carbon-ceramic brakes are supplied on the 488, derived from technology used in LaFerrari, constructed with new materials that reduce the time needed to achieve optimum operating temperature. Disc sizes are 398 mm at the front, and 360 mm at the rear and these advancements reportedly reduce stopping distances by 9% over the 458. A new 5-spoke alloy wheel was designed for the 488, measuring 51 centimetres front, front tires measure 245/35 with rears 305/30.
The first 488 to be introduced was the 488 GTB 2-seat berlinetta and it was launched on 3 February 2015, in advance of its world première at the March 2015 Geneva Motor Show. The Ferrari 488 Spider is a 2-seat roadster variant of the 488 with a folding hardtop, Ferrari released pictures of the 488 Spider at the end of July 2015, and the car debuted at the Frankfurt Motor Show in September 2015. The Spiders drivetrain is the same of the 488 GTB, including the 670 PS3. 9-litre twin-turbocharged V8, the 488 Spider is only 50 kg heavier than its coupé sibling, and 10 kg lighter than the 458 Spider. The 0–100 km/h sprint is unchanged at 3.0 seconds, while the 0–200 km/h acceleration takes slightly longer at 8.7 seconds, UK sales are expected to begin in late spring 2016. The racing versions of the 488 GTB are the successors to the 458 Italia GTC, both the 488 GTE and GT3 were unveiled at the 2015 Finali Mondiali Ferrari which took place at Mugello. The 488 GTE made its debut in Round 1 of the 2016 WeatherTech SportsCar Championship at the 24 Hours of Daytona on 30–31 January.
The 488 GTE run by Scuderia Corsa finished 10th outright and 4th in the GTLM class, at the 201624 Hours of Le Mans, the car took second place, ran by Risi Competizione. The 488 GT3 made its competition debut in Round 2 of the 2016 Australian GT Championship at the Albert Park Circuit in Melbourne on 17 March. Italian Andrea Montermini and Danish driver Benny Simonsen shared the car for Australian team DeFelice Homes. Over the 4 races that made up the round, Montermini finished 5th in race 1 and 14th in race 3 while Simonsen finished 2nd in race 2 and 6th in the fourth and final race. In February 2017, the 488 GT3 won the 2017 Liqui Moly Bathurst 12 Hour, ran by Maranello Motorsport
Twin-turbo or biturbo refers to a turbocharged engine in which two turbochargers compress the intake charge. Other kinds of turbocharging include sequential turbocharging, and staged turbocharging, the latter is used in diesel automobile racing applications. Paralleled twin-turbo refers to the configuration in which two identical turbochargers function simultaneously, splitting the turbocharging duties equally. Each turbocharger is driven by half of the engines spent exhaust energy, in most applications, the compressed air from both turbos is combined in a common intake manifold and sent to the individual cylinders. Usually, each turbocharger is mounted to its own individual exhaust/turbo manifold, parallel twin turbos applied to V-shaped engines are usually mounted with one turbo assigned to each cylinder bank, providing packaging symmetry and simplifying plumbing over a single turbo setup. When used on engines, parallel twin turbos are commonly applied with two smaller turbos, which can provide similar performance with less turbo lag than a single larger turbo.
Some examples of parallel twin-turbo inline engines are Nissans RB26DETT, BMWs N54, some examples of V formation engines with parallel twin-turbos include Mitsubishis 6A12TT, 6A13TT and 6G72TT, Nissans VG30DETT and VR38DETT, and Audis 1997-2002 S4, 1997-2005 A6, and 2003-2004 RS6. While a parallel twin-turbo set-up theoretically has less lag than a single turbocharger set up. Some ways to counter this are to use a pressure set up with smaller turbos. While this setup sacrifices some top end power, it still has less lag than an engine with a single turbo set up making the same power. Another system would be the use of variable geometry turbochargers and this system changes the angle of the guide vanes depending on the exhaust pressure, giving the system excellent power throughout the rev range. Once used mainly in turbocharged engines, Chrysler was the first to use it in mass-production gasoline-powered vehicles with the Shelby CSX. It is possible to use parallel operation with more than two turbochargers, two such examples are the Bugatti EB110 and Bugatti Veyron, both of which run four turbochargers in parallel.
