The Ferrari 275 is a series of two-seat front-engined V12-powered automobiles produced in GT, and spyder form by Ferrari between 1964 and 1968. The first Ferrari to be equipped with a transaxle, the 275 is powered by a 3.3 L Colombo 60° V12 engine that produces 280-300 hp, Pininfarina designed the GT and roadster bodies, Scaglietti the rare NART Spyder, among the most valuable of all Ferraris made. In a contemporary road test, Road & Track described it as the most satisfying car in the world. Motor Trend Classic named the 275 GTB gran turismo/GTS roadster as number three in their list of the ten Greatest Ferraris of all time, the 275 GTB/4 debuted in 1966. A much updated 275 GTB, the four overhead camshaft, six 2-barrel carbuerated 275 GTB/4 was named number seven on Sports Car Internationals 2004 list of Top Sports Cars of the 1960s. The 275 GTB was a gran turismo automobile produced between 1964 and 1968 with a 3.3 litre Colombo 60-degree V-12 engine displacing 275 cc per cylinder. The standard 275 GTB coupe was produced by Scaglietti and was available with 3 or 6 Weber twin-choke carburettors and it was more of a pure sports car than the GT name suggested.
Some cars were built with a body instead of the standard steel body. A Series Two version with a longer nose appeared in 1965, for the 1965 racing season,4 lightweight 275 GTB Competizione Speciales, a prototype and three production models, were built and equipped with 250 LM engines. The design was by Pininfarina and the coachwork by Scaglietti, mauro Forghieri designed a special super-lightweight steel and aluminium version of the 275 GTB chassis. A regular suspension was fitted, but it was slightly stiffer by the addition of extra springs. In all, this focus on saving weight made a difference of over 150 kg compared to the alloy bodied road cars, like the four Competizione Speciales, the 275 GTB/C was powered by the 250 LM engine. Somehow Ferrari forgot to mention to the body that the 275 GTB had a six carburetor option. Specifically for the 275 GTB/C, Weber constructed the 40 DF13 carburetor of which three would replace the six 38 DCNs found on the 250 LM, the rest of the drivetrain was similar to the 275 GTB, but strengthened slightly.
Two of the twelve built were sold for street use, unlike the race cars, these street cars were fitted with alloy wheels shod with Pirelli tires. Competition cars were fitted with special Borrani wire wheels, shod with Dunlops latest racing tires and it was this combination that would prove to be the weak spot of the 275 GTB/C, the tires had so much grip that they could overstress and break the spokes on the wheels. After the 275 GTB/C, no competition Ferrari would be fitted with wire wheels again, a British-entered 275 GTB/C finished 8th overall, gaining class victory in the 196624 Hours of Le Mans. Pininfarina built 200275 GTS roadsters for the American market between 1964-1966 with entirely different bodywork, the 275 GTS was replaced by the 330 GTS, leaving no 3.3 L convertible in the range until the creation of the 275 GTB/4 NART Spider
Born in Turin, Italy in 1943, Martin began working in 1960 for Giovanni Michelottis Studio Tecnico Michelotti. In 1967, he started to work for Carozzeria Bertone, and one year and he subsequently worked for De Tomaso, where he was Style Center Director for Ghia. Martins work has included motor cycle and boat design, as well as projects for Stutz, Ferrari, Peugeot. He participated in the Auto 2011 Design Conference, in Zagreb, martins work has received varied reception. After its debut at the 1970 Geneva Motor Show, the Ferrari Modulo went on to be shown at the 1970 Turin Motor Show and at Osakas Expo 70, before winning 22 international design awards. A2007 retrospective said the Modulo was a milestone in the design history with a deep influence on the 1970′s car styling. In 2008, Car Design News called the Modulo iconic, the Modulo placed third in Jalopniks 2008 competition for the top ten best Wedge Car Designs Of The 60s, 70s and 80s. Autoblog said the Camargue had been ranked conspicuously low on the list, adding the Camargue really was horrid, responding to the Telegraph list, noted automotive journalist James May said the Camargue is not ugly, either.
It has presence, like that pug-faced but well-dressed bloke down the pub
An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy. Heat engines burn a fuel to heat, which is used to create a force. Electric motors convert electrical energy into motion, pneumatic motors use compressed air. In biological systems, molecular motors, like myosins in muscles, use energy to create forces. The word engine derives from Old French engin, from the Latin ingenium–the root of the word ingenious. Pre-industrial weapons of war, such as catapults and battering rams, were called siege engines, the word gin, as in cotton gin, is short for engine. Most mechanical devices invented during the revolution were described as engines—the steam engine being a notable example. However, the steam engines, such as those by Thomas Savery, were not mechanical engines. In this manner, an engine in its original form was merely a water pump. Devices converting heat energy into motion are commonly referred to simply as engines, examples of engines which exert a torque include the familiar automobile gasoline and diesel engines, as well as turboshafts.