The EB110 runs 4 turbos on a 3.5 litre V12 engine, producing 542 hp at 8000 rpm, the Bugatti Veyron Super Sport uses the quad-turbo 8.0 W16 engine that produces 1216 PS. Sequential turbos refer to a set-up in which the motor uses one turbocharger for lower speeds. Typically, larger high-flow turbochargers are not as efficient at low RPM, on the other hand, smaller turbos spool up quickly at low RPM but cannot supply enough air at higher engine speed. During low to mid engine speeds, when available spent exhaust energy is minimal, as RPM increases, the secondary turbocharger is partially activated in order to pre-spool prior to its full utilization. Once a preset engine speed or boost pressure is attained, valves controlling compressor, in this way a full twin-turbocharger setup provides the benefits associated with a large turbo, including maximum power output, without the disadvantage of increased turbo lag
The Ferrari F355 is a sports car built by Ferrari from May 1994 to 1999. It is an evolution of the Ferrari 348 and was replaced by the Ferrari 360 and this new head design allowed for better intake permeability and resulted in an engine that was considerably more powerful, producing 380 PS. The longitudinal 90° V8 engine was bored 2mm over the 348s engine, engine internals are produced using lightweight materials, the connecting rods are forged in Ti6-Al-4V titanium alloy. The engines compression ratio is 11,1 and employs the Bosch Motronic M2.7 engine control unit in the 1995 model year, the Motronic system controls the electronic fuel injection and ignition systems, with a single spark plug per cylinder. Engine lubrication is via a dry-sump oiling system, the car allows selection between two damper settings and Sport. Ferrari fitted all road-going F355 models with Pirelli tires, size 225/40ZR18 in front, although the F355 was equipped with power-assisted steering, this could optionally be replaced with a manual steering rack setup by special order.
Aerodynamic designs for the car included over 1,300 hours of wind tunnel analysis, the car incorporates a Nolder profile on the upper portion of the tail, and a fairing on the underbody that generates downforce when the car is at speed. At launch, two models were available, the coupe Berlinetta priced at $130,000, and the targa topped GTS, the Spider version, priced at $137,000, was introduced in 1995. In 1997 the Formula One style paddle gear shift electrohydraulic manual transmission was introduced with the Ferrari 355 F1 adding £6,000 to the asking price. The F355 was the last in the series of mid-engined Ferraris with the Flying Buttress rear window, the nomenclature does not follow the formula from the previous decades, i. e. engine capacity followed by number of cylinders. For the F355, Ferrari used engine capacity followed by the number of valves per cylinder to bring the performance advances introduced by a 5 valve per cylinder configuration into the forefront, total production of 11,273 units made the F355 the most-produced Ferrari at the time.
This sales record would be surpassed by the next generation 360 and later, the Berlinetta was introduced in May,1994 as the first in a successful series of F355 models. Initially, the 6-speed manual was the only transmission available, however, in 1997, the Berlinetta was the first-ever road car to be equipped with the innovative F1-style gearbox management system. The new transmission guaranteed faster gear changes, with the advantage that both of the driver’s hands could stay on the wheel at all times. Ferrari produced 4,871 road-going Berlinetta models during the production run. The F355 Spider debuted in 1995, its Pininfarina-penned lines honed by 1,800 hours in the tunnel, resulting in a blend of elegant style. For the first time on a Ferrari, the semi-automatic soft-top was powered electronically, the Spider was offered with the 6-speed transmission. In 1997, the Spider was offered with the F1 transmission option, in 1995, Ferrari introduced the GTS model to the F355 family
A dual-clutch transmission, is a type of automatic transmission or automated automotive transmission. It uses two separate clutches for odd and even gear sets and it can fundamentally be described as two separate manual transmissions contained within one housing, and working as one unit. This type of transmission was invented by Frenchman Adolphe Kégresse just before World War II, the control systems were based on purely analogue/discrete digital circuitry with patents filed in July 1981. All of these early AP twin-clutch installations featured a dry clutch. A dual-clutch transmission eliminates the torque converter as used in conventional epicyclic-geared automatic transmissions, the first series production road car with a DCT was the 2003 Volkswagen Golf Mk4 R32. In 2010, on BMW Canadas website for the 3 Series Coupe and it is actually a dual-clutch semiautomatic. In DCTs where the two clutches are arranged concentrically, the outer clutch drives the odd-numbered gears, while the smaller inner clutch drives the even-numbered gears.
Since alternate gear ratios can preselect an odd gear on one gear shaft while the vehicle is being driven in an even gear, DCTs are the fastest-shifting road car transmission available and are even able to shift faster than a professional race car driver using a manual transmission. DCTs can even shift more quickly than cars equipped with single-clutch automated-manual transmissions, with a DCT, shifts can be made more smoothly than with a single-clutch AMT, making a DCT more suitable for conventional road cars. Dual-clutch transmissions use two different types of clutches, either two wet multiplate clutches, bathed in oil —or two dry single-plate clutches. Currently, three variations of clutch installation are used, the second implementation uses two single-plate dry clutches—side-by-side from the perpendicular view, but again sharing the center line of the crankshaft. A variation uses two separate but identical-sized clutches and these are arranged side-by-side when viewed head-on, and share the same plane when viewed perpendicularly.
This latter clutch arrangement is driven by a gear from the engine crankshaft, BorgWarner Inc. supplies wet dual clutches and electrohydraulic control modules for these dual-clutch transmissions, along with complete dual-clutch transmission and transaxle assemblies. BorgWarner, which call their technology DualTronic, entered production for Volkswagen Group. The company signed agreements with three other European automotive manufacturers to incorporate their components in DCTs. On 14 January 2009, BorgWarner announced a joint venture with the China Automobile Development United Investment Co. Ltd. which is owned by 12 Chinese automakers and this joint venture is known as the BorgWarner United Transmission Systems Co. Ltd. and is located in Dalian, China. The company has produced various dual-clutch transmission modules beginning in 2011, the Nissan GT-R uses BorgWarner components, including the dual-clutch module, clutch-control, shift-actuation systems, and synchronizer assemblies. EATON developed the first dual-clutch transmission for class 6-7 trucks in North America - Procision, Fiat Powertrain Technologies developed a dual-clutch transmission with Magneti Marelli and BorgWarner called Euro Twin Clutch Transmission
Autocar is a weekly British automobile magazine published by Haymarket Motoring Publications Ltd. It was first published in 1895 and refers to itself as The Worlds oldest car magazine, there are now several international editions including China, New Zealand and South Africa. Henry Sturmey stood down as editor of The Autocar magazine and left the company in 1901, Autocar claims to have invented the road test in 1928 when it analysed the Austin 7 Gordon England Sunshine Saloon. Autocar has been published weekly throughout its life with only strikes in the 1970s interrupting its frequency. In 1988, it absorbed its long-time rival The Motor magazine, founded by Temple Press Ltd on 28 January 1903, briefly calling itself Autocar & Motor afterwards, before reverting to Autocar. The magazine has scored many firsts in its history including the first full road tests and independent performance tests of the Jaguar XJ220, McLaren F1, and the Porsche 911 GT1. It was the first magazine to produce independently recorded performance figures for the Bugatti Veyron, news – includes scoop photographs and information about still-secret future models.
First drives – brief road tests of new models, group tests - analysis of how a model compares relative to rivals Motorsport – summaries of current racing news, predominantly in Formula 1 and rallying. Road tests – Thorough test and analysis of one new model per issue, in the issue closest to Christmas, Autocar traditionally publishes a road test of a more unusual vehicle. These have included tests of New Routemaster, HMS Ark Royal, used car news Long term car tests New car data In the 1950s, the magazines Sport Editor, John Cooper, used Cooper T11 parts to create the Cooper-Alta. Former Autocar writers include Russell Bulgin, Chris Harris, Top Gear presenter James May, current Autocar writers include Richard Bremner, Formula 1 journalist Joe Saward, used-car expert James Ruppert, and Editor-in-Chief Steve Cropley. The current editor is Matt Burt, Autocar has been licensed to publishers around the world and is now published in 16 countries outside the UK, including China, Indonesia, Japan and Vietnam.