Examples of engines which produce thrust include turbofans and rockets, the term motor derives from the Latin verb moto which means to set in motion, or maintain motion. Thus a motor is a device that imparts motion and engine came to be used largely interchangeably in casual discourse. However, the two words have different meanings, rocketry uses the term rocket motor, even though they consume fuel. A heat engine may serve as a prime mover—a component that transforms the flow or changes in pressure of a fluid into mechanical energy. An automobile powered by a combustion engine may make use of various motors and pumps. Another way of looking at it is that a motor receives power from an external source, simple machines, such as the club and oar, are prehistoric. More complex engines using human power, animal power, water power, wind power and these were used in cranes and aboard ships in Ancient Greece, as well as in mines, water pumps and siege engines in Ancient Rome. The writers of those times, including Vitruvius and Pliny the Elder, treat these engines as commonplace, by the 1st century AD, cattle and horses were used in mills, driving machines similar to those powered by humans in earlier times
Ferrari 512 S is the designation for 25 sports cars built in 1969–70, with five-litre 12-cylinder engines, related to the Ferrari P sports prototypes. The V12-powered cars were entered in the 1970 International Championship for Makes by the factory Scuderia Ferrari, that year, modified versions resembling their main competitor, the Porsche 917, were called Ferrari 512 M. In the 1971 International Championship for Makes, the focused on the new Ferrari 312 PB. From 1972 onwards, the 512 was withdrawn from the championship following a change in the regulations. The Ferrari 512 is named for its displacement, five litres. Despite having an engine, Ferrari sat out the 1968 season. Selling half of his business to Fiat, Enzo Ferrari raised the funds to match that investment, the engine of the 512 S was a completely new 60° V12 with 560 PS output. Compared to Porsches air-cooled flat-12, it needed a maze of cooling pipes, since the chassis was of sturded steel, reinforced with aluminium sheet, weight was 100 kg more than that of the alloy-framed 917.
Notwithstanding the weight difference and higher center of gravity, the Ferrari 512 S, contrary to Porsche, Ferrari did not organise an intramural competition. At Porsche, JWA Gulf, KG Porsche Salzburg and Martini Racing, thus, at least four cars were real works cars, without putting strain on the factory itself, as personnel and funds were provided by these professional teams. And even the privateers like AAW Shell Racing and David Piper Racing received much better support than Ferraris clients, Ferrari did not adopt this modern scheme, but entered cars themselves in the traditional manner, as Spa Ferrari SEFAC. Having only a few Formula One drivers under contract in the years, with the sports car aces driving for Porsche. Besides the factory cars, there were the cars of Scuderia Filipinetti, NART, Écurie Francorchamps, Scuderia Picchio Rosso, Gelo Racing Team. Those private cars never received the support from the factory. They were considered as field fillers, never as candidates for a win, at the end of the 1970 season, Ferrari had won the 12 hours of Sebring, while the Porsche 917 and 908 took the remaining nine wins of the championship season.
At Le Mans, the Ferrari suffered from reliability problems, although it was considered to be equally fast to the 917. For speed tracks such as Le Mans, Spa and the Osterrichring, the modified 512 M had proven to be fast at the end of the season, and Ickx/Giunti won the Kyalami non-championship Springbok nine-hours race. As the loop hole for the five litre sports cars became obsolete after 1971, in 1971, Penske entered an improved 512 M in Sunoco livery which was able to challenge the 917, taking pole position several times
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world
The Ferrari 328 GTB and GTS was the successor to the Ferrari 308 GTB and GTS. 7,400 Ferrari 328s were produced by the time the model was replaced by the new 348 in 1989, bringing the total for the 308/328 generation to nearly 20,000. The 328 is considered by some Ferrari enthusiasts to be one of the most reliable Ferraris, unlike some models, the GTB referred to the Gran Turismo Berlinetta body while the GTS was a Gran Turismo Spider. In 1985, the 328 retailed from $58, 400-$62,500 in the United States, the 328 GTS model, together with the fixed roof 328 GTB, were the final developments of the normally aspirated transverse V8 engine 2-seat series. The 328 figures in the title referred to the total cubic capacity of the engine,3.2 litres. The new model was introduced at the 1985 Frankfurt Salon alongside the Mondial 3.2 series, thus all the eight-cylinder cars in the range shared fairly unified front and rear aspects, providing a homogeneous family image. In the middle of 1988 ABS brakes were available as an option.