In 1952 The Autocar retailed for one shilling, equivalent to five pence in post decimalization British currency, in 1968 the cover price of Autocar was increased from two shillings to two shillings and six pence. By 1972, the price had increased fivefold in the two decades since 1952, to 25p, in 1992, the price was £1.25. As of June 2016, the magazine sells for £3.80, Autocar official site Autocar India official site Autocar Indonesia official site Full Autocar History Trucksplanet
An all-wheel drive vehicle is one with a powertrain capable of providing power to all its wheels, whether full-time or on-demand. The most common forms of all-wheel drive are, 4×4 Reflecting two axles with wheels on each capable of being powered. 6×6 Reflecting three axles with wheels on each capable of being powered. 8×8 Reflecting four axles with wheels on each capable of being powered. This distinction in terminology is not generally used outside North America, when tyre grip is good during road driving a differential is used between the axles to avoid driveline windup. This is not required off-road, as the grip allows the tyres to slip relative to each other. All-wheel drive vehicles designed for extensive off-road use may not have such a differential, selectable 4WD avoids this problem and requires only a simple dog clutch in the transfer case, rather than a differential. For this reason, most early off-road vehicles used system, e. g. Jeep. Esoteric vehicles such as the high-powered Jensen FF followed by the AMC Eagle, Subaru Leone and these, particularly the Quattro, would extensively develop this drivetrain with the use of viscous couplings and differentials to provide a safe and drivable car.
The first off-road / on-road hybrids such as the Range Rover chose the permanent all wheel drive system rather than manual selection, selectable 4WD has both axles rigidly coupled together, which has some advantages in very poor off-road conditions. To gain the advantage in a permanent AWD system with a differential. As this control is frequently misunderstood and mis-used, which can cause damage due to wind-up. Front-wheel drive Rear-wheel drive All-terrain vehicle Two-wheel drive H-drive Four Wheel Drive or FWD, one of the first companies, from 1909, to build four-wheel drive vehicles
A concept car is a car made to showcase new styling and/or new technology. They are often shown at shows to gauge customer reaction to new. General Motors designer Harley Earl is generally credited with inventing the concept car, concept cars never go into production directly. In modern times all would have to undergo many changes before the design is finalized for the sake of practicality, regulatory compliance, a production-intent vehicle, as opposed to a concept vehicle, serves this purpose. They are known as prototype cars, but should not be confused with prototype race cars such as the Le Mans Prototype, concept cars are often radical in engine or design. Some use non-traditional, exotic, or expensive materials, ranging from paper to carbon fiber to refined alloys, others have unique layouts, such as gullwing doors,3 or 5 wheels, or special abilities not usually found on cars. Because of these often impractical or unprofitable leanings, many concept cars never get past scale models, other more traditional concepts can be developed into fully drivable vehicles with a working drivetrain and accessories.
The state of most concept cars lies somewhere in between and does not represent the final product, a very small proportion of concept cars are functional to any useful extent, some cannot move safely at anything above 10 mph. Inoperative mock-ups are usually made of wax, metal, fiberglass, if drivable, the drivetrain is often borrowed from a production vehicle from the same company, or may have defects and imperfections in design. They can be refined, such as General Motors Cadillac Sixteen concept. After a concept cars useful life is over, the cars are usually destroyed, some survive, either in a companys museum or hidden away in storage. allcarindex. com - The index of concept cars is dedicated to the showcars and concept automobiles
Paris Motor Show
The Paris Motor Show is a biennial auto show in Paris. Held during October, it is one of the most important auto shows, often with new production automobile. The show presently takes place in Paris expo Porte de Versailles, the Mondial is scheduled by the Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs dAutomobiles, which considers it a major international auto show. In 2014, the Paris Motor Show welcomed 1,253,513 visitors, making it the most visited auto show in the world, ahead of Tokyo, until 1986, it was called the Salon de lAutomobile, it took the name Mondial de lAutomobile in 1988. The show was held annually through 1976, since, it has been biennial, the show was the first motor show in the world, started in 1898 by industry pioneer, Albert de Dion. After 1910 it was held at the Grand Palais in the Champs-Élysées, during the First World War motor shows were suspended, meaning that the show of October 1919 was only the 15th Salon. There was again no Paris Motor Show in 1925, the venue having been booked instead for an Exhibition of Decorative Arts, in October 1926 the Motor Show returned, this being the 26th Paris Salon de lAutomobile.