This in turn meant that the wheel design was changed to accommodate this feature. The original flat spoke star wheels became a design, in the style as fitted to the 3.2 Mondial models. The main European market 328 GTS models had a chassis with a factory type reference F106 MS100. Disc brakes, with independent suspension via wishbones, coil springs, there were various world market models, each having slight differences, with right and left hand drive available. As with the preceding 308 models the engine was mounted in unit with the all synchromesh five-speed manual transmission assembly, which was below, a minor problem was the oil hose from the lower part of the engine to the oil cooler. This was too short since a running engine was moving separate from the oil cooler and this hose was almost solid being under pressure and in time the oil cooler would crack. This was solved by connecting the oil hoses for the oil cooler to and from the engine up side down to make the lower hose, now connecting to the top of the oil cooler and movable.
The early part of the series was numbered in the Ferrari odd number road car chassis sequence, the Ferrari 328 uses a 3. 2-litre V8, 4-valve-per-cylinder layout. It has 270 hp and 231 lb·ft of torque and its top speed is 166 mph and reaches 60 mph in 5.5 seconds and 100 mph in 13.0 seconds. The front and rear suspension are independent, double wishbones, with springs, telescopic dampers. The steering is rack and pinion, the transmission is a 5-speed manual
Ferrari 250 GT Lusso
The Ferrari 250 GT Berlinetta Lusso is a GT car which was manufactured by Italian automaker Ferrari from 1963 to 1964. Sometimes known as the GTL, GT/L or just Lusso, it is larger, the 250 GT Lusso, which was not intended to compete in sports car racing, is considered to be one of the most elegant Ferraris. Keeping in line with the Ferrari tradition of that time, the 250 GT Lusso was designed by the Turinese coachbuilder Pininfarina, although the interior was more spacious than that of the 250 GT, the 250 GT Lusso remained a two-seat GT coupe, unlike the 250 GTE. The car was manufactured for only eighteen months, from early 1963 to mid 1964, auto shows often provide an opportunity for manufacturers to introduce new designs publicly. Ferrari did so at the 1962 Paris Motor Show to unveil, as a prototype, the prototype was almost identical to the production version, and only minor details changed thereafter. The new model was a way for Ferrari to fill a void left between the sporty 250 GT SWB and the luxurious 250 GTE 2+2, the Lusso met the new demands of the 1960s.
Indeed, fans of sporting driving of the time became as fond of civilized designs, Ferrari did not skimp on details in the GTL, which shows on the scales, weight ranged from 1,020 to 1,310 kg, depending on equipment. Unusually brief for a Ferrari model, GTLs production began January 1963, according to a longstanding American expert on Ferrari, Peter Coltrin, the construction of the 250 GT Lusso must have begun soon after the presentation of the prototype of the Paris Motor Show. Although it was not intended to compete, the 250 GT Lusso made a few appearances in several sporting events in 1964 and 1965, such as the Targa Florio and the Tour de France. The final iteration of the 250 GT series,351 copies of GT Lusso were produced before being replaced by the Ferrari 275 GTB, as usual, the company Carrozzeria Scaglietti was responsible for the manufacturing of the body. The body was made of steel with the exception of the doors, boot lid, and bonnet, the stern of the body featured a small integrated spoiler, the 250 GTL became the first Ferrari to incorporate such aerodynamic appendages, concluding with an abrupt Kammback rear.
The short rear is characterized by a bezel that slopes down to the tail of the car, the glazed surfaces, including the rear window and triangular quarter windows, provided good visibility. As the car was only a two-seater, there was a fairly capacious boot space with a parcel shelf, while 250 GT Lusso was a civilized sport car, it was nevertheless recommended in preference to young and flexible passengers due to the fixed-position seatbacks. Despite this, the pedals were adjustable to 5 cm, as in the racing versions, five additional gauges were positioned in front of the driver, behind the three-spoke Nardi steering wheel made of wood and aluminum, placed almost vertically. Contrary to the 250 GTE 2+2 which had a wheelbase of 2.6 m, the chassis was adopted from the tubular structure of the 250 GTO, but with narrower tubes. The chassis could, according to Brian Laban, author of Ferrarissime, braking was provided by four-wheel disc brakes with hydraulic control, placed behind the polished aluminum Borrani wire wheels with single knockoffs.