The outbreak of war again intervened in 1939 when the 33rd Salon de lAutomobile was cancelled at short notice, normality of a sorts returned some six years and the 33rd Salon finally opened in October 1946. 1898 1st 1913 14th Salon de lAutomobile 1919 15th Salon de lAutomobile The first Salon since 1913,9 October 191965 French automobile makers exhibited. At least 118 exhibitors in total, there was no Salon de lAutomobile in 19201921 16th Salon de lAutomobile 1922 17th Salon de lAutomobile 4 October 192281 French automobile makers exhibited 113 exhibitors in total. 1923 18th Salon de lAutomobile 1924 19th Salon de lAutomobile 2 October 192478 French automobile makers exhibited 116 exhibitors in total,1931 25th Salon de lAutomobile 1 October 193139 French automobile makers and 37 non-French automobile makers exhibited. 1932 26th Salon de lAutomobile 1933 27th Salon de lAutomobile 5 October 193326 French automobile makers exhibited,1934 28th Salon de lAutomobile 1935 29th Salon de lAutomobile 1936 30th Salon de lAutomobile 1937 31st Salon de lAutomobile 7 October 193722 French automobile makers exhibited.
1938 32nd 1946 33rd 1947 34th Salon de lAutomobile 23 October 194727 French automobile makers exhibited,1948 35th 1949 36th 1950 37th 1951 38th Salon de lAutomobile 4 October 195123 French automobile makers exhibited. 1952 39th 1953 40th 1954 41st 1955 42nd 1956 43rd 1957 44th Salon de lAutomobile 3 October 195724 French automobile makers exhibited,1958 45th 1959 46th 1960 47th 1961 48th Salon de lAutomobile 5 October 19619 French automobile makers exhibited. 1962 49th Salon This was the first year the show was held at the Porte de Versailles on the outskirts of Paris,1963 50th 1964 51st 1965 52nd Salon de lAutomobile October 19659 French automobile makers exhibited
Maranello is a town and comune in the region of Emilia-Romagna in Northern Italy,18 km from Modena, with a population of 17,165 as of 2013. It is best known as the home of Ferrari and the Scuderia Ferrari Formula One racing team, maranello was home to coachbuilding firm Carrozzeria Scaglietti, now owned by Ferrari. The public museum Museo Ferrari, which sports and racing cars. Its new library opened in November 2011, and was designed by Arata Isozaki, maranello is the starting point of the annual Italian Marathon, which finishes in nearby Carpi. Maranellos new town library was designed jointly by Andrea Maffei and Isozaki, the parish church of San Biagio was rebuilt in 1903
The Ferrari F430 is a sports car that was produced by the Italian car manufacturer Ferrari from 2004 to 2009. A successor to the Ferrari 360, it debuted at the 2004 Paris Motor Show and its successor, the Ferrari 458, was unveiled on 28 July 2009. Designed by Pininfarina, under the guidance of Frank Stephenson, the styling of the F430 was revised from its predecessor. Although the drag coefficient remained the same, downforce was greatly enhanced, despite sharing the same basic Alcoa Aluminium chassis, roof line and glass, the car looked significantly different from the 360. A great deal of Ferrari heritage was included in the exterior design, at the rear, the Enzos tail lights and interior vents were added. The cars name was etched into the Testarossa-styled drivers side mirror, the large oval openings in the front bumper are reminiscent of Ferrari racing models from the 60s, specifically the 156 sharknose Formula One car and 250 TR61 Le Mans cars of Phil Hill. The F430 features a 4. 3L V8 petrol engine of the Ferrari-Maserati F136 family and this new power plant was a significant departure for Ferrari, as all previous Ferrari V8s were descendants of the Dino racing program of the 1950s.
This fifty-year development cycle came to an end with the entirely new 4. 3L, the engines output specifications are,490 PS, at 8500 rpm and 465 N·m of torque at 5250 rpm, 80% of which is available below 3500rpm. Despite a 20% increase in displacement, engine weight grew by only 4 kg and engine dimensions were decreased, the brakes on the F430 were designed in close cooperation with Brembo and Bosch, resulting in a new cast-iron alloy for the discs. The new alloy includes molybdenum which has better heat dissipation performance, the F430 was available with the optional Carbon fibre-reinforced Silicon Carbide ceramic composite brake package. Ferrari claims the carbon ceramic brakes will not fade even after 300-360 laps at their test track, the F430 featured the E-Diff, a computer-controlled limited slip active differential which can vary the distribution of torque based on inputs such as steering angle and lateral acceleration. Other notable features include the first application of Ferraris manettino steering wheel-mounted control knob, drivers can select from five different settings which modify the vehicles ESC system, Skyhook electronic suspension, transmission behavior, throttle response, and E-Diff.
The feature is similar to Land Rovers Terrain Response system, the Ferrari F430 was released with exclusive Goodyear Eagle F1 GSD3 EMT tires, which have a V-shaped tread design, run-flat capability, and OneTRED technology. In the US, the company requested an exemption from the design requirements. The F430 Spider is the convertible version based on the coupé, the F430 Spider is Ferraris 21st road going convertible. The Ferrari F430 Spider made its premiere at the Geneva motor show. The car was designed by Pininfarina with aerodynamic simulation programs used for Formula 1 cars. The roof panel automatically folds away inside a space above the engine bay, the conversion from a closed top to an open-air convertible is a two-stage folding-action
Geneva Motor Show
The International Geneva Motor Show is an annual auto show held in March in the Swiss city of Geneva. The show is hosted at the Geneva Palexpo, a centre located next to the Geneva Cointrin International Airport. The Salon is organised by the Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs dAutomobiles, exotic supercars often steal the spotlight during their debuts at the show. Prototypes, new equipment, technical breakthroughs, international partnerships, as well as political and social debates, have announced at the exhibition. The show is regarded as a playing field for the worlds automakers. Areas of the show, Motor cars 3 or 4 or more wheels, electric cars and alternative powered cars. Special bodywork for motor cars, car design, the International Advanced Mobility Forum is the Geneva Motor Show forum on the mobility of the future. The 87th Geneva Motor Show was held from 9 to 19 March 2017, the 86th Geneva Motor Show was held from 3 to 13 March 2016. The 85th Geneva Motor Show was held from 5 to 15 March 2015, the 84th Geneva Motor Show was held from 6 to 16 March 2014.
The 83rd Geneva Motor Show was held from 5 to 17 March 2013, the 82nd edition was held from 8 to 18 March 2012. The 2011 edition was held from 3 to 13 March 2011, the 80th edition of the Geneva Motor Show was held from 4–14 March 2010. Over 80 introductions were expected for the show, press days for the show started on 2 March 2010, when most of the major introductions occurred. The 2009 Geneva Motor Show was held from 5–15 March 2009, the following vehicles were introduced, The 2008 Geneva Motor Show was held from 4–16 March 2008. Bolloré Bluecar Fiat Panda, hybrid petrol -natural gas, ford Focus Turnier 2.0 Honda Small Hybrid Sports Honda FCX Clarity Opel Corsa D, with optimized 100HP1. 6l natural gas engine. Reva Greeny AC1 and AC1 Z Subaru R1e, small city car
Automotive design is the profession involved in the development of the appearance, and to some extent the ergonomics, of motor vehicles or more specifically road vehicles. This most commonly refers to automobiles but refers to motorcycles, buses, the functional design and development of a modern motor vehicle is typically done by a large team from many different disciplines included within automotive engineering. Automotive design in context is primarily concerned with developing the visual appearance or aesthetics of the vehicle. Automotive design is practiced by designers who usually have an art background, the task of the design team is usually split into three main aspects, exterior design, interior design, and color and trim design. Graphic design is an aspect of design, this is generally shared amongst the design team as the lead designer sees fit. Design focuses not only on the outer shape of automobile parts. The aesthetic value will need to correspond to ergonomic functionality and utility features as well, though not all the new vehicular gadgets are to be designated as factory standard items, some of them may be integral to determining the future course of any specific vehicular models.
The stylist responsible for the design of the exterior of the vehicle develops the proportions, Exterior design is first done by a series of digital or manual drawings. Progressively, drawings that are more detailed are executed and approved by appropriate layers of management, Clay and or digital models are developed from, and along with the drawings. The data from these models are used to create a full sized mock-up of the final design. With three- and five-axis CNC milling machines, the model is first designed in a computer program and carved using the machine. Even in times of high-class 3d software and virtual models on power walls, here the emphasis is on ergonomics and the comfort of the passengers. The procedure here is the same as with exterior design, the color and trim designer is responsible for the research and development of all interior and exterior colors and materials used on a vehicle. These include paints, fabric designs, grains, headliner, wood trim, contrast and pattern must be carefully combined to give the vehicle a unique interior environment experience.
Designers work closely with the exterior and interior designers, designers draw inspiration from other design disciplines such as, industrial design, home furnishing and sometimes product design. Specific research is done into global trends to design for two to three model years in the future. Trend boards are created from research in order to keep track of design influences as they relate to the automotive industry. The designer uses this information to develop themes and concepts that are further refined and tested on the vehicle models