Hosted by the V12 engine Colombo, it had a displacement of 2,953.21 cc, the 250 GT Lusso developed an output of 240 hp at 7,500 rpm and 242 N·m torque at 5,500 rpm. It was able attain a speed of 240 km/h, thus becoming the fastest passenger car of that period
A sports car is a small, usually two seater, two door automobile designed for spirited performance and nimble handling. According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, the first known use of the term was in 1928, Sports cars may be spartan or luxurious, but high maneuverability and minimum weight are requisite. The basis for the car is traced to the early 20th century touring cars and roadsters. These raced in rallies, such as the Herkomer Cup, Prinz-Heinrich-Fahrt. These would shortly be joined by the French DFP and the Rolls-Royce Silver Ghost. In 1921, Ballot premiered its 2LS, with a remarkable 75 hp DOHC two liter, designed by Ernest Henry, capable of 150 km/h, at most, one hundred were built in four years and this was followed by the SOHC 2LT and 2LTS. The same year, Benz built a supercharged 28/95PS four for the Coppa Florio, duerkopps Zoller-blown two liter in 1924, as well. There was a clear cleavage by 1925, by the end of the 1920s, AC produced a 2-liter six, the 3. Benz introduced the powerful SS and SSK, and Alfa Romeo, hispano-Suizas Alfonso XIII is considered the first sportcar developed between 1911 and 1914.
Two companies would offer really reliable sports cars, Austin with the Seven, the drive train and engine layout significantly influences the handling characteristics of an automobile, and is crucially important in the design of a sports car. The front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is common to cars of any era and has survived longer in sports cars than in mainstream automobiles. Examples include the Caterham 7, Mazda MX-5, and the Chevrolet Corvette, more specifically, many such sports cars have a FMR layout, with the centre of mass of the engine between the front axle and the firewall. In search of improved handling and weight distribution, other layouts are sometimes used, the RMR layout is commonly found only in sports cars—the motor is centre-mounted in the chassis, and powers only the rear wheels. Some high-performance sports car manufacturers, such as Ferrari and Lamborghini have preferred this layout, Porsche is one of the few remaining manufacturers using the rear-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout.
The motors distributed weight across the wheels, in a Porsche 911, provides excellent traction, Porsche has continuously refined the design and in recent years added electronic driving aids to counteract these inherent design shortcomings. The front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout layout which is the most common in sport compacts and hot hatches, its conservative handling effect, particularly understeer, and the fact that many drivers believe rear wheel drive is a more desirable layout for a sports car count against it. The Fiat Barchetta, Saab Sonett, and Berkeley cars are cars with this layout. Before the 1980s few sports cars used four-wheel drive, which had added a lot of weight
Ferrari 212 Inter
The Ferrari 212 Inter replaced Ferraris successful 166 and 195 Inter grand tourers in 1951. Unveiled at the Brussels Motor Show that year, the 212 was an evolution of the 166 — a sports car for the road that could win international races, the chassis was similar to the 125 with a suspension featuring double wishbones in front and live axle in back. Coachbuilders included Carrozzeria Touring, Ghia-Aigle, Stabilimenti Farina, the latter was an important move for the company, as Farina was already well-known and adding his styling skills would be a tremendous boost for Maranello. However, Pinin Farina was as prideful as Enzo Ferrari, a mutual meeting halfway between Maranello and Turin was the negotiated solution. First Ferrari to be bodied by Pinin Farina was 212 Inter Cabriolet, the Inters 2,600 mm wheelbase was 4 longer than the 2,500 mm Exports. The cars shared a larger, bored-out 2.6 L version of Ferraris Colombo V12 engine, output was 150 hp for the single Weber 36DCF carburetor Inter,165 hp for the triple Weber Export.
Improved cylinder heads raised power 5 hp in 1952, the British magazine Autocar got hold of what they described as the first production model Ferrari 212 in 1950, which outperformed any car that they had previously tested. It recorded a top speed of over 116 mph and acceleration times of 0 to 60 mph of 10.5 seconds and 100 mph in 22, the test appears to have been the Autocar teams first encounter with a five speed gear box. A single 212 Inter, chassis no, 0223EL2, was fitted with the available 225 or 2.7 L Colombo V12, creating a unique model that would be properly referred to as a 225 Inter. This one-off model was given a Giovanni Michelotti penned berlinetta body by Vignale